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Evergreen
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Vol. 6 March 2012 -

Study Shows Mixing Between Prehistoric Populations of Europe and Africa

Scientists already know from genetic evidence that human populations of Africa and Europe mixed in ancient times, from the days of the Roman Empire through to the slave trade of the colonial period. But evidence of any mixing prior to that has been comparatively less abundant. Now, researchers conclude from a recently completed study (published online on March 27, 2012 in Genome Research) that genetic material was exchanged between Europe and Africa as far back as 11,000 years ago, or more.

"It was very surprising to find that more than 35 percent of the sub-Saharan lineages in Europe arrived during a period that ranged from more than 11,000 years ago to the Roman Empire times," said senior study author Dr. Antonio Salas of the University of Santiago de Compostela. The other 65% of European lineages showing African lineage represent population groups that arrived more recently.

The researchers analyzed and compared mtDNA genome sequences from different regions of Europe with that of other groups around the world. During this process they analyzed the mtDNA genomes of "haplogroup L", (a lineage of sub-Saharan African origin) in Europe. Because small changes occur over long periods of time in the mtDNA sequence of different populations, geneticists can use the changes as "markers" that hint at movements and migrations of human groups in the past, classifying them into distinct "haplogroups." For the first time, researchers were able to identify abundant traces from prehistoric times indicating contact and exchange between European and African populations long before the advent of the civilizations of recorded history.

How and why, then, did this occur?

The authors infer that these contacts were likely made via movements to and from North Africa over both land connections and coastal routes, possibly as groups in Europe migrated south because of expanding glaciation of the Ice Age, producing southward pressure on populations, and returning northward as glaciation receded. The mixing thus may have occurred in tandem with the ebb and flow of the Ice Age glacial movements.

The researchers also anticipate that their genetics studies will help individuals who want to learn more about their own ancestry. "There is a growing interest in direct-to-consumer genetic testing, including those aimed to serve a public interested in reconstructing their ancestry," says Salas. "Studies like the one presented here will help to unravel inferences made in these studies."

Scientists from the University of Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain), the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy), the University of Pavia (Pavia, Italy), the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (Salt Lake City, UT), the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK), and the National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Science (Sevilla, Spain) contributed to this study.

The study is published in Genome Research as: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, Woodward SR, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A. Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe. Genome Res doi: 10.1101/gr.134452.111.

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lamin
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Aplly Occam's razor and the whole thing is easily explained.

Africans migrated to Eurasia some 40,000 years ago. They then mugrated westwards to the European peninsula and eastwards towards East Asia then South towards North India and its environs.

The retianed most of their African genome despite undergoing surface transformations to adapt to the colder and less sunny weather.

When the last glacial hit some 18,000 years ago they migrated South and encountered later incoming Africans. And that's it.

This probably explains why in such a small area like Europe you have the 3 major distinct Y haplogroups of R, I, and E.

Ripley and Coon wrote 2 sepaarte books titled "the Races of Europe". Any connection?

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xyyman
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What a revelation.. . .wink! wink! I pointed that out about 4ya. In Marc's 70pg thread. There were no Refugium as such. That theory is BS. There were land bridges between Europe and Africa during the ice age. Iberia, Sicily and Crete. No wonder these areas were the starting point of European civilization. Peoples from the drying Sahara brought their technolgy and civilization to Europe.

see Gimbutas, Smith, Sergi, Evans etc etc etc. Now genetic studies of ancient remains are confirming this. . . .

The authors infer that these contacts were likely made via movements to and from North Africa over both land connections and coastal routes, possibly as groups in Europe migrated south because of expanding glaciation of the Ice Age, producing southward pressure on populations, and returning northward as glaciation receded. The mixing thus may have occurred in tandem with the ebb and flow of the Ice Age glacial movements.

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xyyman
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Quote:

http://www.examiner.com/media-culture-in-sacramento/media-reports-how-africans-and-europeans-mated-migrated-11-000-years-ago



Now a new study reveals when many people of European ancestry acquired some of their African genes that show up in DNA tests which reveal matrilineal ancestry of people alive today who may have inherited those genes around 11,000 years ago. That dates the migrations of peoples just at the ending of the last ice age. How far back does genealogy go when the paper trail stops? The mainstream media eagerly covers ancient DNA.

Check out the March 27, 2012 news release, (which appeared today on March 26th) based on a DNA study from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, "Genetic study unravels ancient links between African and European populations." Also see the article published in the journal Popular Archaeology, March 2012, "Study Shows Mixing Between Prehistoric Populations of Europe and Africa."


Continue reading on Examiner.com Media reports how Africans and Europeans mated & migrated 11,000 years ago - Sacramento Media & Culture | Examiner.com http://www.examiner.com/media-culture-in-sacramento/media-reports-how-africans-and-europeans-mated-migrated-11-000-years-ago#ixzz1qjrvD868

Also, there were migrations from Africa to Europe from not just between 72 generations ago to the fall of the Roman Empire and to medieval times as well--but also from 11,000 years ago. Check out the study in Genome Research, "Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe. Genome Res doi: 10.1101/gr.134452.111."

