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'Calabooz'
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Tutankhamun's Family: Five generations revealed by DNA testing..Images ...Source:Ancient Egypt Magazine; Apr/May2010, Vol. 10 Issue 5, p52-55, 4p, 2 Color Photographs, 2 Black and White Photographs.
Document Type:Article.
Subject Terms:*TOMBS
DNA
TOMOGRAPHY
MUMMIES
PARASITES
MALARIA.
Geographic Terms:VALLEY of the Kings (Egypt)
EGYPT.
People:TUTANKHAMEN, King of Egypt
AKHENATON, King of Egypt
TIYE, Queen of Egypt.
Abstract:The article discusses the DNA and computed tomography (CT) scan analysis of the mummy of Tutankhamun, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh in Egypt and the mummies of his immediate family which reveal his lineage and cause of death. It notes that the body of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, is identified with the mummy from the tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. It further states that his mother's body is buried in the tomb of Amenhotep II and the body of his grandmother Queen Tiye is found in the mummy of the Elderly Lady from the same tomb. Moreover, it emphasizes that Tutankhamun died due to the parasite that causes malaria..


Tutankhamun's Family:
Five generations reveaied by
DNA testing
In the middle of February, the long-awaited
results of the DNA tests made on some of the
royal mummies in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,
specifically on the family of Tutankhamun, were
announced.
Perhaps not surprisingly they received much
media publicity on television, radio and especially in
the newspapers. However, most of the reports I saw
were summaries of the history of the period and
included only edited extracts from the official Press
Release, which itself is only a précis of the scientific
findings published elsewhere.
It wouid seem that many people have suddeniy
become DNA and royal mummy experts, with many
comments and criticisms even in advance of the
Press Release. To criticise the science and techniques
used, one would need to see and understand
the full scientific report, though for most of us the
Press Release contains as much information as we
need to know.
Some of the comments questioned the accuracy of
DNA extraction from mummies and the veracity of
the results. Suffice it to say that I am reliably
informed by experts in the fieid that it is possible to
extract DNA from mummies, if done carefully, and
that the DNA so extracted can then be analysed.
The extraction of DNA from ancient remains is,
however, not an easy process and great care is
needed. Small tissue samples are taken, in the case
of mummies, often from inside the body using any
openings caused by embalming or subsequent
ancient damage to the body. The samples often
need to be surface-decontaminated to remove any
contamination that has resulted from handling or
exposure to the environment. Bones are especially
good, as their mineral content protects the DNA.
It is good practice for samples to be sent to two
independent laboratories who each conduct their
tests and then compare notes afterwards. Only if
the results agree can the tests prove to have been a
success.
Ancient DNA does not always survive well, but
when successfully extracted, it can help to differentiate
between very close relationships, such as parents
and siblings, and more distant relations such
as grandparents/grandchildren and other more
remote family members.
There follows the SCA Press Release, which is clear
and concise. I have added my own comments (in
blue) on the mummies in question and on previous
problems with their identification:
DNA and CT-scan analysis of the mummy of
the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Tutankhamun
{ca. 1333-1323 BC) and of mummies either known or
believed to be members of his immediate family have
revealed startling new evidence for the young king's lineage
and cause of death.
An additional outcome of the new study, in which
DNA analysis was able to be used eficctively on ancient
Egy])tian mummies for the first time, is that several previously
unidentified mummies can now be given names.
These studies were carried out by Egyptian scientists
and international consultants as part of the Family of
Tutankhannm Project, under the leadership of Dr. Zahi
Hawass. These findings have been published byJAVlA,
the Journal of the American Medical Association, in their
February 17, 2010, edition (XWume 303, no. 7).
The principal conclusions made by the team are that:
Tutankhamun's father was the 'heretic' king,
/\klienaten, whose body is now almost certainly identified
with the mummy from tomb KV55 in the
Valley of the Kings.
His mother, who still cannot be identified by name, is
the 'Younger Lady' buried in the tomb of
Amenhotep II (in the Valley of the Kings, KV35).
The mummy of the 'Elder Lady' from tlie same
tomb can now be conclusively identified as
Tutankhamun's grandmother, Queen Tiye.
New light was shed on the cause of death for
Tutankliamun with the discovery of DNA from the
parasite that causes malaria; it is likely that the young
king died from complications resulting from a severe
form of this disease.
The primary analysis was carried out in a newly-buüt
DNA laboratory at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo dedicated
to ancient DNA; this was donated to the project by
Discovery.
Two types of DNA analysis were performed on samples
taken from the bones of these mummies — analysis of
specific nuclear DNA sequences from the Y-chromosome,
which is passed directly from father to son, to study
tlie paternal line; and genetic fingerprinting from the
autosomal DNA of the nuclear genome that does not
directly decide a person's sex.
To autlienticate the DNA results, the analyses were
repeated and independently replicated in a newly
equipped ancient-DNA laboratory staffed by a separate
group of personnel.
The CT-scans were carried out with a movable multislice
CT unit C130 KV, 124-130 ms, 014-3 mm sUce
thickness, Siemens Somatom Emotion 6., donated to the
project by Siemens and the National Geographic Society.
Both the Y-chromosome analysis and genetic fingerprinting
were performed successfully, and have allowed
the creation of a five-generation kindred for the young
king (see a family tree overleaf).
ANCIUNT EGYPT Apnl/May ZO I O
The analysis proves conclusively
that Tutankhamun's father was
the mummy found in KV55. The
project's CT-scan of this mummy
provides an age at death of
between 45 and 55 for this
mummy, showing that this
mummy (previously thought to
have died between the ages of 20
and 25) is almost certainly Akhenaten himself, as the
Egyptological evidence from the tomb has long suggested
(see photo above left of the badly
preserved mummy).
In support of this lineage, the
DNA also traces a direct line from
Tutankhamun through the KV55
mummy lo Akhenaten"s father
Amenhotep III (see photo left of the
also badly-preserved mummy).
DNA shows that the mother of
the KV55 mummy is the 'Elder
Lady' from KV35. This mummy
is the daughter of Yuya and
Thuya, and thus definitively identified
as Amenhotep Ill's Great
Qi-ieen, Tiye (see photo left).
Another important result from
the DNA analysis is that the
'Younger Lady' from KV35 (see
photo below left) has been positively
identified as Tutankhamun's
mother. The project is not yet able to identify her by
name, although the DNA studies also show that she was
the daughter of Amenhotep III
and Tiye and thus Akhenaten's
full sister.
Thus Tutankhamun's only
grandparents, on both his paternal
and maternal sides, were
Amenhotep III and Tiye.
Two stillborn foetuses were
found mummified and hidden
away in a chamber of Tutankhamun's
tomb. Preliminary DNA analysis supports
the Egyptological belief that these were children of the
young king.
This analysis has also suggested a mummy known as
K\'2iA, a royal female whose identity was previously
eomjiletely unknown, as the most likely mother of these
children and thus as Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun.
The projeet studied the CT-scans of the family care-
IliUy to look for inherited disorders, such as Marfan syndrome
and gynaecomastia/craniosynostoses syndromes,
that have been previously postulated based on representations
in Egyptian art. No evidence was found for any of
these diseases, thus the artistic conventions followed by
the Amarna period royal family were most likely chosen
for religious and political reasons.
Another important result of the DNA studies was the
discovery of material from
Plasmodium falciparum.^ the protozoon
that causes malaria, in the
body of Tutankhamitn. The CTscan
also revealed that the king
had a lame foot, caused by avascular
bone necrosis.
The project believes that
Tutankhamun's death was most
likely a result of the malaria coupled with his generally
weak constitution (see photo above right of the mummy of
Tutankhamun).
The CT-scan of the pharaoh earüer confirmed the
presenee of an unhealed break iji the king's left thigh
bone; the team speculates that the king's weakened state
may have led to a fall, or that a fall weakened his already
fragile physical condition.
*THE FAMILY OF TUTANKHAMUN'
PROJECT PERSONNEL
