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mena7
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Pharaoh Shebitku

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Pharaoh Shabatka

Shebitku (or Shabatka) was the third king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled from 707/706 BC-690 BC, according to Dan'el Kahn's most recent academic research of the Tang-i Var inscription.[3] Shebitku was the nephew and successor of Shabaka. He was a son of Piye, the founder of this dynasty. Shebitku's prenomen or throne name, Djedkare, means "Enduring is the Soul of Re."[

During Shebitku's reign, there was initially a policy of conciliation with Assyria which was marked by the formal extradition of Iamanni back into Sargon II's hands. After Sargon II's death, however, Shebitku appears to have adopted a different policy by actively resisting any new Assyrian expansion into Canaan under Sargon's son and successor Sennacherib. A stela from Kawa relates that Shebitku asked his 'brothers', including Taharqa, to travel north to Thebes from Nubia. The Nubian army travelled along with Taharqa presumably to fight the Assyrians at the Battle of Eltekh in 701 BC. Another stela records that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, the king of Kush marched against Sennacherib. Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitku's brother, Prince Taharqa. Shebitku also completed the decoration of the Temple of Osiris Heqadjet in Thebes during his reign. The Temple had been constructed under Osorkon III. The decorations are notable for proving that Osorkon III's daughter, Shepenupet I was still serving as the God's Wife of Amun at Karnak and had outlived her two brothers Takelot III and Rudamun by at least three full decades. In 690 BC, Shebitku died and was succeeded by Taharqa, his younger brother.

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Pharaoh taharka

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Pharaoh Taharka

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Pharaoh Taharqa

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King Taharka

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King Taharka

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Shabti of King Taharqa

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Pharaoh Taharka

Taharqa was a pharaoh of the Ancient Egyptian 25th dynasty and king of the Kingdom of Kush, which was located in Northern Sudan

Early life

Taharqa was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt. Taharqa was also the cousin and successor of Shebitku.[3] The successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka paved the way for a prosperous reign by Taharqa.

Ruling period

Taharqa's reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC.[4] Evidence for the dates of his reign is derived from the Serapeum stela, catalog number 192. This stela records that an Apis bull born and installed (fourth month of Peret, day 9) in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I (4th month of Shomu, day 20), having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, in 690-664 B.C.[5] Taharqa explicitly states in Kawa Stela V, line 15, that he succeeded Shebitku with this statement: "I received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon (i.e., Shebitku) flew to heaven."[6]

Reign

Although Taharqa's reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was also a prosperous renaissance period in Egypt and Kush. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated in a historic battle with the Assyrian emperor Sennacherib at Eltekeh. At Hezekiah's request, Taharqa and the Egyptian/Kushite army managed to stall the Assyrian advance on Jerusalem. Sennacherib abandoned the siege and returned home. Thus, Taharqa saved Jerusalem and Hebrew society from destruction, a pivotal point in world and Hebrew history.

The might of Taharqa's military forces was established at Eltekeh, leading to a period of peace in Egypt. During this period of peace and prosperity, the empire flourished. In the sixth year of Taharqa's reign, prosperity was also aided by abundant rainfall and a large harvest. Taharqa took full advantage of the lull in fighting and abundant harvest. He restored existing temples, built new ones, and built the largest pyramid in the Napatan region. Particularly impressive were his additions to the Temple at Karnak, new temple at Kawa, and temple at Jebel Barkal

Assyrian invasion of Egypt

It was during his reign that Egypt's enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt. Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed to pacify Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, led him as far as the Brook of Egypt. Esarhaddon then proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqa's 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion. Three years later in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal family. Taharqa fled to the south, and Esarhaddon reorganized the political structure in the north, establishing Necho I as king at Sais. Upon Esarhaddon's return to Assyria he erected a stele alongside the previous Egyptian and Assyrian Commemorative stela of Nahr el-Kalb, as well as a victory stele at Zincirli Höyük, showing Taharqa's young son Ushankhuru in bondage.

Upon the Assyrian king's departure, however, Taharqa intrigued in the affairs of Lower Egypt, and fanned numerous revolts. Esarhaddon died en route to Egypt, and it was left to his son and heir Ashurbanipal to once again invade Egypt. Ashurbanipal defeated Taharqa, who afterwards fled to Thebes.

Death

Taharqa died in the city of Thebes [14] in 664 BC and was succeeded by his appointed successor Tantamani, a son of Shabaka. Taharqa was buried at Nuri - North Sudan

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Peregrine
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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Pharaoh taharka

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Pharaoh Taharka

That's really some amazing stuff there! You should check out odwirafo
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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QUOTE:
“the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region. As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)

"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were closest
ethnically to the Egyptians. In the late predynastic
period (c. 3700-3150 B.C.E.), the Nubians shared
the same culture as the Egyptians and even evolved
the same pharaonic political structure.“

- F. J. Yurco, Biblical Archaeology Review, 15:5 [/QB][/QUOTE]

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mena7
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Pharaoh Tantameni

Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname) or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen or royal name was Bakare which means "Glorious is the Soul of Re."[1]

He was the son of King Shabaka and the nephew of his predecessor Taharqa.[2] In some sources he is said to be the son of Shebitku.[3] Assyrian records call Tantamani a son of Shabaka and refer to Qalhata as a sister of Taharqa. Some Egyptologists interpreted the Assyrian text as stating that Tantamani was a son of Shebitku, but as he was most likely a son of Shabaka himself, it is now more common to consider Tantamani a son of Shabaka.[4]

Once the Assyrians had appointed Necho I as king and left Egypt, Tantamani marched down the Nile from Nubia and reoccupied all of Egypt including Memphis. Necho I, the Assyrians' representative, was killed in Tantamani's campaign. In reaction, the Assyrians returned to Egypt in force, defeated Tantamani's army in the Delta and advanced as far south as Thebes, which they sacked. The Assyrian reconquest effectively ended Nubian control over Egypt although Tantamani's authority was still recognised in Upper Egypt until his 8th Year in 656 BC when Psamtik I's navy peacefully took control of Thebes and effectively unified all of Egypt.

Thereafter, Tantamani ruled only Nubia (Kush). Tantamani died in 653 BC and was succeeded by Atlanersa, a son of Taharqa. He was buried in the family cemetery at El-Kurru. The archaeologist Charles Bonnet discovered the statue of Tantamani at Kerma (now called Doukki Gel) in 2003

Thanks Perregrine I visited Odwirafo in the past and printed some documents after somebody posted an article about the Moors from Odwirafo in Egyptsearch forum. I will check Odwirafo again.

