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Mike111
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To me, spotting Albino fakes is very important.

The Museo archeologico statale Gaio Cilnio Mecenate has a collection of authentic ancient Bronzes showing "NORMAL" weathering.


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ancient_Roman_bronzes_in_the_Museo_archeologico_statale_Gaio_Cilnio_Mecenate


Athens - Stoà of Attalus Museum - Aphodite

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:3309_-_Athens_-_Sto%C3%A0_of_Attalus_Museum_-_Aphodite_-_Photo_by_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto,_Nov_9_2009.jpg

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Mike111
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Example from the Museo archeologico statale Gaio Cilnio Mecenate:

THIS IS WHAT AN ANCIENT WEATHERED BRONZE SHOULD LOOK LIKE.

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Suppose to be Portrait of Trebonianus Gallus

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Suppose to be Bronze head of Tiberius


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Lioness can you explain why the Bronzes of these White people look like they were made YESTERDAY?

He,he,he,he:

Because figuratively speaking: THEY WERE!!!!

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Mike111
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^For those of you who say: Ya Mike111, those White people Bronzes don't look as weathered as the Black ones, but they do look somewhat old and weathered, why is that?

Well here is the Albinos secret.

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B/OX 311 Antiquing Solution for Copper, Brass & Bronze. Only $117.50 per gallon.

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the lioness,
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^^^ Mike this is retard level bullshit and you are doing no research.


An original bronze bust of a Roman emperor kept indoors is more likely to be produced with a higher quality finish
could have been kept indoors and more likely cleaned and better maintained by the Romans and their descendants


The aesthetic about not cleaning statues is a modern concept

Further,
a balsamarium (often a small in size) is a storage container for things like perfume. It is not a portrait of a real person. sometimes a god or mythological charatcter is depicted. It is not as likely to be as well maintained as an emperor you witless buffoon

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this is actual reference on ancient bronzes not a silly fool posting pictures of antiquing products for $117 per gallon

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Mike111
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Ha,Ha,Ha,Ha,Ha: That's a good one: For 2,000 years they were kept in somebody's PARLOR.

You stupid degenerate piece of Sh1t, only you would be so incredibly stupid as to say such a thing.


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According to this source, It was recovered from the sea, in the area between Euboea and the Island of Aghios Eustratios.


http://www.romanemperors.com/augustus.htm

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Mike111
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Knowing that Lioness has a short attention span, I thought it a good idea to post this reminder of what a Bronze statue taken out of the Sea and restored looks like.

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quote:
Originally posted by Mike111:
Lioness, you have to be the stupidest bitch on the planet.

REAL statues are cleaned only to the "MINIMUM" as it effects authenticity and removes layers of good material.

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Victorious Youth (The Getty Bronze)


Greek, 300 - 100 B.C.
Bronze
59 5/8 x 27 9/16 x 11 in.
77.AB.30


A naked youth stands with his weight on his right leg, crowning himself with a wreath, probably olive. The olive wreath was the prize for a victor in the Olympic Games and identifies this youth as a victorious athlete. The eyes of the figure were originally inlaid with colored stone or glass paste and the nipples were inlaid with copper, creating naturalistic color contrasts.

Found in the sea in international waters, this statue is one of the few life-size Greek bronzes to have survived; as such, it provides much information on the technology of ancient bronze casting. The origin of the statue is unknown, but either Olympia or the youth's hometown is possible. Romans probably carried the statue off from its original location during the first century B.C. or A.D., when Roman collecting of Greek art was at its height. The Roman ship carrying it may have foundered, preserving the statue for centuries in the sea.


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the lioness,
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The Croatian Apoxyomenos

Before and after restoration


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In 1996, a diver found a large bronze statue lying at a depth of 45 meters off the Croatian island of Lošinj, in the Adriatic Sea. It was found In an exceptional state of preservation yet required seven years of extremely extensive conservation and restoration The statue is thought to be a Hellenistic or Roman replica after a bronze original. Samples of these materials were dated to between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD (20 BC - AD 110). anayzed by Croatian archeologists and restored by experts of the Musei Civici (Como, Italy) and the Botanical Institute of the Faculty of Science, Zagreb University.


In other words Mike is stupid


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mena7
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Wow the Italian restaurateur transformed the statue of mulato or black Roman into a modern white European. The noses, jaws and hairs of the statue before and after restoration are different.

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Mike111
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^Ah, quite excellent mena7, you have learned your lesson well.

Albinos and their mulattoes like lioness, can't help but lie, it's their nature. So we must always be vigilant, and double-check whatever they say.

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Mike111
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^For those of you who may not have as good an eye as mena7, do this:

Look on the right side, notice the relationship between the ear and the hair.