PROJECT DIRECTOR:
Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General, Supreme Council of
Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt.
Ancient DNA (aDNA] Lab 1; Egyptian Museum, Cairo:
Yehia Z Ciad, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Somma Ismail, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Dina iathalla, .American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt;
Amal .'\hmcd. National Research Center, Cairo, Eg"ypt;
Rabab Khairat, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Institute of Human Cenetics, Division of Molecular
Genetics, University of Tubingen;
Naglaa Hasan, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) Lab 2; Kasr Al Ainy:
Sally Wasef, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo
University, Learning Resource C'enter, El Maniai, Cairo,
Egypt;
Mohamed Fatcen, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty of Medicine,
Cairo University, Learning Resource Center, El Maniai,
Cairo, Egypt;
Fawzi Gaballah, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty ol" Medicine, Cairo
University, Learning Resouree Center, El Mania!, Cairo,
German Consultants:
Carsten Pusch, Institute of Human Genetics, Division of
Molecular Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen,
Germany;
•Albert Zink, Institute for Mummies and the Ieeman,
Bolzano, Italy.
Radiology Team:
A.shral' Stlim, Kasr M Ainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo
University, Cairo, Egypt;
Hany Amer, National Researeh Center, Cairo, Eg)pt;
Sahar Seleem, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,
Project Administrator:
Hisham Klleithy.
Dr. Zahi Hawass,
Secretary General, Cairo, Lgypt.
ANCILNT E-GYfT 2010
YUYA and THUYA
The mummies of Yuya and Thuya have always been
securely identified as they were found in their tomb in the
Valley of the Kings (KV46) in 1 905, complete with much
of their funerary equipment.
Texts clearly state that they were the parents of Tiye,
Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III.
TIYE and AMENHOTEP III
The mummy of Tiye was found in Amenhotep ll's tomb
(KV35) in 1 898, as was the mummy of Amenhotep HI.
Amenhotep III was found lying in a re-used coffin
which bore his name. The identity of this mummy as
Amenhotep has been questioned over the years, because
of the use of embalming techniques unusual for this
period, which included packing of some of the body to
restore a more lifelike appearance - the king was clearly
obese when he died. The mummy is not well preserved.
The mummy of Tiye was found with no coffin or identification
and was known as the "Elder Woman" for many
years. Tests on her hair compared with a lock of hair
presumed to belong to Queen Tiye, from the Tomb of
Tutankhamun, appeared to confirm her identity; but this
was still disputed by many and the mummy was also
attributed to Nefertiti.
AKHENATEN and a DAUGHTER of AMENHOTEP III
The badly preserved mummy of Akhenaten was found in
Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings in 1907. The
identity of this mummy has been disputed over the
years, with some wanting it to be Akhenaten, whilst others
attributed it to Smenkhkara. The problem was that
no one could agree on the age of the body at death and
this affected any identification.
The mummy of Akhenaten's sister was found in the
Tomb of Amenhotep II, un-coffined and unnamed and
also has been the subject of much debate, with some
identifying her as Nefertiti.
TUTANKHAMUN and ANKHESENAMUN
The mummy of Tutankhamun was found in his virtually
intact tomb in 1922, so the identification has never been
in question. Various examinations over the years have
tried to establish the cause of his death.
Until now it was not known that the mummy of
Ankhesenamun had survived. The damaged body was
found, with other mummies (all presumed to be royal and
from tombs in the immediate area) in KV21 in the Valley of
the Kings.
Ankhesenamun was the daughter of Akhenaten and
Nefertiti and, hence, Tutankhamun's half-sister.
STILLBORN CHILDREN of TUTANKHAMUN
The mummies of two stillborn children were found in the
Treasury of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, each enclosed in
a set of coffins, but bearing no identification.
It has long been debated if these were indeed, as
suspected, children of Tutankhamun, or some form of
offering.
Apnl/May 2010
Some Thoughts and Observations
Invariably these results, whilst answering some of the
questions, pose others and only further discoveries
and examinations will fill in the missing or misplaced
pieces of the jigsaw.
Sadly, DNA cannot give us the names of the individuals.
I have already seen it argued that the body found
in KV55, whilst now undoubtediy a son of Amenhotep
III and father of Tutankhamun, could still be another
royal prince and not Akhenaten. In this instance, the
evidence from the tomb and the fact that whoever
placed this body in the tomb clearly believed that it
was Akhenaten, should remove any confusion.
Similarly, the female mummy known as the 'Younger
Lady' for so many years is clearly a daughter of
Amenhotep til, but again, we cannot know which one.
The possibility that it could be Nefertiti has now
been removed as it is not thought that she was a
daughter of Amenhotep III. If the mummy of
Ankhesenamun has been identified by DNA, then
clearly any link to the 'Younger Lady' has not been
established, and we know that Nefertiti was
Ankhesenamun's mother.
Identifying the remains of Ankhesenamun is perhaps
unexpected. Donald Ryan re-examined many of the
tombs in the Valley of the Kings which still contained
human remains. In most cases the bodies were very
badly damaged and fragmentary, but it is likely that
there may be yet other surviving remains of members
of the royal family of the late Eighteenth Dynasty.
The presence of such remains in the Valley of the
Kings may indicate, too, that the Queens of the
Eighteenth Dynasty were buried there, although no
such tombs haye yet been identified.
The most surprising thing is the brother-sister marriage
of Akhenaten, something that was not expected.
No one seems to have noticed the possible religious
implications here, as yet.
If Amenhotep III was the Living Sun and the personification
of the Aten or the creator Cod Atum, then the
first divine couple were Shu and Tefnut, brother and
sister (as depicted in the colossi from this time found
at Karnak). In which case the brother-sister union perhaps
reflected the origins of the gods of Egypt. ! am
sure we will hear more on this argument in the future.
So ... the DNA results have removed some of the
confusion and misinterpretations of the complex history
and family relationships at the end of the
Eighteenth Dynasty, though I am sure that some
debate will continue.
The possibility of more discoveries in the Valley of
the Kings and more results from DNA tests may clarify
the situation further - we will have to wait and see.
As for the immediate future of DNA testing, the family
of Rameses II is next in line. That should be interesting
too.
RP
All colour images: courtesy of the SCA. Archive black-and-white images
frotn Elliot Smith's Royal Mummies. Sepia image by Loret. Foetus mummy
photos: courtesy of the Griffith institute, Oxford.
AMERICAN RESEARCH
CENTER IN EGYPT
The American Research Center in Egypt is committed to helping
Egypt preserve its rich cultural heritage for the benefit of future
generations worldwide through scholarship, documentation,
conservation, training, and publication. The scope of our work
has included more than 100 major conservation projects
throughout Egypt that span the entire range of the country's
rich cultural history, from prehistory to the late Ottoman
period, including masterpieces of pharaonic, Graeco-Roman,
Coptic, Jev/ish, and Islamic art and architecture.
BECOME AN ARCE MEMBER AND JOIN US
IN OUR DEDICATED EFFORTS TO PRESERVE EGYPT'S PAST.
A R C E
AMERICAN RESEARCH
¿EN'tER IN EGYPT
, . . .T I arce.org
ANCILNTLGYrr 2010
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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by Near:
Tutankhamun's Family: Five generations revealed by DNA testing..Images ...Source:Ancient Egypt Magazine; Apr/May2010, Vol. 10 Issue 5, p52-55, 4p, 2 Color Photographs, 2 Black and White Photographs.
Document Type:Article.
Subject Terms:*TOMBS
DNA
TOMOGRAPHY
MUMMIES
PARASITES
MALARIA.
Geographic Terms:VALLEY of the Kings (Egypt)
EGYPT.
People:TUTANKHAMEN, King of Egypt
AKHENATON, King of Egypt
TIYE, Queen of Egypt.
Abstract:The article discusses the DNA and computed tomography (CT) scan analysis of the mummy of Tutankhamun, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh in Egypt and the mummies of his immediate family which reveal his lineage and cause of death. It notes that the body of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's father, is identified with the mummy from the tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. It further states that his mother's body is buried in the tomb of Amenhotep II and the body of his grandmother Queen Tiye is found in the mummy of the Elderly Lady from the same tomb. Moreover, it emphasizes that Tutankhamun died due to the parasite that causes malaria..


