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Author Topic: Egyptian pharaohs
mena7
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Mike111
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mena7 - You're expected to identify who they are.
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You are right Mike my mistake.

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Pharaoh Narmer aka Menes/Mena

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Pharaoh Khufu

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Pharaoh Khafra

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pharaoh Djoser

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pharaoh Menkaura

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Pharaoh Djedefre

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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PHARAOH ROUNDUP/RECAP


 -

Pharonic limb proportion data - several cluster with Africans

"It can be seen that all the pharonic values, including
those of 'Smakhare', lie much closer to the negro
curve than to the white curve. Since stature
equations only work satisfactorily in the individuals to
whom they have applied have similar proportions to
the population group from which they are derived, this
provides justification for using negro equations for
estimating stature from single bones of the New
Kingdom pharoahs, renforcing the previous findings of
Robins (1983). Furthermore, the Troller and Gleser
white equations for the femur, tibia and humerus yield
stature values that have a much wider spread than
those from negro equations with mean values that are
unacceptably large."

--Robins and Schute. The Physical Proportions and Stature
of New Kingdom Pharaohs," Journal of Human Evolution 12
(1983), 455-465

and

[quote]

"Robins (1983) and Robins & Shute
(1983) have shown that more consistent
results are obtained from ancient
Egyptian male skeletons if Trotter &
Gleser formulae for negro are used,
rather than those for whites which have
always been applied in the past. .. their
physical proportions were more like
modern negroes than those of modern
whites, with limbs that were relatively
long compared with the trunk, and distal
segments that were long compared with
the proximal segments. If ancient
Egyptian males had what may be termed
negroid proportions, it seems reasonable
that females did likewise."
From:
(Robins G, Shute CCD. 1986.
Predynastic Egyptian stature and
physical proportions. Hum Evol
1:313–324. Ruff CB. 1994.)


"Estimates of living stature, based on
X-ray measurements applied to the
Trotter & Gleser (1958) negro equations
for the femur, tibia and humerus, have
been made for ancient Egyptian kings
belonging to the 18th and 19th dynasties.
The corresponding equations for whites
give values for stature that are
unsatisfactorily high. The view that
Thutmose III was excessively short is
proved to be a myth. It is shown that the
limbs of the pharaohs, like those of other
Ancient Egyptians, had negroid
characteristics, in that the distal
segments were relatively long in
comparison with the proximal segments.
An exception was Ramesses II, who
appears to have had short legs below the
knees."

--Robins and Schute. The Physical
Proportions and Stature of New
Kingdom Pharaohs," Journal of Human
Evolution 12 (1983). 455-465


-----------------------------------------------


 -
Profile on the Nile


"Genetic kinship analyses revealed identical haplotypes in both mummies (table 1); using the Whit Athey’s haplogroup predictor, we determined the Y chromosomal haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal microsatellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2)."

--Hawass et al 2012. Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III. British Medical Journal, BMJ2012;345:e8268


Haplogroup E1b1a (now known as E-M2) is an
African DNA group, most commonly found in sub-Saharan Africa
QUOTE:

"Haplogroup E1b1 now contains two basal branches, E-V38 (E1b1a) and E-M215 (E1b1b), with V38/V100 joining the two previously separated lineages E-M2 (former E1b1a) and E-M329 (former E1b1c). Each of these two lineages has a peculiar geographic distribution. E-M2 is the most common haplogroup in sub-Saharan Africa, with frequency peaks in western (about 80%) and central Africa (about 60%)."

--Trombetta et al 2011. A New Topology of the Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2)
PLoS ONE 6(1): e16073.


Armana mummies roundup

 -


DNA Tribes roundup
 -

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mena7
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pharaoh Userkaf

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Pharaoh Neferefre

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Pharaoh Sahure

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Pharaoh Pepi.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Pharaoh Mentuhotep

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Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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"The ancient Egyptians referred to a
region, located south of the third cataract
the Nile River, in which Nubians dwelt as
Kush.. Within such context, this phrase is
not a racial slur. Throughout the history
of ancient Egypt there were numerous,
well documented instances that celebrate
Nubian-Egyptian marriages. A study of
these documents, particularly those dated
to both the Egyptian New Kingdom
(after 1550 B.C.E.) and to Dynasty XXV
and early Dynasty XXVI (about 720-640
BCE), reveals that neither spouse nor
any of the children of such unions
suffered discrimination at the hands of
the ancient Egyptians. Indeed such
marriages were never an obstacle to
social, economic, or political status,
provided the individuals concerned
conformed to generally accepted
Egyptian social standards. Furthermore,
at times, certain Nubian practices, such
as tattooing for women, and the unisex
fashion of wearing earrings, were
wholeheartedly embraced by the ancient
Egyptians." (Bianchi, 2004: p. 4)