On the fake restoration, the hair sticks out "farther" (is bigger) than on the crud encrusted original.
Sorry lioness, that's not psychically possible.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
Wow the Italian restaurateur transformed the statue of mulato or black Roman into a modern white European. The noses, jaws and hairs of the statue before and after restoration are different.


mena this has a thick layer of barnacles and crud from being hunderds of years under the sea
Please dont be silly you can't tell anything about it in this condition

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^^this is a ship anchor covered in an old crust of dead barnacles, you can see the growth of this crust is irregular and uneven

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the lioness,
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stop the lies Mike, thanks

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Mike111
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Rather than posting new picture lioness, please try to answer the observation.


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the lioness,
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Look at my corrected version here.
There is a tiny bit of the unrestored version chin that goes under that thin blue line, That's right some of the crust goes below.
What Mike did is he had that right photo moved up more. When it is moved up, the eye sockets and other points don't line up - and the top of the restored version has simply been placed higher by Mike in his version so that it appears the hair is higher than the unrestired version but as we can see it's not. And if you move it ups slightly it's on the same top line anyway, another lil Mikey fail

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Mike111
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Ha,ha,ha,ha:

Damn you're stupid!

You're using HORIZONTAL lines to solve a problem in the VERTICAL axis.


DAMN YOU'RE STUPID!!!!


BTW you idiot, didn't you notice that in your own graphic the length of the nose is not the same - the nose on the crud encrusted head is SHORTER in relation to your line!

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the lioness,
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retard a vertical axis is measured by horizontals


you are on a very child like mental level
and have gotten debaunked six times already

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Mike111
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^The words "hopelessly Stupid comes to mind.
Lioness, do us all a favor, stay out of the conversation.

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mena7
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Black and Mulato Roman Gods and Goddess.

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Roman bronze God Hermes, Anatolia, 2cent CE.

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Roman bronze Pan playing a syrinx 1-2 cent CE

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Roman bronze Artemis

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Roman bronze Selene 1 cent CE

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Roman bronze Mars ultor

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Roman bronze bust of Cybele

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Roman Bronze Apollo with Omphallos 1 and 2 cent CE

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Roman Bronze Minerva 1-2 cent CE.

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mena7
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Black and Mulato Roman Gods Goddesses.
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Roman Egypt bronze Ithiphallic youth 1-2 cent CE

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Roman Celtic bronze zeus with thunderbolt

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Roman bronze Poseidon 1-2 cent CE

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Roman bronze Aphrodite with apple 1 cent CE

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Roman bronze nude Aphrodite 1 cent

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Roman bronze Minerva 2-3 cent CE

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Roman bronze Mithras 1 cent CE

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Roman Galla bronze Rosmerta or Maia 2 cent CE.

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mena7
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Black and mulato Romans.

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Consul Lucius Junius Brutus. Probably a black Roman with East African face and straight hair similar to the Tebu, Garamante, Touareg, Fulani Abyssinian and Somalian.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. He was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins

Prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome had been ruled by kings. Brutus led the revolt that overthrew the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, after the rape of the noblewoman (and kinswoman of Brutus) Lucretia at the hands of Tarquin's son Sextus Tarquinius. The account is from Livy's Ab urbe condita and deals with a point in the history of Rome prior to reliable historical records (virtually all prior records were destroyed by the Gauls when they sacked Rome under Brennus in 390 BC or 387 BC).

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frizzy hair Marcus Brutus by Michelangelo
Marcus Junius Brutus (early June 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but eventually returned to using his original name.[1]

He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar


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Black phenotype Brutus bust by Michelangelo

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[IMG]The first phase, sometimes referred to as the Diarchy ("rule of two"), involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286. Diocletian took care of matters in the Eastern regions of the Empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the Western regions. In 293, feeling more focus was needed on both civic and military problems, Diocletian, with Maximian's consent, expanded the imperial college by appointing two Caesars (one responsible to each Augustus)—Galerius and Constantius Chlorus.[/IMG]

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Very black race looking head of Roman Emperor Diocletian.

Diocletian (Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus)[5][notes 1] (245–311)[4][6] was Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian as augustus, co-emperor, in 286.

Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as caesars, junior co-emperors. Under this 'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian secured the empire's borders and purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, and usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked their capital, Ctesiphon. Diocletian led the subsequent negotiations and achieved a lasting and favorable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, and Trier, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates.

Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices (301), his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and quickly ignored. Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively. The Diocletianic Persecution (303–11), the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, did not destroy the empire's Christian community; indeed, after 324 Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under its first Christian emperor, Constantine.

In spite of his failures, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another hundred years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May 305, and became the first Roman emperor to voluntarily abdicate the position (John VI retired to a monastery in the 14th century). He lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast, tending to his vegetable gardens. His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Sp


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Roman Emperor Diocletian

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Roman Emperor Diocletian

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
Black and mulato Romans.