Tutankhamun's Family:
Five generations reveaied by
DNA testing
In the middle of February, the long-awaited
results of the DNA tests made on some of the
royal mummies in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,
specifically on the family of Tutankhamun, were
announced.
Perhaps not surprisingly they received much
media publicity on television, radio and especially in
the newspapers. However, most of the reports I saw
were summaries of the history of the period and
included only edited extracts from the official Press
Release, which itself is only a précis of the scientific
findings published elsewhere.
It wouid seem that many people have suddeniy
become DNA and royal mummy experts, with many
comments and criticisms even in advance of the
Press Release. To criticise the science and techniques
used, one would need to see and understand
the full scientific report, though for most of us the
Press Release contains as much information as we
need to know.
Some of the comments questioned the accuracy of
DNA extraction from mummies and the veracity of
the results. Suffice it to say that I am reliably
informed by experts in the fieid that it is possible to
extract DNA from mummies, if done carefully, and
that the DNA so extracted can then be analysed.
The extraction of DNA from ancient remains is,
however, not an easy process and great care is
needed. Small tissue samples are taken, in the case
of mummies, often from inside the body using any
openings caused by embalming or subsequent
ancient damage to the body. The samples often
need to be surface-decontaminated to remove any
contamination that has resulted from handling or
exposure to the environment. Bones are especially
good, as their mineral content protects the DNA.
It is good practice for samples to be sent to two
independent laboratories who each conduct their
tests and then compare notes afterwards. Only if
the results agree can the tests prove to have been a
success.
Ancient DNA does not always survive well, but
when successfully extracted, it can help to differentiate
between very close relationships, such as parents
and siblings, and more distant relations such
as grandparents/grandchildren and other more
remote family members.
There follows the SCA Press Release, which is clear
and concise. I have added my own comments (in
blue) on the mummies in question and on previous
problems with their identification:
DNA and CT-scan analysis of the mummy of
the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Tutankhamun
{ca. 1333-1323 BC) and of mummies either known or
believed to be members of his immediate family have
revealed startling new evidence for the young king's lineage
and cause of death.
An additional outcome of the new study, in which
DNA analysis was able to be used eficctively on ancient
Egy])tian mummies for the first time, is that several previously
unidentified mummies can now be given names.
These studies were carried out by Egyptian scientists
and international consultants as part of the Family of
Tutankhannm Project, under the leadership of Dr. Zahi
Hawass. These findings have been published byJAVlA,
the Journal of the American Medical Association, in their
February 17, 2010, edition (XWume 303, no. 7).
The principal conclusions made by the team are that:
Tutankhamun's father was the 'heretic' king,
/\klienaten, whose body is now almost certainly identified
with the mummy from tomb KV55 in the
Valley of the Kings.
His mother, who still cannot be identified by name, is
the 'Younger Lady' buried in the tomb of
Amenhotep II (in the Valley of the Kings, KV35).
The mummy of the 'Elder Lady' from tlie same
tomb can now be conclusively identified as
Tutankhamun's grandmother, Queen Tiye.
New light was shed on the cause of death for
Tutankliamun with the discovery of DNA from the
parasite that causes malaria; it is likely that the young
king died from complications resulting from a severe
form of this disease.
The primary analysis was carried out in a newly-buüt
DNA laboratory at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo dedicated
to ancient DNA; this was donated to the project by
Discovery.
Two types of DNA analysis were performed on samples
taken from the bones of these mummies — analysis of
specific nuclear DNA sequences from the Y-chromosome,
which is passed directly from father to son, to study
tlie paternal line; and genetic fingerprinting from the
autosomal DNA of the nuclear genome that does not
directly decide a person's sex.
To autlienticate the DNA results, the analyses were
repeated and independently replicated in a newly
equipped ancient-DNA laboratory staffed by a separate
group of personnel.
The CT-scans were carried out with a movable multislice
CT unit C130 KV, 124-130 ms, 014-3 mm sUce
thickness, Siemens Somatom Emotion 6., donated to the
project by Siemens and the National Geographic Society.
Both the Y-chromosome analysis and genetic fingerprinting
were performed successfully, and have allowed
the creation of a five-generation kindred for the young
king (see a family tree overleaf).
ANCIUNT EGYPT Apnl/May ZO I O
The analysis proves conclusively
that Tutankhamun's father was
the mummy found in KV55. The
project's CT-scan of this mummy
provides an age at death of
between 45 and 55 for this
mummy, showing that this
mummy (previously thought to
have died between the ages of 20
and 25) is almost certainly Akhenaten himself, as the
Egyptological evidence from the tomb has long suggested
(see photo above left of the badly
preserved mummy).
In support of this lineage, the
DNA also traces a direct line from
Tutankhamun through the KV55
mummy lo Akhenaten"s father
Amenhotep III (see photo left of the
also badly-preserved mummy).
DNA shows that the mother of
the KV55 mummy is the 'Elder
Lady' from KV35. This mummy
is the daughter of Yuya and
Thuya, and thus definitively identified
as Amenhotep Ill's Great
Qi-ieen, Tiye (see photo left).
Another important result from
the DNA analysis is that the
'Younger Lady' from KV35 (see
photo below left) has been positively
identified as Tutankhamun's
mother. The project is not yet able to identify her by
name, although the DNA studies also show that she was
the daughter of Amenhotep III
and Tiye and thus Akhenaten's
full sister.
Thus Tutankhamun's only
grandparents, on both his paternal
and maternal sides, were
Amenhotep III and Tiye.
Two stillborn foetuses were
found mummified and hidden
away in a chamber of Tutankhamun's
tomb. Preliminary DNA analysis supports
the Egyptological belief that these were children of the
young king.
This analysis has also suggested a mummy known as
K\'2iA, a royal female whose identity was previously
eomjiletely unknown, as the most likely mother of these
children and thus as Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun.
The projeet studied the CT-scans of the family care-
IliUy to look for inherited disorders, such as Marfan syndrome
and gynaecomastia/craniosynostoses syndromes,
that have been previously postulated based on representations
in Egyptian art. No evidence was found for any of
these diseases, thus the artistic conventions followed by
the Amarna period royal family were most likely chosen
for religious and political reasons.
Another important result of the DNA studies was the
discovery of material from
Plasmodium falciparum.^ the protozoon
that causes malaria, in the
body of Tutankhamitn. The CTscan
also revealed that the king
had a lame foot, caused by avascular
bone necrosis.
The project believes that
Tutankhamun's death was most
likely a result of the malaria coupled with his generally
weak constitution (see photo above right of the mummy of
Tutankhamun).
The CT-scan of the pharaoh earüer confirmed the
presenee of an unhealed break iji the king's left thigh
bone; the team speculates that the king's weakened state
may have led to a fall, or that a fall weakened his already