'It is an extremely difficult task to
attempt to describe the Nubians during
the course of Egypt's New Kingdom,
because their presence appears to have
virtually evaporated from the
archaeological record.. The result has
been described as a wholesale Nubian
assimilation into Egyptian society. This
assimilation was so complete that it
masked all Nubian ethnic identities
insofar as archaeological remains are
concerned beneath the impenetrable
veneer of Egypt's material; culture.. In
the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled
as Pharaohs in their own right, the
material culture of Dynasty XXV (about
750-655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian
in character.. Nubia's entire landscape up
to the region of the Third Cataract was
dotted with temples indistinguishable in
style and decoration from contemporary
temples erected in Egypt. The same
observation obtains for the smaller
number of typically Egyptian tombs in
which these elite Nubian princes were
interred. (Bianchi, 2004, p. 99-100)

- Robert Bianchi ( 2004). Daily Life of
the Nubians. Greenwood Publishing
Group


One of Egypt's greatest dynasties, the
12th, originated from dark-skinned
Nubian stock, according to conservative
Egyptologist F. Yurco (1989). The 12th
Dynasty ruled approximately 1000 years
BEFORE the well known "black" 25th
Dynasty.

Quote 2:

"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region.4 As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne.
Especially interesting, it was a member of
this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy
(riverine Nubian of the principality of
Kush), except such as came for trade or
diplomatic reasons, should pass by the
Egyptian fortress at the southern end of
the Second Nile Cataract. Why would
this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban
other Nubians from coming into
Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian
rulers of Nubian ancestry had become
Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they
exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and
adopted typical Egyptian policies."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)


"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were
closest ethnically to the Egyptians. In the
late predynastic period (c. 3700-3150
B.C.E.), the Nubians shared the same
culture as the Egyptians and even
evolved the same pharaonic political
structure."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)

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Pharaoh Senusret I

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Pharaoh Senusret I

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Pharaoh Senusret II

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Amenemhet III

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Nice thread...

--------------------
Lionz

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Pharaoh Amenemhet II

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Recent studies find the ancient Egyptians had a
tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans
and were not cold-adapted like European type
populations. Tropical body plans also indicate
darker-skin.



QUOTE:
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians
had the "super-Negroid" body plan described by
Robins (1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7
(a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths;
data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the
Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the
Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early
Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than
predicted from femoral length. Despite these
differences, all samples lie relatively clustered
together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient
Egyptian stature and body proportions". American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.

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Pharaoh Amenemhet III

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Pharaoh Amenemhet III

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Pharaoh Ahmose I

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a 2008 Study puts the ancient Egyptians closer to
US Blacks than whites:


Quotes:

"Intralimb (crural and brachial) indices are
significantly higher in ancient Egyptians than in
American Whites (except crural index among
females), i.e., Egyptians have relatively longer distal
segments (Table 4). Intralimb indices are not
significantly different between Egyptians and
American Blacks... Many of those who have studied
ancient Egyptians have commented on their
characteristically ''tropical'' or ''African'' body plan
(Warren, 1897; Masali, 1972; Robins, 1983; Robins
and Shute, 1983, 1984, 1986; Zakrzewski, 2003).
Egyptians also fall within the range of modern
African populations (Ruff and Walker, 1993), but
close to the upper limit of modern Europeans as well,
at least for the crural index (brachial indices are
definitely more ''African'').. In terms of femoral and
tibial length to total skeletal height proportions, we
found that ancient Egyptians are significantly
different from US Blacks, although still closer to
Blacks than to Whites.


Comparisons of linear body proportions of Old
Kingdom and non-Old Kingdom period individuals,
and workers and high officials in our sample found
no statistically significant differences among them.
Zakrzewski (2003) also found little evidence for
differences in linear body proportions of Egyptians
over a wider temporal range. In general, recent
studies of skeletal variation among ancient Egyptians
support scenarios of biological continuity through
time. Irish (2006) analyzed quantitative and
qualitative dental traits of 996 Egyptians from
Neolithic through Roman periods, reporting the
presence of a few outliers but concluding that the
dental samples appear to be largely homogeneous
and that the affinities observed indicate overall
biological uniformity and continuity from Predynastic
through Dynastic and Postdynastic periods.