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mena7
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Pharaoh Psamtik 1

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Pharaoh Psamtek 1

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Pharaoh Psamtik 1

Psamtik I (also spelled Psammeticus or Psammetichus; Greek: Ψαμμήτιχος), was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen, Wah-Ib-Re, means "Constant [is the] Heart [of] Re."[3] Historical references for the Dodecarchy and the rise of Psamtik I in power, establishing the Saitic Dynasty, are recorded in Herodotus Histories, Book II: 151-157. It is also known from cuneiform texts that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon and confirmed by Assurbanipal to govern Egypt. Necho I, the father of Psamtik by his Queen Istemabet, was the chief of these kinglets, but they seem to have been quite unable to hold the Egyptians to the hated Assyrians against the more sympathetic Nubians. The labyrinth built by Amenemhat III of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt is ascribed by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, or rule of 12, which must represent this combination of rulers. Psamtik was the son of Necho I who died in 664 BC when the Kushite king Tantamani tried unsuccessfully to seize control of lower Egypt from the Assyrian Empire. After his father's death, Psamtik managed to both unite all of Egypt and free her from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign

Psamtik reunified Egypt in his 9th regnal year when he dispatched a powerful naval fleet in March 656 BC to Thebes and compelled the existing God's Wife of Amun at Thebes, Shepenupet II, to adopt his daughter Nitocris I as her heiress in the so-called Adoption Stela. Psamtik's victory destroyed the last vestiges of the Nubian 25th Dynasty's control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would hold her office for 70 years from 656 BC until her death in 586 BC. Thereafter, Psamtik I campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt. One of his victories over certain Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10 and Year 11 stela from the Dakhla Oasis. Psamtik I proved to be a great pharaoh by winning Egypt's independence from the Assyrian Empire and restored Egypt's prosperity through his long 54 Year reign. The pharaoh proceeded to establish close relations with Archaic Greece and also encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt and serve in the Egyptian army.

In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes (Daphnae).

Discovering the origin of language

Basalt wall depicting Psamtik I (British Museum)
The Greek historian Herodotus conveyed an anecdote about Psamtik in the second volume of his Histories (2.2). During his travel to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus ("Psamṯik") sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children. Allegedly he gave two newborn babies to a shepherd, with the instructions that no one should speak to them, but that the shepherd should feed and care for them while listening to determine their first words. The hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried "βηκοs" (bèkos) with outstretched arms the shepherd concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of the Phrygian word for "bread." Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were an older people than the Egyptians, and that Phrygian was the original language of men. There are no other extant sources to verify this story.

Wives

Psamtik's chief wife was Mehytenweskhet, the daughter of Harsiese, the Vizier of the North and High Priests of Atum at Heliopolis. Psamtik and Mehtenweshket were the parents of Necho II, Merneith, and the Divine Adoratice Nitocris I.

Psamtik's father-in-law—the aforementioned Harsiese—was married three times: to Sheta, with whom he had a daughter named Naneferheres, to Tanini and, finally, to an unknown lady, by whom he had both Djedkare, the Vizier of the South and Mehytenweskhet.[4] Harsiese was the son of Vizier Harkhebi, and was related to two other Harsieses, both Viziers, who were a part of the family of the famous Mayor of Thebes Montuemhat

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mena7
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Pharaoh Necho II

Necho II[1] (sometimes Nekau,[2] Neku,[3] Nechoh,[4] or Nikuu;[5] Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β'[6][7]) of Kemet[8] was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (c. 610 BC – c. 595 BC). Necho undertook a number of construction projects across his kingdom.[9] In his reign, according to the Greek historian Herodotus (4.42), Necho II sent out an expedition[10] of Phoenicians, which in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the mouth of the Nile.[11] His son, Psammetichus II, upon succession may have removed Necho's name from monuments.[12]

Necho played a significant role in the histories of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the Kingdom of Judah. Necho II is most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible.[13][14][15] The second campaign's aim of Necho's campaigns was Asiatic conquest,[16][17] to contain the Westward advance of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates. However, the Egyptians were defeated by the unexpected attack of the Babylonians and were eventually expelled from Syria.

The Egyptologist Donald B. Redford observed that although Necho II was "a man of action from the start, and endowed with an imagination perhaps beyond that of his contemporaries, Necho had the misfortune to foster the impression of being a failure."[

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Peregrine
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Beautiful!

--------------------
I use to live in a room full of mirrors; all I could see was me. I take my spirit and I crash my mirrors, now the whole world is here for me to see. "Jimi Hendrix"

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mena7
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Pharaoh Wahibre

Apries (Ancient Greek: Ἁπρίης) is the name by which Herodotus (ii. 161) and Diodorus (i. 68) designate Wahibre Haaibre, Ουαφρης (Pharaoh-Hophra), a pharaoh of Egypt (589 BC – 570 BC), the fourth king (counting from Psamtik I) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. He was equated with the Waphres of Manetho, who correctly records that he reigned for 19 years. Apries is also called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30.

Apries inherited the throne from his father, pharaoh Psamtik II, in February 589 BC and his reign continued his father's history of foreign intrigue in Judean affairs.[3] Apries was an active builder who constructed "additions to the temples at Athribis (Tell Atrib), Bahariya Oasis, Memphis and Sais."[4] In Year 4 of his reign, Apries' sister Ankhnesneferibre was adopted as the new God's Wife of Amun at Thebes.[5] However, Apries' reign was also fraught with internal problems. In 588 BC, Apries dispatched a force to Jerusalem to protect it from Babylonian forces sent by Nebuchadnezzar II. His forces were quickly crushed and Jerusalem, following an 18-month long siege, was destroyed by the Babylonians in either 587 BC or 586 BC. His unsuccessful attempt to intervene in the politics of the Kingdom of Judah was followed by a mutiny of soldiers from the strategically important Aswan garrison.[6]

While the mutiny was contained, Apries later attempted to protect Libya from incursions by Dorian Greek invaders but his efforts here backfired spectacularly as his forces were mauled by the Greek invaders.[6] When the defeated army returned home, a civil war broke out between the indigenous Egyptian army troops and foreign mercenaries in the Egyptian army. At this time of crisis, the Egyptians turned in support towards a victorious general, Amasis II who had led Egyptian forces in a highly successful invasion of Nubia in 592 BC under pharaoh Psamtik II, Apries' father.[6] Amasis quickly declared himself pharaoh in 570 BC and Apries fled Egypt and sought refuge in another foreign country. When Apries marched back to Egypt in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army to reclaim the throne of Egypt, he was likely killed in battle with Amasis' forces.[7][8] Amasis thus secured his kingship over Egypt and was then the unchallenged ruler of Egypt.