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Consul Lucius Junius Brutus. Probably a black Roman with East African face and straight hair similar to the Tebu, Garamante, Touareg, Fulani Abyssinian and Somalian.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. He was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins



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mena7
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Roman Emperor Nero

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Roman Emperor Nero

The word Nero mean black in Italian. Maybe Nero was a black person with straight hair. most likely he was a mulato.

Nero (/ˈnɪəroʊ/; Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus;[1] 15 December 37 – 9 June 68)[2] was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death.

Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and enhancing the cultural life of the Empire. He ordered theaters built and promoted athletic games. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the Empire and began the First Roman–Jewish War.

In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68 (the first Roman emperor to do so).[3] His death ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance.[4] He is known for many executions, including that of his mother,[5] and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus.

He is infamously known as the Emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned"[6] and as an early persecutor of Christians. He was known for having captured Christians to burn them in his garden at night for a source of light.[7] This view is based on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Nero's reign. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light.[8] Some sources, though, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, especially in the East.[9] Some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero's tyrannical acts

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mena7
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The Flavian dynasty of the Roman Empire may have been a black dynasty.

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Emperor Vespasian

Vespasian (/vɛsˈpeɪʒiən/ or /vɛsˈpeɪziən/; Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[note 1] 17 November 9 – 23 June 79[1]) was Roman Emperor from AD 69 to AD 79. Vespasian founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices, and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success: he led the Roman invasion of Britain in 43[2] and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66.[3]

While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69.[4] In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared Emperor by the Roman Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college.[5]

Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects. He built the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own son[note 2] and establishing the Flavian dynasty

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Emperor Vespasian

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Emperor Vespasian

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Emperor Titus

Titus (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[2] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81) was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father.

Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he besieged and captured Jerusalem, and destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day.

Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians.

As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian

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Roman emperor Titus

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Roman Emperor Titus

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Roman Emperor Domitian

Emperor Domitian

Domitian (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus;[2] 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.

Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of his father Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus held a great many offices under the rule of his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died in 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness in 81. The following day Domitian was declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard, commencing a reign which lasted fifteen years – longer than any man who had ruled since Tiberius.[3]

As Emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the Empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Caledonia (Scotland), and in Dacia, where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian's government exhibited totalitarian characteristics; he saw himself as the new Augustus, an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. According to Suetonius, he was the first Roman Emperor who had demanded to be addressed as dominus et deus (master and god).

Domitian's reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. The same day he was succeeded by his advisor Nerva. After his death, Domitian's memory was condemned to oblivion by the Roman Senate, while senatorial authors such as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger and Suetonius published histories propagating the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern history has rejected these views, instead characterising Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat whose cultural, economic and political program provided the foundation of the peaceful 2nd century

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Roman Emperor Domitian

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Mike111
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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Emperor Titus

Emanuele Ne Vunda (died 1608), also Antonio Emanuele Ne Vunda, or Antonio Emmanuele Funta, the ambassador from Congo, sent by the king of Congo Alvaro II to Pope Paul V in 1604–1608Ne-Vunda traveled through Brazil and Spain and only reached Rome on 3 January 1608, but he died two days later of illness.


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He,he,he,he:

Did anyone take the time to wonder why an African diplomat would be wearing the breast armor of a Roman Emperor?

Did anyone take the time to wonder why an African diplomat would be wearing European military gear?

Did anyone take the time to wonder why there would be a bust of an African diplomat in Europe who was only there for two days?

I always wonder how Negroes got so stupid that they would just believe whatever nonsense the Albinos tell them.

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Mike111
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He,he,he,he,he:

The plot thickens.


The British Museum

Posthumous portrait of the Congolese ambassador to Rome, the African Antonius Emanuel, showing a bust in an oval above a skull, surrounded by an architectural frame with two allegorical figures on either side, and four historical scenes from his life, each with its own caption.

(Note that he is depicted wearing NORMAL European CIVILIAN clothing).


1608 Etching


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quote:


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Unless you believe that all Blacks look alike - It's not the same guy.

Please don't ask what the British museum is doing with Vatican artwork - last I heard, they don't sell. Just one Albino bullsh1t at a time please.

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The Severus dynasty of the Roman Empire was a black and mulato dynasty.

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roman Emperor Septimius Severus

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Roman Emperor Septimi Severus

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Roman Emperor Septimius Severus

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Roman Emperor Septimi Severus

Septimius Severus (Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus;[4] 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman Emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorum—the customary succession of offices—under the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors.[5]

After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 at the Battle of Issus in Cilicia.[5] Later that year Severus waged a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.[6] Severus defeated Albinus three years later at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul.[7]

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris.[8] Furthermore, he enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea.[9] In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire.[10]

Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In 208 he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210.[11] Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum,[3] succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

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Roman Emperor Caracalla

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Roman Emperor Caracalla

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Emperor Caracalla

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Roman Emperor Caracalla

Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217) was Roman emperor of Punic and Syrian descent from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire.[2][3]

Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution), granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire, which according to historian Cassius Dio, was done for the purposes of raising tax revenue. He is also one of the emperors who commissioned a large public bath-house (thermae) in Rome. The remains of the Baths of Caracalla are still one of the major tourist attractions of the Italian capital

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Severus Dynasty

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Roman Emperor Macrinus

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Roman Emperor Macrinus

Macrinus (Latin: Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus;[1] ca. 165 – June 218), was Roman Emperor from 217 to 218. Macrinus was of Berber (Indigenous people of North Africa) descent and as a member of the equestrian class he became the first emperor who did not hail from the senatorial class.[2]

Macrinus was overthrown and executed in 218

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Roman Emperor Elagabal

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Roman Emperor Elagabal

Elagabalus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; c. 203 – 11 March 222), also known as Heliogabalus, was Roman Emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was Syrian, the second son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabal (in Latin, Elagabalus) in the hometown of his mother's family, Emesa. As a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus.[1] Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death.

In 217, the emperor Caracalla was assassinated and replaced by his Praetorian prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus. Caracalla's maternal aunt, Julia Maesa, successfully instigated a revolt among the Third Legion to have her eldest grandson (and Caracalla's cousin), Elagabalus, declared emperor in his place. Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218, at the Battle of Antioch. Elagabalus, barely fourteen years old, became emperor, initiating a reign remembered mainly for sexual scandal and religious controversy.

Later historians suggest Elagabalus showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. He replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter, with the deity of whom he was high priest, Elagabal. He forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity, over which he personally presided. Elagabalus was married as many as five times, lavished favors on male courtiers popularly thought to have been his lovers, employed a prototype of whoopee cushions at dinner parties,[2][3] and was reported to have prostituted himself in the imperial palace. His behavior estranged the Praetorian Guard, the Senate, and the common people alike.

Amidst growing opposition, Elagabalus, just 18 years old, was assassinated and replaced by his cousin Alexander Severus on 11 March 222, in a plot formulated by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, and carried out by disaffected members of the Praetorian Guard

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Roman Emperor Alexander Severus

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Roman Empero Alexander severus

Severus Alexander (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus;[1] 1 October 208 – 18 or 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy.

Alexander was the heir apparent to his cousin, the eighteen-year-old Emperor who had been murdered along with his mother by his own guards, who, as a mark of contempt, had their remains cast into the Tiber river.[2] He and his cousin were both grandsons of the influential and powerful Julia Maesa, who had arranged for Elagabalus' acclamation as emperor by the famous Third Gallic Legion. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of Elagabalus and his mother.[3]

As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. However militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids, but when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. This apparently alienated many in the legions and led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him

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Funeral relief with the portrait of the black Gessii 30 BC Rome.

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Palermo head

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Flavian Dynasty women

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Emperor Titus wife Marcia Furnilla

Marcia Furnilla was a Roman noble woman that lived in the 1st century. Furnilla was the second and last wife of the future Roman Emperor Titus.


Family

Marcia Furnilla came from a noble and distinguished family. She was from the gens Marcia who were of plebeian status,[1] which claimed descent from Roman King Ancus Marcius. She was a daughter of Roman Senator Quintus Marcius Barea Sura and Antonia Furnilla. Her sister was Marcia, the mother of Ulpia Marciana and of future Roman Emperor Trajan. Her father was a friend to future Roman Emperor Vespasian (who was Titus' father) and her paternal uncle was the senator Quintus Marcius Barea Soranus, while her paternal cousin was the noble woman Marcia Servilia Sorana. Furnilla's paternal grandfather was Quintus Marcius Barea, who was Suffect consul in 26 and was twice Proconsul of the Africa Province, while her maternal grandfather could have been Aulus Antonius Rufus, a Suffect consul either in 44 or 45.

Life

Marcia Furnilla was born and raised in Rome. She married Titus, widowed from his first marriage, in 63. The marriage between Titus and Furnilla was an arranged one.

This marriage for Titus was an influential one and promoted his political career. Suetonius describes Furnilla as a "very well-connected" woman. On September 17, 64, Furnilla bore Titus a daughter, Flavia Julia Titi or Julia Flavia in Rome.

Like Titus' first marriage, this one was short. Furnilla's family was connected to the opponents of Roman Emperor Nero and after the failure of the Pisonian conspiracy in 65, they were disfavored by the Emperor. Titus didn't want to be connected with any potential plotters and ended his marriage to Furnilla, but continued raising their daughter.

The fate of Furnilla afterwards is unknown. After her death, she was placed along with her mother in the mausoleum of Gaius Sulpicius Platorinus - a magistrate at the time of the first Roman Emperor Augustus - and his sister Sulpicia Platorina in Rome.