Zakrzewski (2007) provided a comprehensive
summary of previous Egyptian craniometric studies
and examined Egyptian crania from six time periods.
She found that the earlier samples were relatively
more homogeneous in comparison to the later
groups. However, overall results indicated genetic
continuity over the Egyptian Predynastic and Early
Dynastic periods, albeit with a high level of genetic
diversity within the population, suggesting an
indigenous process of state formation. She also
concluded that while the biological patterning of the
Egyptian population varied across time, no consistent
temporal or spatial trends are apparent. Thus, the
stature estimation formulae developed here may be
broadly applicable to all ancient Egyptian
populations.."
("Stature estimation in ancient Egyptians: A new
technique based on anatomical reconstruction of
stature." Michelle H. Raxter, Christopher B. Ruff,
Ayman Azab, Moushira Erfan, Muhammad Soliman,
Aly El-Sawaf, (Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008,
Jun;136(2):147-55

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Woman Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Older limb studies find the same clustering of Egyptians with tropical Africans

"In this regard it is interesting to note that limb
proportions of Predynastic Naqada people in Upper
Egypt are reported to be "Super-Negroid," meaning
that the distal segments are elongated in the fashion
of tropical Africans.....skin color intensification and
distal limb elongation are apparent wherever people
have been long-term residents of the tropics."
--(C.L. Brace, 1993. Clines and clusters..")


"An attempt has been made to estimate male and
female Egyptian stature from long bone length using
Trotter & Gleser negro stature formulae, previous
work by the authors having shown that these rather
than white formulae give more consistent results with
male dynastic material... When consistency has been
achieved in this way, predynastic proportions are
founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs
are even longer in relation to the proximal segments
than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions
are termed "super-negroid"...

Robins (1983) and Robins & Shute (1983) have
shown that more consistent results are obtained from
ancient Egyptian male skeletons if Trotter & Gleser
formulae for negro are used, rather than those for
whites which have always been applied in the past. ..
their physical proportions were more like modern
negroes than those of modern whites, with limbs that
were relatively long compared with the trunk, and
distal segments that were long compared with the
proximal segments. If ancient Egyptian males had
what may be termed negroid proportions, it seems
reasonable that females did likewise."
(Robins G, Shute CCD. 1986. Predynastic Egyptian
stature and physical proportions. Hum Evol
1:313-324. Ruff CB. 1994.)

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Pharaoh Tutmohsis III

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Pharaoh Tutmohsis III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

 -
Pharaoh Akhenaton

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

...

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http://www.goshocking.com/2012/07/meet-africas-very-own-incredible-hulk.html

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^lol.. tropical adaptations at work?


Some scholarly databases contain Egyptian samples that are not
typically Egyptian in terms of statistical averages,
represented as typical.
QUOTE:

"Most dramatically, the results also indicate that the
Egyptian series from Howells global data set are morphologically
distinct from the Predynastic and Eatly Dynastic Nile Valley
samples (especially in cranial vault shape and height), and
thus show that this sample cannot be considered to be a typical
Egyptian series"
--Zakrewski, S. (2004) "Intra-population and temporal variation in
ancient Egyptian crania."

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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The ancient Badarians were quite representative of
ancient Egyptians as a whole and showed clear links
with tropical Africans to the south. They have been
sometimes excluded in studies of the ancient
Egyptian population, which shows continuity in its
history, not mass influxes of foreigners until the late
periods.


Quotes:
"As a result of their facial prognathism, the Badarian
sample has been described as forming a
morphological cluster with Nubian, Tigrean, and
other southern (or \Negroid") groups (Morant, 1935,
1937; Mukherjee et al., 1955; Nutter, 1958, Strouhal,
1971; Angel, 1972; Keita, 1990). Cranial nonmetric
trait studies have found this group to be similar to
other Egyptians, including much later material (Berry
and Berry, 1967, 1972), but also to be significantly
different from LPD material (Berry et al., 1967).
Similarly, the study of dental nonmetric traits has
suggested that the Badarian population is at the
centroid of Egyptian dental samples (Irish, 2006),
thereby suggesting similarity and hence continuity
across Egyptian time periods. From the central
location of the Badarian samples in Figure 2, the
current study finds the Badarian to be relatively
morphologically close to the centroid of all the
Egyptian samples. The Badarian have been shown to exhibit
greatest morphological similarity with the temporally
successive EPD (Table 5). Finally, the biological
distinctiveness of the Badarian from other Egyptian samples
has also been demonstrated (Tables 6 and 7).

These results suggest that the EDyn do form a
distinct morphological pattern. Their overlap with
other Egyptian samples (in PC space, Fig. 2)
suggests that although their morphology is
distinctive, the pattern does overlap with the other
time periods. These results therefore do not support
the Petrie concept of a \Dynastic race" (Petrie, 1939;
Derry, 1956). Instead, the results suggest that the
Egyptian state was not the product of mass
movement of populations into the Egyptian Nile
region, but rather that it was the result of primarily
indigenous development combined with prolonged
small-scale migration, potentially from trade, military,
or other contacts.