Amasis, however, reportedly treated Apries' mortal remains with respect, and observed the proper funerary rituals by having Apries' body carried to Sais and buried there with "full military honours."[5] Amasis, the former general who had declared himself pharaoh, also married Apries' daughter, Chedebnitjerbone II, to legitimise his accession to power. While Herodotus claimed that the wife of Apries was called Nitetis (in Greek), "there are no contemporary references naming her" in Egyptian records.[9]

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Peregrine
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
Apries is also called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30.


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DD'eDeN
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"Apries (Ancient Greek: Ἁπρίης) is the name by which Herodotus (ii. 161) and Diodorus (i. 68) designate Wahibre Haaibre, Ουαφρης (Pharaoh-Hophra), a pharaoh of Egypt (589 BC – 570 BC), the fourth king (counting from Psamtik I) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. He was equated with the Waphres of Manetho, who correctly records that he reigned for 19 years. Apries is also called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30."

Very interesting, Thanks mena7

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xyambuatlaya

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Pharaoh Ahmose II

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Pharaoh Ahmose II

Amasis II (Ancient Greek: Ἄμασις) or Ahmose II was a pharaoh (570 B.C.E. – 526 B.C.E.) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest

Life

Most of our information about him is derived from Herodotus (2.161ff) and can only be imperfectly verified by monumental evidence. According to the Greek historian, he was of common origins.[3] A revolt which broke out among native Egyptian soldiers gave him his opportunity to seize the throne. These troops, returning home from a disastrous military expedition to Cyrene in Libya, suspected that they had been betrayed in order that Apries, the reigning king, might rule more absolutely by means of his Greek mercenaries; many Egyptians fully sympathized with them. General Amasis, sent to meet them and quell the revolt, was proclaimed king by the rebels instead, and Apries, who had now to rely entirely on his mercenaries, was defeated. Apries was either taken prisoner in the ensuing conflict at Memphis before being eventually strangled and buried in his ancestral tomb at Sais, or fled to the Babylonians and was killed mounting an invasion of his native homeland in 567 B.C.E. with the aid of a Babylonian army. An inscription confirms the struggle between the native Egyptian and the foreign soldiery, and proves that Apries was killed and honourably buried in the third year of Amasis (c.567 B.C.E.).[citation needed] Amasis then married Chedebnitjerbone II, one of the daughters of his predecessor Apries, in order to legitimise his kingship.[citation needed]

Some information is known about the family origins of Amasis: his mother was a certain Tashereniset as a bust statue of this lady, which is today located in the British Museum, shows.[4] A stone block from Mehallet el-Kubra also establishes that his maternal grandmother—Tashereniset's mother—was a certain Tjenmutetj.[5]

Herodotus describes how Amasis II would eventually cause a confrontation with the Persian armies. According to Herodotus, Amasis, was asked by Cambyses II or Cyrus the Great for an Egyptian ophthalmologist on good terms. Amasis seems to have complied by forcing an Egyptian physician into mandatory labor, causing him to leave his family behind in Egypt and move to Persia in forced exile. In an attempt to exact revenge for his forced exile, the physician would grow very close to Cambyses and would suggest that Cambyses should ask Amasis for a daughter in marriage in order to solidify his bonds with the Egyptians. Cambyses complied and requested a daughter of Amasis for marriage.[6]

Amasis, worrying that his daughter would be a concubine to the Persian king, refused to give up his offspring; Amasis also was not willing to take on the Persian empire, so he concocted a trickery in which he forced the daughter of the ex-pharaoh Apries, whom Herodotus explicitly confirms to have been killed by Amasis, to go to Persia instead of his own offspring.[6][7][8]

This daughter of Apries was none other than Nitetis, who was as per Herodotus's account, "tall and beautiful." Nitetis naturally betrayed Amasis and upon being greeted by the Persian king explained Amasis's trickery and her true origins. This infuriated Cambyses and he vowed to take revenge for it. Amasis would die before Cambyses reached him, but his heir and son Psamtik III would be defeated by the Persians.[6][8]

Herodotus also describes that just like his predecessor, Amasis II relied on Greek mercenaries and council men. One such figure was Phanes of Halicarnassus, who would later on leave Amasis, for reasons Herodotus does not clearly know but suspects were personal between the two figures. Amasis would send one of his eunuchs to capture Phanes, but the eunuch is bested by the wise council man and Phanes flees to Persia, meeting up with Cambyses providing advice in his invasion of Egypt. Egypt would finally be lost to Persians during the battle of Pelusium.

Egypt's wealth

Although Amasis thus appears first as champion of the disparaged native, he had the good sense to cultivate the friendship of the Greek world, and brought Egypt into closer touch with it than ever before. Herodotus relates that under his prudent administration, Egypt reached a new level of wealth; Amasis adorned the temples of Lower Egypt especially with splendid monolithic shrines and other monuments (his activity here is proved by existing remains). For example, a temple built by him was excavated at Tell Nebesha.

Amasis assigned the commercial colony of Naucratis on the Canopic branch of the Nile to the Greeks, and when the temple of Delphi was burnt, he contributed 1,000 talents to the rebuilding. He also married a Greek princess named Ladice daughter of King Battus III and made alliances with Polycrates of Samos and Croesus of Lydia.

Under Amasis or Ahmose II, Egypt's agricultural based economy reached its zenith. Herodotus who visited Egypt less than a century after Amasis II's death writes that:


It is said that it was during the reign of Ahmose II that Egypt attained its highest level of prosperity both in respect of what the river gave the land and in respect of what the land yielded to men and that the number of inhabited cities at that time reached in total 20,000[9]

His kingdom consisted probably of Egypt only, as far as the First Cataract, but to this he added Cyprus, and his influence was great in Cyrene. In his fourth year (c.567 B.C.E.), Amasis was able to defeat an invasion of Egypt by the Babylonians under Nebuchadrezzar II; henceforth, the Babylonians experienced sufficient difficulties controlling their empire that they were forced to abandon future attacks against Amasis.[10] However, Amasis was later faced with a more formidable enemy with the rise of Persia under Cyrus who ascended to the throne in 559 B.C.E.; his final years were preoccupied by the threat of the impending Persian onslaught against Egypt.[11] With great strategic skill, Cyrus had destroyed Lydia in 546 B.C.E. and finally defeated the Babylonians in 538 B.C.E. which left Amasis with no major Near Eastern allies to counter Persia's increasing military might.[11] Amasis reacted by cultivating closer ties with the Greek states to counter the future Persian invasion into Egypt but was fortunate to have died in 526 B.C.E. shortly before the Persians attacked.[11] The final assault instead fell upon his son Psamtik III, whom the Persians defeated in 525 B.C.E. after a reign of only six months