The main branch of the Sacramento Public Library offers genealogy classes. Locally see, Genealogy Online Sources - Sacramento County Public Library and Upcoming genealogy classes at the Sacramento Public Library. It's a great time for the media to cover DNA-driven genealogy where the paper trail stops and the DNA testing interest becomes more curious of where people lived during the ice age. Now there's a chance to take a closer look at where matrilineal DNA traveled in migrations thousands of years ago.


Continue reading on Examiner.com Media reports how Africans and Europeans mated & migrated 11,000 years ago - Sacramento Media & Culture | Examiner.com http://www.examiner.com/media-culture-in-sacramento/media-reports-how-africans-and-europeans-mated-migrated-11-000-years-ago#ixzz1qjsUL5JA
You might bring up to various genealogists the subject of ancient migrations to those interested in local genealogy who enjoy tracing their deep ancestry back to the ice age. Some of the gene flow happened at the end of the last ice age, about 11,000 years ago when numerous Europeans and Africans chose their mates based on various migrations of peoples.

Think ancient migrations in a time long before countries had borders. In fact, the archaeology media notes that large numbers of people moved between Africa and Europe during recent and well-documented time periods such as the Roman Empire, the Arab conquest, and the slave trade, and genetic evidence of these migrations lives on in Europeans today.


Continue reading on Examiner.com Media reports how Africans and Europeans mated & migrated 11,000 years ago - Sacramento Media & Culture | Examiner.com http://www.examiner.com/media-culture-in-sacramento/media-reports-how-africans-and-europeans-mated-migrated-11-000-years-ago#ixzz1qjsrctH5



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Thule
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This study debunks the Out of Africa theory.

Caucasoids have African admixture through moving INTO Africa, not because of a disperion of mankind was from there.

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Troll Patrol # Ish Gebor
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lol at the pseudo babbles above, by this wannabe university student.

Not understanding that actually the study reinforces the Out Of Africa theory, along with all the other data we already have provided.

Posts: 9361 | From: pAsidaw SIGILLUM SECRETUM | Registered: Nov 2010  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
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quote:
Originally posted by lamin:
Aplly Occam's razor and the whole thing is easily explained.

Africans migrated to Eurasia some 40,000 years ago. They then mugrated westwards to the European peninsula and eastwards towards East Asia then South towards North India and its environs.

The retianed most of their African genome despite undergoing surface transformations to adapt to the colder and less sunny weather.

When the last glacial hit some 18,000 years ago they migrated South and encountered later incoming Africans. And that's it.

This probably explains why in such a small area like Europe you have the 3 major distinct Y haplogroups of R, I, and E.

Ripley and Coon wrote 2 sepaarte books titled "the Races of Europe". Any connection?

Cosigned strongly,

Africans migrated to Eurasia some 40,000 years ago.

When the last glacial hit some 18,000 years ago they migrated South and encountered later incoming Africans. And that's it.


This gives explanation to why cro-magnon were tropical adapted in limb portions.

http://robertlindsay.wordpress.com/2009/05/05/the-birth-of-the-caucasian-race/


Stringer et al.:

"Nor does the picture get any clearer when we move on to the Cro-Magnons, the presumed ancestors of Modern Europeans. Some were more like present-day Australians or Africans, judged by objective anatomical categorizations, as is the case with some early modern skulls from the Upper Cave at Zhoukoudian in China".


Stanley H. Ambrose
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois,


Journal of Human Evolution (1998) 34, 623–651


Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans


The cause, timing and location of bottleneck releases


If population release was due to the natural increase (logistic population growth) of disease-resistant populations following epidemics, then growth could have been relatively rapid, a function of the intrinsic rate of increase of disease-resistant popula-tions, and the duration of the bottleneck relatively brief. Its date could have been at any time, but would presumably have been relatively soon after the bottleneck. Release could have occurred wherever disease-resistant individuals survived.

If release was due to natural increase in founder population size after dispersing across land bridges or narrow straits (Lahr, 1996; Lahr & Foley, 1994) then release dates would vary from 70–50 ka for the early Australasian dispersal, to 45 ka for the second Levantine dispersal. In the epidemic and dispersal scenarios the dura-tion of the bottleneck would have been brief.

If bottlenecks were caused by the cold, arid climate of isotope stage 4 then their duration was approximately 10 ka and release could have been as late as 60 ka.


The failure of early modern humans to survive in the Levant during the early last glacial implies they were not yet physiologically and/or behaviorally well-adapted to cold climates and Palearctic environments, or at least not as well-adapted as neanderthals.


The Multiple Dispersals model (Figure 3) proposes that a population bottleneck occurred during oxygen isotope stage 6, when cold, dry climates caused isolation and differentiation of populations within Africa.


If bottlenecks were caused by the cold, arid climate of isotope stage 4 then their duration was approximately 10 ka and release could have been as late as 60 ka.


Global climate change could have reduced populations during the early last ice age, oxygen isotope stage 4

... As noted above, the replacement of modern humans by neander- thals in the Levant, suggests African modern humans were rather poorly-adapted to cold climates.


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Posts: 9361 | From: pAsidaw SIGILLUM SECRETUM | Registered: Nov 2010  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
   

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