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Marcia Furnilla

Marcia Furnilla

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Maybe Marcia Furnilla

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Titus daughter Princess Julia Flavia

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Princess Julia Flavia

Flavia Julia Titi (13 September 64 – 91) was the daughter and only child to Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Her parents divorced when Julia was an infant, due to her mother's family being connected to the opponents of Roman Emperor Nero. In 65, after the failure of the Pisonian conspiracy, the family of Marcia Furnilla was disfavored by Nero. Julia's father, Titus considered that he didn't want to be connected with any potential plotters and ended his marriage to Marcia Furnilla. Julia was raised by her father. Julia had been born in Rome and Titus conquered Jerusalem on Julia's sixth birthday.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second paternal cousin T. Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul T. Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, in the words of Dio, Domitian:
"lived with [her] as husband with wife, making little effort at concealment. Then upon the demands of the people he became reconciled with Domitia, but continued his relations with Julia nonetheless."[1]
Juvenal condemns this liaison as follows:
"Such a man was that adulterer [i.e. Domitian] who, after lately defiling himself by a union of the tragic style, revived the stern laws that were to be a terror to all men – ay, even to Mars and Venus – just as Julia was relieving her fertile womb and giving birth to abortions that displayed the likeness of her uncle."[2]
Becoming pregnant, Julia died of what was rumored (though unlikely) to be a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes were later mixed and smoked with Domitian's by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians

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Tombstone of black looking Gessi family. I don't think they were slave like the museum people are saying. I think they were black Romans.

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The tombstone of Gessii.

Marble. Ca. 50—20 B.C.
Inv. No. 37.100.
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.

Description:
Roman marble funerary relief of Publius Gessius and his family.
Publius Gessius is at the center. On the left: Fausta Gessia, a former slave freed by Publius. Their son, P(ublius) Gessius Primus (also a freed slave) is portrayed on the right. According to the inscriptions, Fausta paid for the tomb out of Publius’s estate. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, inv. 37.100.
Dated by the museum: ca. 50—20 B.C.
GESSIA P(UBLI) L(IBERTA) FAVSTA•P(UBLIUS) GESSIVS P(UBLI) F(ILIUS) (TRIBU) ROM(ILIA)•P(UBLIUS) GESSIVS P(UBLI) L(IBERTUS) PRIMUS
“Fausta Gessia, freedwoman of Publius, Publius Gessius, son of Publius, of the Romilian tribe, Publius Gessius Primus, freedman of Publius.”

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TheAfricaTNSY
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
Tombstone of black looking Gessi family. I don't think they were slave like the museum people are saying. I think they were black Romans.

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The tombstone of Gessii.

Marble. Ca. 50—20 B.C.
Inv. No. 37.100.
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.

Description:
Roman marble funerary relief of Publius Gessius and his family.
Publius Gessius is at the center. On the left: Fausta Gessia, a former slave freed by Publius. Their son, P(ublius) Gessius Primus (also a freed slave) is portrayed on the right. According to the inscriptions, Fausta paid for the tomb out of Publius’s estate. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, inv. 37.100.
Dated by the museum: ca. 50—20 B.C.
GESSIA P(UBLI) L(IBERTA) FAVSTA•P(UBLIUS) GESSIVS P(UBLI) F(ILIUS) (TRIBU) ROM(ILIA)•P(UBLIUS) GESSIVS P(UBLI) L(IBERTUS) PRIMUS
“Fausta Gessia, freedwoman of Publius, Publius Gessius, son of Publius, of the Romilian tribe, Publius Gessius Primus, freedman of Publius.”

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the lioness,
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mena what happened to the Egyptian religion under Roman rule?
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mena7
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The Romans were influenced by the Egyptian religion. The goddess Isis was worshiped in Rome, Italy and Western Europe for thousand of years.

Christian Roman Emperors Theodosius in the 5 cent CE destroyed the Great Ancient Egyptian religion and the Mediterranean world ancient religion in order to imposed Roman Catholic Christianity on Egypt and the Mediterranean world. Roman Christianity was a tools for power, money and conquest.

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mena

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Probably the Bust of a Roman Senator by Melchior Barthel. It was created in 1650 ,It is probably the copy of a Roman bust in private aka secret collection.

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Roman black generals or emperors by Melchior Barthel. It is probably the copy of two Roman busts in private collection

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Roman General or Emperor

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Roman general or Emperor

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Roman General or Emperor

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Roman Moorish General

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the Marriage of Theogene and Charicle by Workshop of Francoise de la Planche.

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I see the symbolism of black European nobles crowning the white European nobles as king and queen under the watch of the mulato or white Pope.

http://diasporicroots.tumblr.com/tagged/Afro+european+history

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Black Roman general

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So call bust of a black African by Nicolas Cordier a French artist working in Rome in the 17 cent CE. Probably the copy of the bust of a Roman noble, senator, general or Emperor.