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mena7
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Pharaoh Hakor

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Pharaoh Hakor

Hakor, or Akoris, was the Pharaoh of Egypt from 393 BC to 380 BC. Hakor overthrew his predecessor Psammuthes and falsely[citation needed] proclaimed himself to be the grandson of Nepherites I, founder of the 29th Dynasty, on his monuments in order to legitimise his kingship.[2] While Hakor ruled Egypt for only 13 years, his reign is important for the enormous number of buildings which he constructed[which?] and for his extensive restoration work on the monuments of his royal predecessors

Reign

Early in his reign, Hakor revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 BC, he concluded a tripartite alliance with Evagoras, king of Cyprus, and Athens. This alliance led Persia to begin supporting Sparta in the Corinthian War, which eventually led to the ending of that war by the Peace of Antalcidas in 387/6 BC. In it, Artaxerxes II proclaimed his authority over the cities of Asia Minor and Cyprus gave full autonomy to the Greek city states of mainland Greece as long as they did not make war on him.[2]

After the end of that war, Persia turned its attention to Egypt, but Hakor, supported by the Athenian general Chabrias, held them off in a three year war between 385 and 383 BC.[3] Hakor died in 380 BC and was succeeded by his son Nepherites II, but Nepherites was overthrown by Nectanebo I within a year, thus ending the dynasty

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Pharaoh Nectabeno I

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Pharaoh Nectanebo I

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Pharaoh Nectanebo I


Nectanebo I

Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) was an Egyptian pharaoh and the founder of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt.

In 380 BC, Nectanebo deposed and killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of Egyptian kings. He seems to have spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of troops from Athens or Sparta.

He is also known as a great builder who erected many monuments and temples throughout his long and stable 18-year reign. Nectanebo I restored numerous dilapidated temples throughout Egypt and erected a small kiosk on the sacred island of Philae which would become one of the most important religious sites in Ancient Egypt.[1] This was the first phase of the temple of Isis at Philae; he also built at Elkab, Memphis and the Delta sites of Saft el-Hinna and Tanis.[2] He also significantly erected a stela before a pylon of Ramesses II at Hermopolis.[3] He also built the first pylon in the temple of Karnak. From about 365 BC, Nectanebo was a co-regent with his son Teos, who succeeded him. When he died in 362 BC, Teos succeeded his father on the throne for two years

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Pharaoh Nectanebo II

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Pharaoh Nectanebo II

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Pharaoh Nectanebo II

Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nakhthorheb[1][a] (Nḫht-Ḥr-Ḥbyt, "Strong is Horus of Hebit"[2]), ruled in 360—342 BC[b]) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty, as well as the last native ruler of Ancient Egypt.[3] Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the relief sculpture of the Ptolemaic era.[4] Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II showed enthusiasm for many of the cults of the gods within ancient Egyptian religion, and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions.[5] Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I, commencing in particular the enormous temple of Isis (Iseum).

For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire.[6] Betrayed by his former servant Mentor of Rhodes, however, Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian-Greek forces in the 343 BC Battle of Pelusium. In 342 BC, the Persians occupied Memphis and the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country back into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time; his subsequent fate is unknown

Rise to power

In 525 BC Egypt was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Because of internal struggles for the Persian royal succession, Egypt managed to regain independence in 404 BC. In 389 BC, pharaoh Hakor negotiated a treaty with Athens and for three years (from 385 to 383 BC) managed to withstand Persian aggression.[9] However, following the conclusion of the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC between Persia and the Greek city-states, Egypt and Cyprus became the only obstacles to Persian hegemony in the Mediterranean. At the beginning of 360 BC, Nectanebo's predecessor Teos started preparations for war against intruders. In the same year, the Egyptian army set off, travelling along the coast by land and sea. Nectanebo II accompanied his uncle Teos in that campaign and was in charge of the machimoi.[10] In an attempt to raise finances for the war quickly, Teos imposed taxes on Egyptians and seized temple property.[11] Egyptians, particularly the priests, resented those measures and supported Nectanebo II. Teos asked Spartan military leader Agesilaus and Athenian general Chabrias to preserve support for him.[12] Agesilaus, however, said he was sent to aid Egypt and not to wage war against it.[12] Chabrias with his mercenaries returned home.[12] Teos decided to flee to the Persian court, where he ultimately died of natural causes.

Nectanebo further contended with an unknown[why?] pretender to the throne from the town of Djedet, who proclaimed himself pharaoh.[12] The revolt was probably led by one of the descendants of Nepherites I, whose family had ruled the town before.[13] The claimant sent messengers to Agesilaus in an attempt to persuade Agesilaus to his side.[12] Agesilaus remained loyal to Nectanebo, fearing to become a turncoat and betrayer. At one of the towns in the Nile Delta the troops of Nectanebo and Agesilaus were besieged by the usurper, who had gained many sympathisers. Despite the enemy's numerical superiority, Nectanebo and Agesilaus were victorious and the revolt was put down in the fall of 360 BC.[5] Acknowledging Agesilaus, Nectanebo sent him 220 talents of gold.

Reign

Obverse of gold stater of Nectanebo II.
Religion played an important part in Nectanebo's domestic policy. He began his reign by officiating over the funeral of an Apis bull in Memphis. There Nectanebo added a relief decoration to the eastern and western temples of Apis.[14] Among notable sanctuaries, erected under Nectanebo II, are a temple of Khnum in Abu and a temple of Amun at Sekhtam. He also dedicated a diorite naos to Anhur-Shu (a fragment of it was found in the temples of Tjebnutjer).[4] Nectanebo II was responsible for the increasing popularity of the Buchis cult.[5] Under Nectanebo II a decree, forbidding the stone quarrying in the so-called Mysterious Mountains in Abydos, was issued.[15]