fragile physical condition.
*THE FAMILY OF TUTANKHAMUN'
PROJECT PERSONNEL
PROJECT DIRECTOR:
Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General, Supreme Council of
Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt.
Ancient DNA (aDNA] Lab 1; Egyptian Museum, Cairo:
Yehia Z Ciad, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Somma Ismail, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Dina iathalla, .American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt;
Amal .'\hmcd. National Research Center, Cairo, Eg"ypt;
Rabab Khairat, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;
Institute of Human Cenetics, Division of Molecular
Genetics, University of Tubingen;
Naglaa Hasan, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) Lab 2; Kasr Al Ainy:
Sally Wasef, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo
University, Learning Resource C'enter, El Maniai, Cairo,
Egypt;
Mohamed Fatcen, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty of Medicine,
Cairo University, Learning Resource Center, El Maniai,
Cairo, Egypt;
Fawzi Gaballah, Kasr Al Ainy Faculty ol" Medicine, Cairo
University, Learning Resouree Center, El Mania!, Cairo,
German Consultants:
Carsten Pusch, Institute of Human Genetics, Division of
Molecular Genetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen,
Germany;
•Albert Zink, Institute for Mummies and the Ieeman,
Bolzano, Italy.
Radiology Team:
A.shral' Stlim, Kasr M Ainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo
University, Cairo, Egypt;
Hany Amer, National Researeh Center, Cairo, Eg)pt;
Sahar Seleem, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,
Project Administrator:
Hisham Klleithy.
Dr. Zahi Hawass,
Secretary General, Cairo, Lgypt.
ANCILNT E-GYfT 2010
YUYA and THUYA
The mummies of Yuya and Thuya have always been
securely identified as they were found in their tomb in the
Valley of the Kings (KV46) in 1 905, complete with much
of their funerary equipment.
Texts clearly state that they were the parents of Tiye,
Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III.
TIYE and AMENHOTEP III
The mummy of Tiye was found in Amenhotep ll's tomb
(KV35) in 1 898, as was the mummy of Amenhotep HI.
Amenhotep III was found lying in a re-used coffin
which bore his name. The identity of this mummy as
Amenhotep has been questioned over the years, because
of the use of embalming techniques unusual for this
period, which included packing of some of the body to
restore a more lifelike appearance - the king was clearly
obese when he died. The mummy is not well preserved.
The mummy of Tiye was found with no coffin or identification
and was known as the "Elder Woman" for many
years. Tests on her hair compared with a lock of hair
presumed to belong to Queen Tiye, from the Tomb of
Tutankhamun, appeared to confirm her identity; but this
was still disputed by many and the mummy was also
attributed to Nefertiti.
AKHENATEN and a DAUGHTER of AMENHOTEP III
The badly preserved mummy of Akhenaten was found in
Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings in 1907. The
identity of this mummy has been disputed over the
years, with some wanting it to be Akhenaten, whilst others
attributed it to Smenkhkara. The problem was that
no one could agree on the age of the body at death and
this affected any identification.
The mummy of Akhenaten's sister was found in the
Tomb of Amenhotep II, un-coffined and unnamed and
also has been the subject of much debate, with some
identifying her as Nefertiti.
TUTANKHAMUN and ANKHESENAMUN
The mummy of Tutankhamun was found in his virtually
intact tomb in 1922, so the identification has never been
in question. Various examinations over the years have
tried to establish the cause of his death.
Until now it was not known that the mummy of
Ankhesenamun had survived. The damaged body was
found, with other mummies (all presumed to be royal and
from tombs in the immediate area) in KV21 in the Valley of
the Kings.
Ankhesenamun was the daughter of Akhenaten and
Nefertiti and, hence, Tutankhamun's half-sister.
STILLBORN CHILDREN of TUTANKHAMUN
The mummies of two stillborn children were found in the
Treasury of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, each enclosed in
a set of coffins, but bearing no identification.
It has long been debated if these were indeed, as
suspected, children of Tutankhamun, or some form of
offering.
Apnl/May 2010
Some Thoughts and Observations
Invariably these results, whilst answering some of the
questions, pose others and only further discoveries
and examinations will fill in the missing or misplaced
pieces of the jigsaw.
Sadly, DNA cannot give us the names of the individuals.
I have already seen it argued that the body found
in KV55, whilst now undoubtediy a son of Amenhotep
III and father of Tutankhamun, could still be another
royal prince and not Akhenaten. In this instance, the
evidence from the tomb and the fact that whoever
placed this body in the tomb clearly believed that it
was Akhenaten, should remove any confusion.
Similarly, the female mummy known as the 'Younger
Lady' for so many years is clearly a daughter of
Amenhotep til, but again, we cannot know which one.
The possibility that it could be Nefertiti has now
been removed as it is not thought that she was a
daughter of Amenhotep III. If the mummy of
Ankhesenamun has been identified by DNA, then
clearly any link to the 'Younger Lady' has not been
established, and we know that Nefertiti was
Ankhesenamun's mother.
Identifying the remains of Ankhesenamun is perhaps
unexpected. Donald Ryan re-examined many of the
tombs in the Valley of the Kings which still contained
human remains. In most cases the bodies were very
badly damaged and fragmentary, but it is likely that
there may be yet other surviving remains of members
of the royal family of the late Eighteenth Dynasty.
The presence of such remains in the Valley of the
Kings may indicate, too, that the Queens of the
Eighteenth Dynasty were buried there, although no
such tombs haye yet been identified.
The most surprising thing is the brother-sister marriage
of Akhenaten, something that was not expected.
No one seems to have noticed the possible religious
implications here, as yet.
If Amenhotep III was the Living Sun and the personification
of the Aten or the creator Cod Atum, then the
first divine couple were Shu and Tefnut, brother and
sister (as depicted in the colossi from this time found
at Karnak). In which case the brother-sister union perhaps
reflected the origins of the gods of Egypt. ! am
sure we will hear more on this argument in the future.
So ... the DNA results have removed some of the
confusion and misinterpretations of the complex history
and family relationships at the end of the
Eighteenth Dynasty, though I am sure that some
debate will continue.
The possibility of more discoveries in the Valley of
the Kings and more results from DNA tests may clarify
the situation further - we will have to wait and see.
As for the immediate future of DNA testing, the family
of Rameses II is next in line. That should be interesting
too.
RP
All colour images: courtesy of the SCA. Archive black-and-white images
frotn Elliot Smith's Royal Mummies. Sepia image by Loret. Foetus mummy
photos: courtesy of the Griffith institute, Oxford.
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Mike111
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Very nice Near, but I am such a poor reader, I seem to have missed the entire point of the exercise. Could you please tell me what Tut's Y-dna and Mtdna haplogroups are?
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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by Mike111:
Very nice Near, but I am such a poor reader, I seem to have missed the entire point of the exercise. Could you please tell me what Tut's Y-dna and Mtdna haplogroups are?