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Black African Rome 1610

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Bust of black Roman with tight corkscrew curls

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Roman Emperor maximilian Daia/Daya

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Maximinus Daia/Daza

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Emperor Maximinus Daia

Maximinus II (Latin: Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; c. 20 November 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. A committed pagan, he engaged in one of the last persecutions of Christians

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Roman Emperor Gordian I
Gordian I (Latin: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus;[5]c. 159 – 12 April 238) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide

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I think the black Kushites, Egyptians and Canaanites created the first Mediterranean world civilizations. Later when the white people migrated to southern Europe they mixed with some of the black Mediterranean aka Southern European people creating a mulato aka light skin black race in Southern Europe.

Black Kushites, Canaanites and Africans created the civilizations of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Carthage in the Mediterranean world. Later those black people mixed with white immigrants creating a mulato race in Rome/Italy and Greece. In the middle of the classical era the mulato people aka light skin black become the majority in Greece and Rome followed by black people and white people. I classify the mulato Greeks and Romans as black because they are the children and grand children of black people in two civilizations created by black people. Black people are the original people of this earth because of that the black blood come first, any mix people with black blood should be classify as black not white. The Mediterranean civilizations of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece should be classify as black civilizations because they were created by black and the majority of the population were mulato and black. Other people will say Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece were multiracial civilizations created by black people.

The majority of today white Europeans or white blood entered Europe in the Central Asian barbarian invasions of the 6 cent CE. The Franks of France, the Alemanias of Germany, the Saxons of Germany and England, the Visigoths of Spain, the Lombards of Italy, the Angles of England, the slavs of Yugoslavia etc. The civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were not white Europeans. The black blood is primordial because of that the mulato children of black people are black not white.

There was no racism in ancient time because the mulato and white people knew they were the descendants of black people. The Sol Invictus Roman Christian church under Emperor Theodosius and others destroyed the Library of Alexandria and all the Mediterranean world libraries to hide the origin of Christianity and the origin of the different so call races on earth. The Roman Catholic Church invented racism for colonial reason and slave exploitation reason.

Mulato and Black Romans from the Fayum cemetery in Egypt.

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Mulato or light skin black Fayum portrait of Ancient Romans. I think there are many pictures of dark skin black Romans but they are hidden.

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Carian Venus 100BC-400CE

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Roman soldier with helmet and cuirass

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Roman or Greek with Fulani Mohawk hairstyle. Call athlete 1BC to 1CE

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Roman Emperor with wooly hair and laurel 225-275 CE

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Black Roman Flavian period.
The style of this portrait, with its tightly coiled curls and thick hair over the ears, the individualized expression, and the absence of incision on the eyeballs, suggests that it was carved during the rule of one of the Flavian emperors: Vespasian, Titus, or Domitian (reigned AD 69-96).

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Roman Emperor with wooly hair 230-240 CE
This bust was probably carved several decades after the reign of Emperor Caracalla (reigned AD 211-17) and bears many similarities to that emperor's portrait type, which had an enormous influence on the private portraiture of the following generation. Caracalla's later portraits have animated expressions, and the head is often turned to his right, giving the impression of movement. This example imitates the emperor's image but has the individual's own distinct features. (The nose and ears are restored.)

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Black Roman senator 40 BC
During the Republic, men in power wanted their portraits to express the qualities they associated with leadership: experience, determination, practicality, and valor. Such an image tended to have a realistic appearance, with a direct gaze and heavily lined face

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Roman mulato woman 50 BC
The realism of the young woman's fleshy features and the detailed treatment of her elaborate hairstyle are typical of the late Republican period. The position of her head and the rough finish of the back suggest that she formed part of a group composition of family members decorating a tomb

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http://www.beforebc.de/all_africa/index.html

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Black Roman Emperor or Senator

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Black Roman writer

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Roman balsamarium

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Syrian Balsamarium

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Etruria_the_Etruscans_2.htm

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Said to be an Indian in Roman attire. Probably a brown Roman Emperor.

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Gold coin of Roman Emperor Justinian 1

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Sri Lanka imitation of 4 cent CE Roman coin

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Indian Emperor Augustus coin with fleshy mouth

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Faustina coin with fleshy mouth

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1 cent bc Indian coin of Indian ruler wearing Roman helmet or Roman ruler wearing Roman helmet.

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Indian Ocean trade route

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Roman_trade_and_relations

Roman trade with India (see also the spice trade and incense road) through the overland caravan routes via Anatolia and Persia, though at a relative trickle compared to later times, antedated the southern trade route via the Red Sea and monsoons which started around the beginning of the Common Era (CE) following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.[1]

The route so helped enhance trade between ancient states of India and Rome, that Roman politicians and historians are on record decrying the loss of silver and gold to buy silk to pamper Roman wives, and the southern route grew to eclipse and then totally supplant the overland trade route.[2]