Foreign affairs under Nectanebo II were thwarted by repeated Persian attempts to reoccupy Egypt. Before the accession of Nectanebo II to the throne, Persians attempted to reclaim Egypt in 385, 383, and 373 BC. Nectanebo used the peace to build up a new army and employed Greek mercenaries, which was a usual practice at the time. In about 351 BC the Persians embarked on a new attempt to reclaim Egypt. After a year of fighting Nectanebo and his allied generals Diophantus of Athens and Lamius of Sparta managed to defeat the Persians. Having scored a resounding victory over the Persians, Nectanebo II was acclaimed as "Nectanebo the divine falcon" by his people and cults were set up in his name.[16] In 345/44 BC Nectanebo supported the Phoenician rebellion against the Persians, led by the king of Sidon Tennes[17] and dispatched a military aid of 4,000 Greek mercenaries, led by Mentor of Rhodes.[18] However, having heard of the approach of the forces of Artaxerxes III, Mentor opened communication with the Persians in collusion with Tennes.[18]

At the end of 344 BC, ambassadors of Artaxerxes III arrived in Greece asking for the Greeks' participation in a campaign against Egypt.[19] Athens and Sparta treated the ambassadors with courtesy, but refrained from concluding an alliance against Egypt.[19] Other cities, however, decided to support the Persians: Thebes sent 1,000 hoplites and Argos 3,000.[19] In the winter of 343 BC Artaxerxes set off for Egypt. The Egyptian army, headed by Nectanebo, consisted of 60,000 Egyptians, 20,000 Libyans and as many Greek mercenaries.[20] In addition Nectanebo had a number of flat-bottomed boats to prevent an enemy from entering the Nile mouths.[21] The vulnerable points along his Mediterranean sea border and east boundary were protected by strongholds, fortifications and entrenched camps.[21] Persian forces were strengthened by Mentor and his men, well acquainted with the eastern border of Egypt, and by 6,000 Ionians.[18]

Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated and, in the summer of 342 BC, Artaxerxes had entered Memphis,[22] where the Persians installed a satrap.[23] Nectanebo fled to Upper Egypt and finally to Nubia, where he was granted asylum. He, however, preserved a degree of power there for some time. With the help of Chababash Nectanebo made a vain attempt to regain the throne

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"In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tanoutamon, the last two pharaohs of the 'Nubian' Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile.

The seven statues, with their exquisite workmanship, transform our understanding of the art of this period. In particular, the colossal statue of Taharqa--almost certainly done by an Egyptian sculptor--is a masterpiece of stone artwork. Beautifully illustrated with over 170 color photographs, The Nubian Pharaohs illuminates the epic history of this little-known historical era, when the pharaohs of Egypt came from Sudan. In this major new book, which combines the latest archaeological research with stunning photography, Charles Bonnet and Dominique Valbelle narrate the incredible story of their discovery--one that will change our understanding of Egypt and Africa in the ancient world."

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Ptolemy I Soter

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Ptolemy I Soter

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Ptolemy I Soter

Ptolemy I Soter I (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e. Ptolemy (pronounced /ˈtɒləmi/) the Savior), also known as Ptolemy Lagides,[1] c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–283 BC) and founder of both the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 305/4 BC he demanded the title of pharaoh.

His mother was Arsinoe of Macedon, and, while his father is unknown, ancient sources variously describe him either as the son of Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman, or as an illegitimate son of Philip II of Macedon (which, if true, would have made Ptolemy the half-brother of Alexander), but it is possible that this is a later myth fabricated to glorify the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy was one of Alexander's most trusted generals, and was among the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) attached to his person. He was a few years older than Alexander, and had been his intimate friend since childhood.

He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Early career[edit]

Ptolemy served with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. He participated in the Battle of Issus and accompanied Alexander during his journey to the Oracle in the Siwa Oasis where he was proclaimed a son of Zeus.[2] Ptolemy had his first independent command during the campaign against the rebel Bessus whom Ptolemy captured and handed over to Alexander for execution.[3] During Alexander's campaign in the Indian subcontinent Ptolemy was in command of the advance guard at the siege of Aornos and fought at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.

Successor of Alexander

When Alexander died in 323 BC, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Through the Partition of Babylon, he was appointed satrap of Egypt, under the nominal kings Philip III Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV; the former satrap, the Greek Cleomenes, stayed on as his deputy. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica.

By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Probably because he wanted to pre-empt Perdiccas, the imperial regent, from staking his claim in this way, Ptolemy took great pains in acquiring the body of Alexander the Great, placing it temporarily in Memphis, Egypt. Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas.[4]

Perdiccas appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and may have decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas — this removed the chief check on his authority, and allowed Ptolemy to obtain the huge sum that Cleomenes had accumulated.[4]

Rivalry and wars

In 321, Perdiccas attempted to invade Egypt only to fall at the hands of his own men.[5] Ptolemy's decision to defend the Nile against Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco for Perdiccas, with the loss of 2000 men. This failure was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas; but he declined.[6] Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander

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Ptolemy II

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus

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Ptolemy II

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos, 309–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos. He had two half-brothers, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, who both became kings of Macedonia (in 281 BCE and 279 BCE respectively), and who both died in the Gallic invasion of 280–279 BCE. Ptolemy was first married to Arsinoë I, daughter of Lysimachus, who was the mother of his legitimate children; after her repudiation he married his full sister Arsinoë II, the widow of Lysimachus.[1]

During Ptolemy's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height. He promoted the Museum and Library of Alexandria, and he erected a commemorative stele, the Great Mendes Stela

ourt[


The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Pomp and splendor flourished. He had exotic animals of far off lands sent to Alexandria, and staged a procession in Alexandria in honor of Dionysus led by 24 chariots drawn by elephants and a procession of lions, leopards, panthers, camels, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. According to scholars, most of the animals were in pairs - as many as eight pairs of ostriches - and although the ordinary chariots were likely led by a single elephant, others which carried a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) golden statue may have been led by four.[5] Although an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he also adopted Egyptian religious concepts, which helped to bolster his image as a sovereign.

Callimachus, keeper of the library, Theocritus,[6] and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronize scientific research.

The tradition preserved in the pseudepigraphical Letter of Aristeas which connects the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek with his patronage is probably overdrawn. However, Walter Kaiser says, "There can be little doubt that the Law was translated in Philadelphus's time since Greek quotations from Genesis and Exodus appear in Greek literature before 200 BCE The language of the Septuagint is more like Egyptian Greek than it is like Jerusalemite Greek, according to some

Relations with India

Ptolemy is recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India, probably to Emperor Ashoka:
"But [India] has been treated of by several other Greek writers who resided at the courts of Indian kings, such, for instance, as Megasthenes, and by Dionysius, who was sent thither by Philadelphus, expressly for the purpose: all of whom have enlarged upon the power and vast resources of these nations." Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21 [8]
He is also mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka as a recipient of the Buddhist proselytism of Ashoka

[edit]

Ptolemy II began his reign as co-regent with his father Ptolemy I from ca. 285 BCE to ca. 283 BCE, and maintained a splendid court in Alexandria.