It doesn't say.
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xyyman
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He! He!
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'Calabooz'
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Journal of Clinical Microbiology, January 2003, p. 359-367, Vol. 41, No. 1
0095-1137/03/$08.00+0 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.41.1.359-367.2003
Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNAs from Egyptian Mummies by Spoligotyping
Albert R. Zink,1 Christophe Sola,2 Udo Reischl,3 Waltraud Grabner,1 Nalin Rastogi,2 Hans Wolf,3 and Andreas G. Nerlich1*
Division of Palaeopathology, Institute of Pathology, Academic Teaching Hospital München-Bogenhausen, D-81925 Munich,1 Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany,3 Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur, F-97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe2

Received 13 March 2002/ Returned for modification 8 July 2002/ Accepted 26 September 2002

Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.

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'Calabooz'
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Evidence-based palaeopathology: Meta-analysis of PubMed-listed scientific studies on ancient Egyptian mummies.Authors:Zweifel, L.
Buni, Th.
Ruhli, F.J..
Source:HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology; September 2009 60 (5): 405-427.
Document Type:Article.
Abstract:There is a plethora of published scientific studies on ancient Egyptian mummies. Surprisingly, hitherto there is no systematic review of this research, which would help to assess the quality of this vast body of published literature and thus to increase ''evidence'' in palaeopathological research. The aim of this study was to review all PubMed-listed scientific studies performed on Ancient Egyptian mummies. A total of 131 studies were found in the database for the selected time period, 1977-2005. Our ''meta-analysis'' showed that the number of publications per year varies enormously. The majority of mummies examined date to the third intermediate and Ptolemaic periods; data from other time periods were lacking. Identification of the cause of death and 14C-dating of the mummy or funeral goods were rarely addressed. There was a tendency towards an increased use of non-invasive examination methods in more modern times. Our meta-analysis addressed both scientific content (e.g. palaeopathological findings/examination methods) and publication issues (e.g. location of the first author or year of publication) in these studies. Based on our experience, we recommend some minimum publication standards for palaeopathologic studies on ancient mummies, which shall improve evidence-based research in palaeopathology in general.


All studies on Egyptian mummies:


http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.ilsprod.lib.neu.edu/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GW4-4X66CJK-1&_user=2403224&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2009&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search &_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000057194&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2403224&md5=7a95b1f37b41597c9ca137529d6261d6&searchtype=a

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Clyde Winters
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 -


The reality that King Tut carried the y-chromosome R1b does not make him Western European.

Although R-V88 (Rlb1a) is predominate R-M173 among Central Africans like the Chadic speakers and Bantu groups.

The frequency of R1b among West African groups: Fulani, Mandekan,and Pygmy range between 86-100% according to Crusiani et al,2010.

This means that King Tut can be Rb1 and still be African.



This adds additional support to Wally's evidence that many Egyptians were West Africans.
.

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Clyde Winters
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King Tut was African. In fact the Kushites probably took y-chromosome R1 to Eurasian.

The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical writers. This expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place over 5kya.


" We analyzed the craniometric , linguistic, archaeological and y-chromosome sequences of African and Eurasian populations from the literature relating to these diverse fields.

This literature provides us with a critical examination of the distribution of R1*-M173 . It presents a genetic pattern of this haplogroup from Africa to Eurasia, and the dispersal of a significant African male contribution to Eurasia.

 -

The pristine form of R1*M173 is found only in Africa (Cruciani et al, 2002, 2010).The frequency of Y-chromosome R1*-M173 in Africa range between 7-95% and averages 39.5% (Coia et al,2005). The R*-M173 (haplotype 117) chromosome is found frequently in Africa, but rare to extremely low frequencies in Eurasia. The Eurasian R haplogroup is characterized by R1b3-M269. The M269 derived allele has a M207/M173 background.

In Figure 1 we provide the frequencies of y-chromosome M-173 in Africa and Eurasia. Whereas only between 8% and 10% of M-173 is carried by Eurasians, 82% of the carriers of this y-chromosome are found in Africa."

Coia et al (2005) provides substantial data that the presence of R1*-M173 did not follow the spread of mtDNA haplogroup U6, which is found in North Africa (Coia et al, 2005).This supports the view that its presence in Africa is not the result of a back migration.

See:

http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v2-294-299.pdf


http://olmec98.net/Fulani.pdf

.

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beyoku
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quote:
Originally posted by Near:
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, January 2003, p. 359-367, Vol. 41, No. 1
0095-1137/03/$08.00+0 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.41.1.359-367.2003
Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNAs from Egyptian Mummies by Spoligotyping
Albert R. Zink,1 Christophe Sola,2 Udo Reischl,3 Waltraud Grabner,1 Nalin Rastogi,2 Hans Wolf,3 and Andreas G. Nerlich1*
Division of Palaeopathology, Institute of Pathology, Academic Teaching Hospital München-Bogenhausen, D-81925 Munich,1 Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany,3 Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur, F-97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe2

Received 13 March 2002/ Returned for modification 8 July 2002/ Accepted 26 September 2002

Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.

Take not they had the most common strain of tuberculosis that is found in WEST AFRICA :
quote:
They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern.
M. Africanum
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
quote:
Originally posted by Near:
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, January 2003, p. 359-367, Vol. 41, No. 1
0095-1137/03/$08.00+0 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.41.1.359-367.2003
Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNAs from Egyptian Mummies by Spoligotyping
Albert R. Zink,1 Christophe Sola,2 Udo Reischl,3 Waltraud Grabner,1 Nalin Rastogi,2 Hans Wolf,3 and Andreas G. Nerlich1*
Division of Palaeopathology, Institute of Pathology, Academic Teaching Hospital München-Bogenhausen, D-81925 Munich,1 Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany,3 Unité de la Tuberculose et des Mycobactéries, Institut Pasteur, F-97165 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe2

Received 13 March 2002/ Returned for modification 8 July 2002/ Accepted 26 September 2002

Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.