Roman and Greek traders frequented the ancient Tamil country (present day Southern India) and Sri Lanka, securing trade with the seafaring Tamil states of the Pandyan, Chola and Chera dynasties and establishing trading settlements which secured trade with India by the Greco-Roman world since the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty[3] a few decades before the start of the Common Era and remained long after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.[4] As recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a South Indian King called Pandyan of Dramira. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was described as Pandyan Mediterranea in the Periplus and Modura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy.[5] They also outlasted Byzantium's loss of the ports of Egypt and the Red Sea[6] (ca. 639-645 CE) under the pressure of the Muslim conquests. Sometime after the sundering of communications between the Axum and Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century, the Christian kingdom of Axum fell into a slow decline, fading into obscurity in western sources. It survived, despite pressure from Islamic forces, until the 11th century, when it was reconfigured in a dynastic squabble

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Roman_relations

Indo-Roman relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search





Roman maritime trade with India according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1st century CE.
Indo-Roman relations began during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus (23 Sept. 63 BCE – 19 Aug. 14 CE). Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BCE until his death in 14 CE.

The presence of Romans in India and the relations between Rome and India are still generally little known or understood. Unfortunately, historians lack the sort of accounts or 'histories' written by contemporaries or near-contemporaries which they have for, say, the earlier conquests of Alexander in India, to provide us with some sort of overview. While we have quite extensive and spectacular literary, numismatic and archaeological evidence, it is difficult to assemble anything approaching a comprehensive picture of the relations between India and the Roman Empire. Instead, historians must build up a mosaic of many bits of evidence, mainly relating to the trade between them, and then try to 'connect the dots' to produce a plausible story

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Roman_relations

Sino-Roman relations were essentially indirect throughout the existence of both empires. The Roman Empire and Han China progressively inched closer in the course of the Roman expansion into the Ancient Near East and simultaneous Chinese military incursions into Central Asia. However, powerful intermediate empires such as the Parthians and Kushans kept the two Eurasian flanking powers permanently apart and mutual awareness remained low and knowledge fuzzy.

Only a few attempts at direct contact are known from records: In CE 97, the Chinese general Ban Chao unsuccessfully tried to send an envoy to Rome.[1][2] Several alleged Roman emissaries to China were recorded by ancient Chinese historians. The first one on record, supposedly from either the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius or the later emperor Marcus Aurelius, arrived in CE 166.[3][4]

The indirect exchange of goods on the land (the so-called silk road) and sea routes included Chinese silk and Roman glassware and high-quality cloth.[5]

In classical sources, the problem of identifying references to ancient China is exacerbated by the interpretation of the Latin term "Seres," whose meaning fluctuated and could refer to a number of Asian people in a wide arc from India over Central Asia to China.[6] In Chinese records, the Roman Empire came to be known as "Da Qin", Great Qin, apparently thought to be a sort of counter-China at the other end of the world.[7] According to Edwin G. Pulleyblank, the "point that needs to be stressed is that the Chinese conception of Da Qin was confused from the outset with ancient mythological notions about the far west

http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html

The Peoples of the West

from the Weilue 魏略
by Yu Huan 魚豢

A Third Century Chinese Account
Composed between 239 and 265 CE
Quoted in zhuan 30 of the Sanguozhi
Published in 429 CE

Draft English translation

by

John E. Hill

© September, 2004



“I was not born knowledgeable,
I am devoted to antiquity and am quick to seek knowledge.”

Kong Qiu 孔丘 (Confucius).
Lunyu, 7, 19.

Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction
About this Translation
About Fonts and Characters
About the Text
Translator’s Notes
About the Dating and Background of the Text
Background Reading
About Measurements and Administrative Divisions


The Text

Section 1. The Di Tribes
Section 2. The Zilu Tribes
Section 3. The Qiang Tribes
Section 4. The three main overland routes to the Western Regions
Section 5. The Southern Route
Section 6. The Kingdom of Linni (Lumbini)
Section 7. The Kingdom of Juli (the ‘Eastern Division’ of the Kushan Empire)
Section 8. The Kingdom of Panyue (Pandya)
Section 9. The Central Route
Section 10. Previous Misconceptions
Section 11. Da Qin (Roman territory/Rome)
Section 12. Products of Da Qin (Roman territory)
– Product List
Section 13. The Sea Route to Da Qin (Roman territory)
Section 14. Roman Dependencies
Section 15. The Kingdom of Zesan (Azania)
Section 16. The Kingdom of Lüfen (Leukê Komê or modern Al Wajh)
Section 17. The Kingdom of Qielan (Wadi Sirhan)
Section 18. The Kingdom of Xiandu (‘Aynūnah = Leukos Limên?)
Section 19. The Kingdom of Sifu (Petra)
Section 20. The Kingdom of Yuluo (Karak)
Section 21. The Kingdom of Siluo
Section 22. The Far West
Section 23. The New Route of the North
Section 24. The Kingdom of Northern Wuyi (Khujand)
Section 25. The Kingdoms of Liu, Yan, and Yancai (the Alans)
Section 26. The Kingdom of Hude
Section 27. The Kingdom of Jiankun (Khirgiz)
Section 28. The Kingdom of Dingling
Section 29. The Kingdom of Duanren (‘Pygmies’)
Section 30. The Author’s Comments