Egypt was involved in several wars during his reign. Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274 BCE), and the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, desiring Coele-Syria with Judea, attacked soon after in the First Syrian War. Two or three years of war followed. Egypt's victories solidified the kingdom's position as the undisputed naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; his fleet (112 ships) bore the most powerful naval siege units of the time, guaranteed the king access to the coastal cities of his empire. The Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, and the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria.

In the 270 BCE Ptolemy hired 4,000 Gallic mercenaries (who in 279 BCE under Bolgios killed his half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos). According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted “to seize Egypt,” and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile River where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”[2]

The victory won by Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, over the Egyptian fleet at Cos (between 258 BCE and 256 BCE) did not long interrupt Ptolemy's command of the Aegean Sea. In a Second Syrian War with the Seleucid kingdom, under Antiochus II Theos (after 260 BCE), Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Asia Minor and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married his daughter Berenice (c. 250 BCE).

Ptolemy was of a delicate constitution. Elias Joseph Bickermann (Chronology of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. 1980) gives the date of his death as January 29.

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Ptolemy II

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Ptolemy II and wife Arsinoe II ?

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Pharaoh Ptolemy III

Ptolemy III Euergetes (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs, reigned 246–222 BC) was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt

Euergetes ("Benefactor") was the eldest son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his first wife, Arsinoe I, and came to power in 246 BC upon the death of his father. He married Berenice of Cyrene in the year corresponding to 244/243 BC; and their children were:
Arsinoe III, born in ca 246/245 BC. She later married her brother Ptolemy IV
Ptolemy IV Philopator, born ca 244 BC
Possibly Lysimachus. The name of the son is not known, but he is said to have been born in ca 243 BC.[1]
Alexander, born in c. 242 BC [2]
Magas, was born in ca 241 BC. Scalded to death in his bath by Theogos or Theodotus, at the orders of Ptolemy IV.[3]
Berenice, probably born in ca 239 BC and died a year later

Ptolemy III Euergetes was responsible for the first known example of a series of decrees published as bilingual inscriptions on massive stone blocks in three writing systems. His stone stela is the Canopus Stone of 238 BC. Other well-known examples are the Memphis Stele (Memphis Stone), bearing the Decree of Memphis, about 218 BC, passed by his son, Ptolemy IV, as well as the famous Rosetta Stone erected by Ptolemy Epiphanes, his grandson, in 196 BC.





Bronze coin issued by Ptolemy III depicting Zeus-Amun (obverse) and traditional Ptolemaic eagle (reverse). Ptolemy III did not issue coins with his own image.
Ptolemy III's stone contains decrees about priestly orders, and is a memorial for his daughter Berenice. But two of its 26 lines of hieroglyphs decree the use of a leap day added to the Egyptian calendar of 365 days, and the associated changes in festivals.

He is also credited with the foundation of the Serapeum.

Due to a falling out at the Seleucid court, Ptolemy's eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus was murdered along with her infant son. In response Ptolemy III invaded Syria.[5] During this war, the Third Syrian War, he occupied Antioch and even reached Babylon.[6] In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. The Ptolemaic kingdom reached the height of its power.

This war is cryptically alluded to in Daniel 11:7-9.[7]

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^True some Greek DNA links with African elements, but
can we really say Ptolemy was truly an Egyptian Pharaoh?

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Pharaoh Ptolemy V

Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs, reigned 204–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult

Reign

§Regency infighting

Ptolemaic Empire in 200 BC, during the reign of Ptolemy V (before the second invasion of Antiochus III)
Ptolemy Epiphanes was only a small boy when his father, Ptolemy Philopator, died. Philopator's two leading favorites, Agathocles and Sosibius, fearing that Arsinoe would secure the regency, had her murdered before she heard of her husband's death, thereby securing the regency for themselves. However, in 202 BC, Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, put himself at the head of a revolt. Once Epiphanes was in the hands of Tlepolemus he was persuaded to give a sign that his mother's killers should be killed. The child king gave his consent, it is thought more from fear than anything else, and Agathocles along with several of his supporters were killed by the Alexandrian mob.[1]

§War with Egypt and Macedonia

Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon made a pact to divide the Ptolemaic possessions overseas. Philip seized several islands and populated places in Caria and Thrace, whilst the Battle of Panium (198 BC) definitively transferred Coele-Syria, including Judea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.

Antiochus then concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra I to Epiphanes in marriage (193–192 BC). Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome, Egypt ranged itself with the latter power.

In manhood, Epiphanes was a passionate sportsman; he excelled in athletic exercises and the chase.

§The Egyptian Revolt

Great cruelty and treachery were displayed in the suppression of the native rebellion, and some accounts represent Epiphanes as personally tyrannical. In 197 BC, Lycopolis was held by the forces of Ankmachis (also known as Chaonnophris), the secessionist pharaoh of Upper Egypt, but he was forced to withdraw to Thebes. The war between North and South continued until 185 BC with the arrest of Ankmachis by Ptolemaic General Conanus.

In 183 BC/184 BC, the rebels in Lower Egypt surrendered on the basis of terms that Epiphanes had personally promised to honor. However, showing himself treacherous and vindictive, he had them put to death in a cruel manner.[1]

The Memphis Decree, published in three languages on the Rosetta Stone and other stelae, announced the rule and ascension to godhood of Ptolemy V, and contained concessions to the priesthood, and has been termed a reward for the priests' support.[2]

§Succession


The elder of Ptolemy V's two sons, Ptolemy VI Philometor (181–145 BC), succeeded as an infant under the regency of his mother Cleopatra the Syrian. Her death was followed by a rupture between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid courts, on the old question of Coele-Syria.

§Legacy

Ptolemy V's reign was also marked by trade with other contemporaneous polities. In the 1930s, excavations by Mattingly at a fortress close to Port Dunford (the likely Nikon of antiquity) in present-day southern Somalia yielded a number of Ptolemaic coins. Among these pieces were 17 copper mints from the Ptolemy III to Ptolemy V dynasties, as well as late Imperial Rome and Mamluk Sultanate coins

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Egyptian Empire map

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Egyptian Empire map

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Ptolemy VI Philomentor

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Ptolemy VI Philomentor

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Ptolemy VI


Ptolemy VI Philometor (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr, ca. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 145 BC.[1]





Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh (Louvre)
Ptolemy succeeded in 180 BC at the age of about 6 and ruled jointly with his mother, Cleopatra I, until her death in 176 BC, which is what 'Philometor', his epithet, implies; "he who loves his mother", φίλος (beloved,friend) + μήτηρ (mother). The following year he married his sister, Cleopatra II, as it was customary for Pharaohs, for the Ptolemaic Greek kings had adopted many customs of the Pharaohs.[2] He had at least four children with her: Ptolemy Eupator, Ptolemy Neos, Cleopatra Thea and Cleopatra III, and possibly Berenice.[1]

In 170 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus IV began the sixth Syrian War and invaded Egypt twice.[citation needed] He was crowned as its king in 168. According to Livy’s The History of Rome from its Foundation (XLV.12), he abandoned his claim on the orders of the Roman Senate.