Take note they had the most common strain of tuberculosis that is found in WEST AFRICA :
quote:
They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern.
M. Africanum

^^Indeed. It is not surprising that there is a link
to West Africa. Other studies of disease vectors
show similar linkages of Egyptians with peoples
further south. For example, the presence of the
L. donovani pathogen in Egypt implies trade or
population contacts with other African regions
since the vector for spreading this pathogen (a
particular biting African sandfly) is absent in
Nile Valley.


quote- bold headings added for clarity:

[Malaria:] "Several attempts were made to identify the DNA of Plasmodium falciparum in the human
remains, one of the parasites responsible for malaria. Rabino Massa et al. (2000) used immunological
tests to screen 80 mummies from the site of Gebelen near Luxor, Egypt dated
to 3200 BCE. Th e Plasmodium antigen (histidine-rich protein PfHRP-2) was found in 43%
of samples (and in 92% of samples with porotic hyperostosis). Such a high frequency of cases
caused doubts concerning the specifi city of the antigen based test (Nerlich et al. 2008).

A positive Plasmodium identifi cation via immunological methods was also reported for a Granville 50 Mateusz Baca, Martyna Molak mummy—a 50 year old woman from the site of Gurna, Egypt dated to 700 BCE (Miller et al. 1994). Reexamination of this specimen using PCR-based methods yielded negative results.
Th ese results could be due to the diff erential preservation of DNA and proteins in
this individual, but serious doubt concerning the reliability of the immunological test arose
(Taylor et al. 1997). A recent survey of Nerlich et al. (2008) yielded more realistic results. 91
specimens were screened for Plasmodium DNA, 7 from the Predynastic to Early Dynastic site
of Abydos (3500–2800 BCE), 42 from a Middle Kingdom tomb in Th ebes West (2050–1650
BCE), and 42 from other tombs also from Th ebes West, dated from the Middle Kingdom
until the Late Period. PCR of a fragment of a pfcrt gene (P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance
transporter gene) was attempted and resulted in two positive amplifi cations. Th e specifi -
city of the obtained PCR products was confi rmed by carrying out the sequencing in two
independent laboratories.


[Diptheria:] Zink et al. (2001c) screened 450 individuals from Th ebes West searching for Corynebacterium
diphtheriae, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for diphtheria. Of the 40 samples that
yielded amplifi able DNA, one positive PCR result was obtained with starters targeting eubacterial
16S rDNA. Th e presence of Corynebacterium spp. DNA was confi rmed in only
one specimen, the head of a woman buried in Dra Abu el Nega (Th ebes West) dated to
1580–1080 BCE. A specifi c identifi cation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae species was not possible.
However, in conjunction with inscriptions found in the tomb describing the treatment
of a disease bearing resemblance to diphtheria, the presence of C. diphtheriae seems likely.
Th e presence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in the ancient mummy was not surprising, since
diphtheria is common even in contemporary Egypt.


[Leishmaniasis:] Another parasite detected in human remains via aDNA analysis is the Leishmania donovani
complex; the parasite causing leishmaniasis. Zink et al. (2006) searched for L. donovani DNA in
91 bone samples from the above-mentioned Egyptian sites of Th ebes West and Abydos and in
70 samples from Nubian sites at Kulubnarti, Sudan. Th ese sites were early Christian cemeteries
dated from 550 to 750 CE and from 750 to 1500 CE. DNA sequences specifi c to Leishmania spp.
were PCR amplifi ed from 4 Egyptian and 9 Nubian samples. Based on frequencies of bacterial
presence, the authors conclude that leishmaniasis was endemic in Nubia during the 6th–8th centuries
CE. An examination of earlier samples would most likely have led to similar results since
Sudan (or East Africa in general) is considered as a place of origin of visceral leishmaniasis (Zink
et al. 2006). As all the Egyptian samples containing L. donovani DNA came exclusively from
a Middle Kingdom tomb and no samples from earlier periods yielded bacteria-positive results,
the authors suggest that the introduction of leishmaniasis to Egypt may have taken place during
the Middle Kingdom.

Th e presence of L. donovani in Egypt implies close trade contacts
between these countries as the distribution of L. donovani is closely associated with its vector
the phlebotomine sandfl y, which is absent in Nile Valley.
Zink et al. (2000) described a single case of bacteremia discovered when an infant mummy
from the Th ebes West cemetery was studied. Th e mummy was dated to 1000–750 BCE.
Genetic analysis revealed the presence of the DNA of several bacterial species, including Escherichia
coli, Frateuria auranta, and Halobacillus spp. Post mortem spread of E. coli through the
body was ruled out."


From:
--Bioarchaeology of the Near East, 2:39–61 (2008)
Research on ancient DNA in the Near East
Mateusz Baca*1, Martyna Molak2

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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
 -


The reality that King Tut carried the y-chromosome R1b does not make him Western European.

Although R-V88 (Rlb1a) is predominate R-M173 among Central Africans like the Chadic speakers and Bantu groups.

The frequency of R1b among West African groups: Fulani, Mandekan,and Pygmy range between 86-100% according to Crusiani et al,2010.

This means that King Tut can be Rb1 and still be African.



This adds additional support to Wally's evidence that many Egyptians were West Africans.
.

Thanks. Didn't Cruciani associate this with a back migration though? From the initial article atop this thread, I found it strange that they never mentiond Tut an co's Y and mtDNA haplogroups, even though they did have them.

In regards to mummies: Does anybody have a link to An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies, where it speaks of Egyptian head shape being similar to that of Mesolithic Nubians? I couldn't find it in the book, so I assumed it is in Journal of Physical Anthropology 56, issue 2. Which I'm getting at the NorthEastern library. So far, I've only been able to get access to two of the book reviews written about it, and none speak of this.

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Truthcentric
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The comparisons between Egyptian mummies and Mesolithic Nubians come not from Harris and Wente but from an analysis of their data by another scholar named Paul Kekai Manansala.
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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:
The comparisons between Egyptian mummies and Mesolithic Nubians come not from Harris and Wente but from an analysis of their data by another scholar named Paul Kekai Manansala.

Ah, really? I'll try to find that. Otherwise, the 1 Basic Database of Nile Valley studies is misleading when in this quote:


"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and XX dynasties look more like the early Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with low vaults and sloping, curved foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty skulls are shaped more like modern Nubians with globular skulls and high vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R. Zimmerman, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 56, Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)


Or maybe it is actually in that issue. Either way, I'm getting the said issue just to be sure. [LIST]

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beyoku
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^ its not really misleading. When you look at all the data UNPOOLED you can see that what is considered "Nubian" and what is "Egyptian" are equally mixed. The larger you make the pool the easier it is that you will have one group that is clearly "Egypto-Nubian". Further pooling the data you would probably come to a generic grouping of North East African. An unpooled sample can be seen here:
 -

It is obvious some Dynastic material will be closer to "Nubian" groups, this will not be the case for others. I am not sure if these are ROYAL mummies but if they are it could just be easily explained as certain ruling families coming from certain areas.

This is not NEW info, Goedde et al. two years ago came to the same conclusion:

quote:
A plot of the distance scores revealed only one cluster; the Nubian and Egyptian groups clustered together. The grouping of the Nubians and Egyptians indicates there may have been some sort of gene flow between these groups of Nubians and Egyptians.
Source - An examination of Nubian and Egyptian biological distances: Support for biological diffusion or in situ development?
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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quote:
Originally posted by Near:
quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:
The comparisons between Egyptian mummies and Mesolithic Nubians come not from Harris and Wente but from an analysis of their data by another scholar named Paul Kekai Manansala.