This evidence suggests that the process of state
formation itself may have been mainly an indigenous
process, but that it may have occurred in association
with in-migration to the Abydos region of the Nile
Valley. This potential in-migration may have
occurred particularly during the EDyn and OK. A
possible explanation is that the Egyptian state formed
through increasing control of trade and raw
materials, or due to military actions, potentially
associated with the use of the Nile Valley as a
corridor for prolonged small scale movements
through the desert environment.
(Sonia R. Zakrzewski. (2007). Population Continuity
or Population Change: Formation of the Ancient
Egyptian State. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 132:501-509)

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mena7
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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Ancient Egyptian religion closer to the
religion of African regions than to
Mesopotamia, Europe or the Middle
East


QUOTE(s):
Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed.
Macropedia Article, Vol 6: "Egyptian
Religion" , pg 506-508
"A large number of gods go back to
prehistoric times. The images of a cow
and star goddess (Hathor), the falcon
(Horus), and the human-shaped figures
of the fertility god (Min) can be traced
back to that period. Some rites, such as
the "running of the Apil-bull," the
"hoeing of the ground," and other
fertility and hunting rites (e.g., the
hippopotamus hunt) presumably date
from early times.. Connections with the
religions in southwest Asia cannot be
traced with certainty."

"It is doubtful whether Osiris can be
regarded as equal to Tammuz or Adonis,
or whether Hathor is related to the
"Great Mother." There are closer
relations with northeast African religions.
The numerous animal cults (especially
bovine cults and panther gods) and
details of ritual dresses (animal tails,
masks, grass aprons, etc) probably are of
African origin. The kinship in particular
shows some African elements, such as
the king as the head ritualist (i.e.,
medicine man), the limitations and
renewal of the reign (jubilees, regicide),
and the position of the king's mother (a
matriarchal element). Some of them can
be found among the Ethiopians in Napata
and Meroe, others among the Prenilotic
tribes (Shilluk)."
(Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed.
Macropedia Article, Vol 6: "Egyptian
Religion" , pg 506-508)

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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African peoples are the most diverse in the world
whether analyzed by DNA or skeletal or cranial
methods. Attempts to deny this are rooted in racism
and error. African people, particularly
SUB-SAHARAN Africans, vary the most in how
they look, more so than any other population in the
world.


"Estimates of genetic diversity in major geographic
regions are frequently made by pooling all individuals
into regional aggregates. This method can potentially
bias results if there are differences in population
substructure within regions, since increased variation
among local populations could inflate regional
diversity. A preferred method of estimating regional
diversity is to compute the mean diversity within
local populations. Both methods are applied to a
global sample of craniometric data consisting of 57
measurements taken on 1734 crania from 18 local
populations in six geographic regions: sub-Saharan
Africa, Europe, East Asia, Australasia, Polynesia,
and the Americas. Each region is represented by
three local populations.

Both methods for estimating regional diversity show
sub-Saharan Africa to have the highest levels of
phenotypic variation, consistent with many genetic
studies."
(Relethford, John "Global Analysis of Regional
Differences in Craniometric Diversity and Population
Substructure". Human Biology - Volume 73, Number
5, October 2001, pp. 629-636)

"The living peoples of the African continent are
diverse in facial characteristics, stature, skin color,
hair form, genetics, and other characteristics. No one
set of characteristics is more African than another.
Variability is also found in "sub-Saharan" Africa, to
which the word "Africa" is sometimes erroneously
restricted. There is a problem with definitions.
Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors,
like language, that exclude developments that clearly
arose in Africa. For example, sometimes even the
Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is
excluded because of geography and language and the
fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and
faces.

However, the Horn is at the same latitude as Nigeria,
and its languages are African. The latitude of 15
degree passes through Timbuktu, surely in
"sub-Saharan Africa," as well as Khartoum in Sudan;
both are north of the Horn. Another false idea is that
supra-Saharan and Saharan Africa were peopled after
the emergence of "Europeans" or Near Easterners by
populations coming from outside Africa. Hence, the
ancient Egyptians in some writings have been
de-Africanized. These ideas, which limit the
definition of Africa and Africans, are rooted in racism
and earlier, erroneous "scientific" approaches." (S.
Keita, "The Diversity of Indigenous Africans," in
Egypt in Africa, Theodore Clenko, Editor (1996),
pp. 104-105. [10])

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mena7
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Pharaoh Horemheb as a scribe

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Pharaoh Horemheb

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Pharaoh Seti 1


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Pharaoh Ramses 1



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Pharaoh Ramses 1

Posts: 4835 | From: sepedat/sirius | Registered: Jul 2012  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
mena7
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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Ramses III

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Ramses III

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Ramses III

Posts: 4835 | From: sepedat/sirius | Registered: Jul 2012  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
mena7
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Pharaoh Merenptah

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Pharaoh Merenptah

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pharaoh Amenmesse

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Pharaoh Amenmesse

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Pharaoh Seti II

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Pharaoh Seti II

Posts: 4835 | From: sepedat/sirius | Registered: Jul 2012  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
mena7
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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Psusennes

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Pharaoh Amenemope

Posts: 4835 | From: sepedat/sirius | Registered: Jul 2012  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
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