From 169–164, Egypt was ruled by a triumvirate consisting of Ptolemy, his sister-queen and his younger brother known as Ptolemy VIII Physcon.[citation needed] In 164 he was driven out by his brother and went to Rome to seek support, which he received from Cato.[citation needed] He was restored the following year by the intervention of the Alexandrians and ruled uneasily, cruelly suppressing frequent rebellions.[citation needed]

In 152 BC, he briefly ruled jointly with one of his sons, known as Ptolemy Eupator, but it is thought that Ptolemy Eupator died that same year.[citation needed]

Around 150 BC he recognised Alexander Balas as the Seleucid king by marrying his daughter Cleopatra Thea to him in a ceremony at Ptolemais Akko.[3] In 145 BC, however, while Alexander was putting down a rebellion in Cilicia, Ptolemy VI invaded Syria, securing safe passage through Judaea from Alexander's vassal Jonathan Maccabee, and capturing the city of Seleucia. He remarried his daughter to Alexander's rival Demetrius II, and went to Antioch, where he crowned himself King of Asia. Alexander was defeated by Ptolemy when he returned from Cilicia with his army and fled to Arabia, where he was killed. For the first time since the death of Alexander the Great, Egypt and Syria were united. However, Ptolemy died three days later, in unknown circumstances.[4]

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Ptolemy X

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Ptolemy X

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Ptolemy X

Ptolemy X Alexander I[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC.

He was the son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III. In 110 BC he became King with his mother as co-regent, after his mother had deposed his brother Ptolemy IX Lathyros. However, in 109 BC he was deposed by Ptolemy IX. In 107 BC he became King again, and again with his mother as co-regent. In 101 BC he had his mother killed, and ruled either alone or with his niece/wife, Berenice III.

When he died, Ptolemy IX regained the throne. When Ptolemy IX died, Ptolemy X's wife Berenice III took over the throne for six months

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mena7
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Queen Arsinoe II

Arsinoë II (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόη, 316 BC–unknown date from July 270 BC until 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic Greek Princess of Ancient Egypt and through marriage was Queen of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia as wife of King Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος) and later co-ruler of Egypt with her brother-husband Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, which means "Ptolemy the sibling-loving").

She was the first daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Σωτήρ, which means "Ptolemy the Savior"), the founder of the Hellenistic state of Egypt, and his second wife Berenice I of Egypt.[1]

Arsinoe II at the age of 15, married Lysimachus to whom she bore three sons: Ptolemy I Epigone,[2][3][4] Lysimachus[5] and Philip.[6] In order to position her sons for the throne, she had Lysimachus' first son, Agathocles, poisoned on account of treason. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia (Greek: Κασσάνδρεια) and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos, one of the sons of Ptolemy I from his previous wife, Eurydice of Egypt. The marriage was for political reasons as they both claimed the throne of Macedonia and Thrace (by the time of his death Lysimachus was ruler of both regions, and his power extended to Southern Greece and Asia Minor). Their relationship was never good. As Ptolemy Keraunos was becoming more powerful, she decided it was time to stop him and conspired against him with her sons. This action caused Ptolemy Keraunus to kill two of her sons, Lysimachus and Philip, while the eldest, Ptolemy, was able to escape and to flee north, to the kingdom of the Dardanians. She herself went to Alexandria, Egypt to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

In Egypt, she continued her intrigues and probably instigated the accusation and exile of her brother Ptolemy II's first wife, Arsinoe I. Arsinoe II then married her brother; as a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" (Greek: Φιλάδελφοι, "Sibling-loving (plural)") by the presumably scandalized Greeks. Arsinoe II shared all of her brother's titles and apparently was quite influential, having towns dedicated to her, her own cult (as was Egyptian custom), and appearing on coinage. Apparently, she contributed greatly to foreign policy, including Ptolemy II's victory in the First Syrian War (274-271 BC) between Egypt and the Seleucid Empire in the Middle East.

According to Posidippus, she won three chariot races at the Olympic Games, probably in 272 BC.[7][8]

After her death, Ptolemy II continued to refer to her on official documents, as well as supporting her coinage and cult. He also established her worship as a Goddess, a clever move, because by doing this he established also his own worship as a god

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Queen Cleopatra VII

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Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69[1] – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, only shortly survived by her son, Caesarion as pharaoh.

Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Macedonian Greek[2] origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. The Ptolemies, throughout their dynasty, spoke Greek[3] and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone.[4] By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian[5] and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian goddess, Isis.

Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name.

After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children). After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[6] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters but soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, George Bernard Shaw's play Caesar and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the 1963 film Cleopatra

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kdolo
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Are the coins real ???

they look a little too clean. I assume the giant white marble is an idealized reproduction...


Also, the stone statues have the Ptolemys looking ethnic if that is what u can call it ....

my point ?:

1. Where the Macedonians "white" as we think of "white" today ?

based on the Haplogroup info...it looks like the base population at one point was African.

2. Did they always intermarry amongst themselves or did they ever marry native ?

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Keldal

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mena7
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One of the main duties of the Egyptian king was to perform rituals for the gods. There are many representations which show him either standing or kneeling with offerings in his hands, or in a gesture of adoration. This kneeling king is dressed in the royal Nemes headdress, a royal kilt, and an elaborate collar. The figure has lost the inserted cobra serpent above the forehead, the arms, and the offerings in his hands

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A strange pharaoh - This statue of the pre-dynastic period may be the first known depiction of a pharaoh. At the time of Nagada (the name of a discovery at the site of Upper Egypt), around 4000 BC. This statue was found in Gebelein, south of Luxor

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Ancient Egypt Pharaohs | ... statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in northern Iraq

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Akhenaton - meaning "living spirit of Aten" known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV was a Pharaoh (King) of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years. His queen was Nefertiti. Akhenaton died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC

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Afar (Ethiopia). Some say the Afar are descendants of the Egyptian pharaohs. They share some similarities in the way people wear their hair and shawls draped loosely over their shoulders, a few words of their language, and use symbols reminiscent of hieroglyphics to mark their camels

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Giant Statue of Amenhotep III and wife Tiyi

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Fourty2Tribes
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Nynetjer

Oldest 'definite' depiction (second dynasty)since the Narmer bust could be Khufu.
Oldest attestation of the N word.