Ah, really? I'll try to find that. Otherwise, the 1 Basic Database of Nile Valley studies is misleading when in this quote:


"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and XX dynasties look more like the early Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with low vaults and sloping, curved foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty skulls are shaped more like modern Nubians with globular skulls and high vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R. Zimmerman, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 56, Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)


Or maybe it is actually in that issue. Either way, I'm getting the said issue just to be sure. [LIST]

Yeap- Astenb has it right. The X-Ray data only
confirm what he says about the pooled/unpooled
samples and the Godde study- the closest match
with ancient Egyptians is Nubians. So you have
cranial, x-ray and limb studies all saying the
same thing. This defeats attempts to create bogus
"racial" differences between the two peoples.


 -


 -


Also the cultural and historical data shows how
closely the 2 peoples are linked:

 -

 -

Conservative mainstream Oxford
Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt shows
ancient Egypt derived from an African
cultural sub-stratum


[QUOTE:]

"The evidence also points to linkages to
other northeast African peoples, not
coincidentally approximating the modern
range of languages closely related to
Egyptian in the Afro-Asiatic group
(formerly called Hamito-Semetic). These
linguistic similarities place ancient
Egyptian in a close relationship with
languages spoken today as far west as
Chad, and as far south as Somalia.
Archaeological evidence also strongly
supports an African origin. A widespread
northeastern African cultural assemblage,
including distinctive multiple barbed
harpoons and pottery decorated with
dotted wavy line patterns, appears during
the early Neolithic (also known as the
Aqualithic, a reference to the mild
climate of the Sahara at this time).
Saharan and Sudanese rock art from this
time resembles early Egyptian
iconography. Strong connections
between Nubian (Sudanese) and
Egyptian material culture continue in
later Neolithic Badarian culture of Upper
Egypt. Similarities include black-topped
wares, vessels with characteristic
ripple-burnished surfaces, a special
tulip-shaped vessel with incised and
white-filled decoration, palettes, and
harpoons...

Other ancient Egyptian practices show
strong similarities to modern African
cultures including divine kingship, the
use of headrests, body art, circumcision,
and male coming-of-age rituals, all
suggesting an African substratum or
foundation for Egyptian civilization.."

[endquote]
--Source: Donald Redford (2001) The
Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt,
Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p.
28


Note what the dental study says below"
 -


As for Tut- 'biodiversity' fantasies re his "Nordic" blood
have been debunked thoroughly:

 -

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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
^ its not really misleading. When you look at all the data UNPOOLED you can see that what is considered "Nubian" and what is "Egyptian" are equally mixed. The larger you make the pool the easier it is that you will have one group that is clearly "Egypto-Nubian". Further pooling the data you would probably come to a generic grouping of North East African. An unpooled sample can be seen here:
 -

It is obvious some Dynastic material will be closer to "Nubian" groups, this will not be the case for others. I am not sure if these are ROYAL mummies but if they are it could just be easily explained as certain ruling families coming from certain areas.

This is not NEW info, Goedde et al. two years ago came to the same conclusion:

quote:
A plot of the distance scores revealed only one cluster; the Nubian and Egyptian groups clustered together. The grouping of the Nubians and Egyptians indicates there may have been some sort of gene flow between these groups of Nubians and Egyptians.
Source - An examination of Nubian and Egyptian biological distances: Support for biological diffusion or in situ development?
I didn't mean the information itself was misleading, only the source that is provided for the information. That is, if the source provided in the 1 basic database of Nile Valley studies doesn't have that quote
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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
quote:
Originally posted by Near:
quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:
The comparisons between Egyptian mummies and Mesolithic Nubians come not from Harris and Wente but from an analysis of their data by another scholar named Paul Kekai Manansala.

Ah, really? I'll try to find that. Otherwise, the 1 Basic Database of Nile Valley studies is misleading when in this quote:


"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and XX dynasties look more like the early Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with low vaults and sloping, curved foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty skulls are shaped more like modern Nubians with globular skulls and high vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R. Zimmerman, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 56, Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)


Or maybe it is actually in that issue. Either way, I'm getting the said issue just to be sure. [LIST]

Yeap- Astenb has it right. The X-Ray data only
confirm what he says about the pooled/unpooled
samples and the Godde study- the closest match
with ancient Egyptians is Nubians. So you have
cranial, x-ray and limb studies all saying the
same thing. This defeats attempts to create bogus
"racial" differences between the two peoples.


 -


 -


Also the cultural and historical data shows how
closely the 2 peoples are linked:

 -

 -

Conservative mainstream Oxford
Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt shows
ancient Egypt derived from an African
cultural sub-stratum


[QUOTE:]

"The evidence also points to linkages to
other northeast African peoples, not
coincidentally approximating the modern
range of languages closely related to
Egyptian in the Afro-Asiatic group
(formerly called Hamito-Semetic). These
linguistic similarities place ancient
Egyptian in a close relationship with
languages spoken today as far west as
Chad, and as far south as Somalia.
Archaeological evidence also strongly
supports an African origin. A widespread
northeastern African cultural assemblage,
including distinctive multiple barbed
harpoons and pottery decorated with
dotted wavy line patterns, appears during
the early Neolithic (also known as the
Aqualithic, a reference to the mild
climate of the Sahara at this time).
Saharan and Sudanese rock art from this
time resembles early Egyptian
iconography. Strong connections
between Nubian (Sudanese) and
Egyptian material culture continue in
later Neolithic Badarian culture of Upper
Egypt. Similarities include black-topped
wares, vessels with characteristic
ripple-burnished surfaces, a special
tulip-shaped vessel with incised and
white-filled decoration, palettes, and
harpoons...

Other ancient Egyptian practices show
strong similarities to modern African
cultures including divine kingship, the
use of headrests, body art, circumcision,
and male coming-of-age rituals, all
suggesting an African substratum or
foundation for Egyptian civilization.."

[endquote]
--Source: Donald Redford (2001) The
Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt,
Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p.
28


Note what the dental study says below"
 -


As for Tut- 'biodiversity' fantasies re his "Nordic" blood
have been debunked thoroughly:

 -

I know. What I'm saying is that the quote is said to be in Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 56, Issue , however I'm not so sure it is. I'm getting Volume 56, Issue 2 to see if the quote exists in that issue, and if it doesn't, where can I find it? Other than that, I agree that it only reinforces recent research.
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'Calabooz'
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Oh btw, I have a question about blood types; I have heard Euro-centrists claim that blood group A2 originated in Armenia (or something like that) even though D'Adamo says it is an adaption to local parasites in Africa. My question is, do blood types originate within one region, or have they arisen in several different regions around the world, without admixture? Sources would be appreciated.

Thanks

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^Paul Kekai Mansala seems to have gotten an
actual quote from the book X-Ray Atlas of the
Royal Mummies, by Harris and Wente. A REVIEW of
the book is given in the Journal, showing the
scope and importance of the massive X-ray project
which basically documented almost every mummy in
the some of the most important Egyptian
collections.
His detailed analysis is shown here:
http://asiapacificuniverse.com/pkm/mummies.htm

[note below that the actual data quote is from
the book, not the Journal Review:]

"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and XX dynasties look more like the early Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with low vaults and sloping, curved foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty skulls are shaped more like modern Nubians with globular skulls and high vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R. Zimmerman, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 56, Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Also, here is another quote from Harris and Weeks
on X-ray analysis of the pharaoh Seqenenre compared
to his son Ahmose, showing how the X-Ray data
suggested Nubian affinities for several royals:

"His entire facial complex, in fact, is so different
from other pharaohs (it is closest to that of his son
Ahmose) that he could be fitted more easily into
the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls
than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various
scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian-that
is, non-Egyptian-origin for Seqenenre and his
family, and his facial features suggest this might
indeed be true."