Abbreviations and Bibliography

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/how-third-century-china-saw-rome-a-land-ruled-by-minor-kings-3386550/?no-ist=


How Third-Century China Saw Rome, a Land Ruled by “Minor Kings”

Translations of a 3rd century Chinese text describe Roman life


By Colin Schultz

smithsonian.com
September 3, 2013


303 31 0 1 205 1 592


303 31 1 205 0 592



Tourists explore the Crescent Moon Spring along the historic Silk Road trade route. Photo: Wo Shing Au


When archaeologists work to understand an ancient civilization, they often use that civilization’s texts to get a clue as to how they saw themselves. But these people didn’t live in isolation. They traded; they invaded. They carried inventions and knowledge back and forth down the Silk Road, the Tea Road and Roman roads. They also, sometimes, wrote down what they thought of each other.

A few years ago, the University of Washington’s John E. Hill drafted an English copy of the Weilüe, a third century C.E. account of the interactions between the Romans and the Chinese, as told from the perspective of ancient China. “Although the Weilue was never classed among the official or ‘canonical’ histories, it has always been held in the highest regard by Chinese scholars as a unique and precious source of historical and geographical information,” says Hill.

The translated text gives a curious look at the way of life of third century Rome, a land ruled by “numerous minor kings.” The chronicle even comes with extensive directions on how to get there—go across the Indian Ocean, cut up to Egypt, duck through the Nile, sail across the Mediterranean (about six days) until you find yourself in Da Qin, the Roman Empire.

The text describes the organization of Roman society, and a list of the products they had on offer.


This country (the Roman Empire) has more than four hundred smaller cities and towns. It extends several thousand li in all directions. The king has his capital (that is, the city of Rome) close to the mouth of a river (the Tiber). The outer walls of the city are made of stone.

…The ruler of this country is not permanent. When disasters result from unusual phenomena, they unceremoniously replace him, installing a virtuous man as king, and release the old king, who does not dare show resentment.

The common people are tall and virtuous like the Chinese, but wear hu (‘Western’) clothes. They say they originally came from China, but left it.

They have always wanted to communicate with China but, Anxi (Parthia), jealous of their profits, would not allow them to pass (through to China).

Apparently, according to Yu Huan, the author of the Weilue, getting around ancient Rome was pretty dangerous:


The people (of these countries) are connected to each other. Every 10 li (4.2 km) there is a ting (relay shed or changing place), and every 30 li (12.5 km) there is a zhi (postal station). There are no bandits or thieves, but there are fierce tigers and lions that kill those travelling on the route. If you are not in a group, you cannot get through.

This was not the first translation of the Weilue, says Hill. The section on the Romans was previously translated back in 1885, with other sections coming after

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weilue

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mena7
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ROMAN BRONZE VICTORIA CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE VENUS GENETRIX CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D

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A ROMAN BRONZE ISIS-FORTUNA CIRCA LATE 1ST CENTURY B.C.-EARLY 1ST CENTURY A.D

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ROMAN BRONZE NUDE ISIS-APHRODITE, 1st century A.D

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Isis-Aphrodite Roman, 1st century BC- 1st century AD

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Etruscan bronze statuette of Athena - circa 4th c. BCE - at the Louvre Museum

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Statue of Artemis of Ephesus Marco Prins Naples, Museo archeologico nazionale

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Roman figurine of a woman dressed in a tunic with a Maeander pattern in the style of archaic Greek korai figures of the 6th century BCE produced between 1st century BCE - 1st century CE and found in Verona, Italy bronze

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mena7
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Nice find Kodlo Baseball player Prince Fielder looks like Hercules holding his club.
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Mena7, stupid White people hating, Black racist, Black supremacist, NO he does NOT look like Hercules, Whites are NOT from Central Asia. You White people haters need to stop trying to steal what rightfully belongs to others & find your own history in AFRICA. White children & White youth have a right to what belongs to them. They have a right to their history, their heritage, their identity, their homeland. They have a right to know who they are, where they come from, who their ancestors were, a right to knowledge of self & a right to be proud of who they are. Tell me Mena7 & Kdolo what did White children/youth ever do to you to make you hate them so much that you'd do such a thing to them as robbing them of said rights??
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Doxie. Stop.

--------------------
Keldal

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CelticWarrioress
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Kdolo, what you don't agree that White children have a right to their history, their heritage, their identity, their homeland??? You don't agree that White children have a right to know who they are, where they come from, who their ancestors were? You don't agree that White children have a right to knowledge of self & a right to be proud of who they are????
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ausar
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If you want to talk with Kdolo you will have to PM her.
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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by kdolo:

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Hercules looking down at his son Telephus

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