Netjer>> God was also Nigus for god down Nile. It would become Niger in Latin then Negroe then Nigger again and Niggas again.

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mena7
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Nice post Fourty2Tribes. This Pharaoh looks like he have a round nose and fleshy mouth. I read in Rasta Live Wire that the word nigger came from the Egyptian name for God Neter. The Indian word Nagga for serpent king may also come from Neter. The word Negus for Ethiopian King may come from Neter.

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mena

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Mighty Mack
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some of the amenemhat III noses have had a touch up. i believe this one has been touched up. like the one at the luxor museum.

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is this authentic? doesn't strike me as an authentic piece.

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anyone know the provenance / documented details on the condition of this bust when it was found?

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mena7
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Hatshepsut (1473-1458 B.C.) was the daughter of Tuthmosis I, and carried the blood of Ahmose who, two generations earlier had finally freed Egypt from Hyksos rule

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Some say the Afar are descendants of the Egyptian pharaohs. They share some similarities in the way the men wear their hair and shawls draped loosely over their shoulders, a few words of their language, and use symbols reminiscent of hieroglyphics to mark their camels

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Head of a Pharaoh, ca.2675-2130 BCE, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5 or 6

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People of Upper Egypt. These are the faces of people that are remnants of the great civilization of the Pharaohs. Although you almost never see them in the modern Egyptian media, the original people are still there largely un-mixed and with separate culture. They have largely been squeezed out of the popular culture, but they are still proud and surviving.

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The Beja Tribe of Sudan. They are some of the surviving descendants of Ancient Egyptians

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mena7
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Head of a Pharaoh, ca.2675-2130 BCE, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5 or 6. Stone and copper, h: 73.0 cm. The headgear and moustache identify the figure as an Egyptian pharaoh; the tall crown with the rounded top, known as the White Crown, signified rule over southern Egypt. Broken at the neck, the head originally belonged to a full, probably standing, statue of the kind placed in tombs to serve as eternal images of the deceased

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mena7
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Black Egyptian Pharaohs

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statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in northern Iraq
1y
h

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in northern Iraq
1y
h

I was told that this statue is fake.
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mena7
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Queen Cleopatra

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Head of a Statue of Amenemhat III Wearing the White Crown.

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Head of colossal statue of Amenemhat III

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statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in northern Iraq

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mena7
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Ramesses II as a boy. This colossal granite was found in the ruins of a mud-brick building in Tanis. Egyptian Museum, Cairo - Egypt.

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Ramesses II as a boy. This colossal granite was found in the ruins of a mud-brick building in Tanis. The falcon's beak, carved from a separate piece of limestone. Egyptian Museum, Cairo - Egypt.

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Gold mask of Tutankhamun, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt, North Africa, Africa

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Tutankhamun's funeral mask in solid gold inlaid with semi-precious stones and glass-paste, from the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, discovered in the Valley of the Kings, Thebes, Egypt, North Africa, Africa

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mena7
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Statue of Pharaoh She Sonk son of Osorkon

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Pharaoh Khafra Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520-2494 все.

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Queen Ahmose Nefertari, 18th dynasty

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Kneeling statuette of King Amasis Period: Late Period, Saite Dynasty: Dynasty 26 Reign: reign of Amasis Date: 570–526 B.C. Geography: Egypt Medium: Bronze, precious metal inlay and leaf

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mena7
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One of the naos from the funerary temple of Amenemhat III at Hawara. The left figure, flexing his arm across his chest in order to bring a sign "ankh" (life) to the face of his partner, is surely the deified king Amenemhat III. Therefore, the king on the right, can be none other than his son and successor on the throne, Amenemhat IV. Aswan pink granite. Cairo Museum. Main facade.

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eues Museum Berlin. Ägyptisches Museum, Raum „Pharao“. Figur des Königs Amenemhat III., der Ägypten von etwa 1842 bis um 1795 v. Chr. regierte.

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Double statue of Niuserre, 5th dynasty, ca. 2390 BCE, Egyptian Museum Munich

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Pillar of Sesostris l, Egypt: Luxor Museum Sesostris holds an ankh in each hand representing life, or in this case rebirth and regeneration..

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mena7
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Ramses III, only life-size statue of a pharaoh made and found in Israel, in Bet Shean, 12th century BCE, Basalt

Beautiful statue of Egyptian Pharaoh

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Head of a Statue of Amenemhat III Wearing the White Crown

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mena7
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Akhenaten and Nefertiti Busts in Neues Museum, Berlin, 18th Dynasty Egypt.

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Statue porte enseignés de Ramsès II. Memphis musée. XIXe dynastie.

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mena7
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Akhenaten, a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, about 14 centuries BC.

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EGYPT SCULPTURE 2ND-1ST MILL.BCE An aged pharaoh (Eje?). Sculpted head, front view. 1335 BCE, New Kingdom, Post-Amarna Period. Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt

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Limestone Stela with Bes and Tutu from the Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 B.C.

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Statue of Sekhmet from the temple of Mut. granite, Luxor, New Kingdom/1403-1365 BC

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Meritaten also spelled Merytaten or Meryetaten (14th century BC) was an ancient Egyptian queen of the 18th dynasty, who held the position of Great Royal Wife to Pharaoh Smenkhkare, who may have been a brother or son of Akhenaten. Her name means "She who is beloved of Aten".She was the first of six daughters born to Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti.The original Statue is shown in Louvre Museum,Egyptian antiquities department.

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King Aye (Ay). Amarna period head of an aged man sometimes thought to depict Aye, Cairo museum #JE37930

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Limestone statue of Ramesses II from Abydos. Ancient Egypt

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Arched Egyptian Harp, New Kingdom, 16th-11th Century BCDuring the 4th Dynasty (2613 to 2494 BC) harps became popular in Egypt. Two types were common; the curved or arched-neck like this one and...

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mena7
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Ancient Egypt Harp

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Ancient Egyptian arched harp (shoulder harp) frem c. 1390-1295 BCE, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

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nside Ancient Egypt Houses | This stunning Egyptian harp was one of many musical instruments for ...

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