-- Harris J, and Weeks K (1973) X-Raying the Pharoahs. pg 127

Seqenenre is one of a number of New Kingdom
pharaohs also held to be of Nubian origin by
conservative Egyptologists such as Donald B.
Redford (History and Chronology of the Eighteenth
Dynasty of Egypt, pgs 33-36, 69.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

As for blood types there is plenty on GoogleBooks.


In seems that assorted 'Aryan" proponents, from
continued ferment on the web, are still upset
that their main plank of a "white" King Tut, blood
type A2, has been comprehensively dismissed and
debunked. Like Odinists awaiting the latest
'word' from Valhalla, they have switched to the
chimera of the "accidental" Discovery Channel
"revelation." But it will do them no good.

See:
http://knol.google.com/k/blood-types-debunking-the-appropriation-of-ancient-egyptian-heritage-by-neo#

 -


A Google search on some of your questions leads to
a forum where assorted "biodiversity" claimants
are advancing the bogus claim of a white King
Tut - supposedly "accidentally" revealed on the
Discovery channel. Al-Takuri has already dealt
with this in detail on another ES thread.


Assorted "biodiversity" proponents fail miserably,
whether they try to spam bogus "white history"
in assorted forums or via insertion on Wikipedia
pages. No one is being fooled. More accurate data
is widely available on ES and elsewhere.


See also:

for more details on the x-rays.
http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=003522

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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
^^Paul Kekai Mansala seems to have gotten an
actual quote from the book X-Ray Atlas of the
Royal Mummies, by Harris and Wente. A REVIEW of
the book is given in the Journal, showing the
scope and importance of the massive X-ray project
which basically documented almost every mummy in
the some of the most important Egyptian
collections.
His detailed analysis is shown here:
http://asiapacificuniverse.com/pkm/mummies.htm

[note below that the actual data quote is from
the book, not the Journal Review:]

"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and XX dynasties look more like the early Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with low vaults and sloping, curved foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty skulls are shaped more like modern Nubians with globular skulls and high vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R. Zimmerman, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 56, Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Also, here is another quote from Harris and Weeks
on X-ray analysis of the pharaoh Seqenenre compared
to his son Ahmose, showing how the X-Ray data
suggested Nubian affinities for several royals:

"His entire facial complex, in fact, is so different
from other pharaohs (it is closest to that of his son
Ahmose) that he could be fitted more easily into
the series of Nubian and Old Kingdom Giza skulls
than into that of later Egyptian kings. Various
scholars in the past have proposed a Nubian-that
is, non-Egyptian-origin for Seqenenre and his
family, and his facial features suggest this might
indeed be true."

-- Harris J, and Weeks K (1973) X-Raying the Pharoahs. pg 127

Seqenenre is one of a number of New Kingdom
pharaohs also held to be of Nubian origin by
conservative Egyptologists such as Donald B.
Redford (History and Chronology of the Eighteenth
Dynasty of Egypt, pgs 33-36, 69.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

As for blood types there is plenty on GoogleBooks.


In seems that assorted 'Aryan" proponents, from
continued ferment on the web, are still upset
that their main plank of a "white" King Tut, blood
type A2, has been comprehensively dismissed and
debunked. Like Odinists awaiting the latest
'word' from Valhalla, they have switched to the
chimera of the "accidental" Discovery Channel
"revelation." But it will do them no good.

See:
http://knol.google.com/k/blood-types-debunking-the-appropriation-of-ancient-egyptian-heritage-by-neo#

 -


A Google search on some of your questions leads to
a forum where assorted "biodiversity" claimants
are advancing the bogus claim of a white King
Tut - supposedly "accidentally" revealed on the
Discovery channel. Al-Takuri has already dealt
with this in detail on another ES thread.


Assorted "biodiversity" proponents fail miserably,
whether they try to spam bogus "white history"
in assorted forums or via insertion on Wikipedia
pages. No one is being fooled. More accurate data
is widely available on ES and elsewhere.


See also:

for more details on the x-rays.
http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=003522

Thanks.

Blood Types: Reading D'Adamo, after he states many A variants arose in Africa due to adaption to local parasites, he says the original mutation occurred in Armenia. Does this mean blood types arose independantly in different regions at different times? It doesn't seem probable Europeans migrated into Africa and spread blood types.

2) I heard that the book doesn't compare Mesolithic Nubians so I got it just to be sure. Am looking through it now, but either way, modern research shows the same thing (as you and Astenb noted). Thanks for the links and reply

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'Calabooz'
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Just got the book, but am unable to find the quote.

I did find a few interesting quotes so far:

"Generally, the definition of each New Kingdom pharaoh and queen represents a unique combination of dental characteristics, such as overbite, overjet, interincisal relationship, and molar relationship, which permits the identification of each mummy from x-rays of the definition alone. The observation is not surprising since the teeth or dentition remains one of the most formidable tools available to Forensic specialists. Dental alveolar prognathism, an inherited trait which is normal for Nubian people, ancient and modern, may be observed in pharaohs Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Siptah, and Merenptah, and most of the queens of the 21st dynasty (fig 9.10). Other Royal Mummies such as Seti I, Thutmose IV, and Amenhotep III had a very straight dental profile or large interincisal angles characteristic of North Mediterranean people or the Western world (fig 9.11). In summary, then, the pharaohs and queens of the New Kingdom- a period of almost 500 years-- were heterogeneous from the viewpoint of facial profile dental occlusion" (An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies- pg 332-333)

"In fact, during the New Kingdom, the so-called empire period, there were many princes and priincesses of other conquered nations from Nubia to Mesopotamia, representing great cultural and genetic heterogenity" (pg 350)

"Thutmose has a much more rounded cranium (than Amenhotep), and prognathism of the maxilla and mandible as well as of the dentition. His skull is most similar to that of Nubians from the ancient cemetaries of Gebel Adda examined by the Michigan expedition. Measurable variables also confirm similarities between Thutmose I and Thutmose II ( Appendix Table A1)

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Truthcentric
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quote:
Originally posted by Near:
Just got the book, but am unable to find the quote.

I'm pretty sure the quote in dispute comes from Paul Kekai Manansala's commentary on Harris et al's findings, not from Harris et al themselves.
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'Calabooz'
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quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:
quote:
Originally posted by Near:
Just got the book, but am unable to find the quote.

I'm pretty sure the quote in dispute comes from Paul Kekai Manansala's commentary on Harris et al's findings, not from Harris et al themselves.
Zaharan did post his analysis. However, I'm confused now. She said the data quote was from the book, not the review in the journal of physical Anthropology, but on pages 207-208 of the book, it's just tables of the age details from the x-ray film. The source provided for the quote however, is Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 56, Issue 2. Why isn't Paul Manansala listed as the source for the quote?
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