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mena7
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God Krishna the lord of the perfect black.

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God Krishna

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God Krishna

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God Krishna

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God Krishna and mother Rashoda
God Krishna and his consorts

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God Krishna

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God Krishna

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God Krishna

Krishna [1](/ˈkrɪʃnə/; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] ( listen)) is considered the supreme deity, worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. Krishna is recognized as the eighth incarnation (avatar) of Lord Vishnu, and one and the same as Lord Vishnu one of the trimurti and as the supreme god in his own right. Krishna is the principal protagonist with Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita also known as the Song of God, which depicts the conversation between the Royal Prince Arjuna and Krishna during the great battle of Kureksetra 5000 years ago where Arjuna discovers that Krishna is God and then comprehends his nature and will for him and for mankind. In present age Krishna is one of the most widely revered and most popular of all Indian divinities.[2]

Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana,[3] or as an elder giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.[4] The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions.[5] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and the Supreme Being.[6] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana.

Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga (present age), which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE.[7] Worship of the deity Krishna, either in the form of deity Krishna or in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala can be traced to as early as 4th century BC.[8][9] Worship of Krishna as Svayam Bhagavan, or the supreme being, known as Krishnaism, arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the Bhakti movement. From the 10th century AD, Krishna became a favourite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as Jagannatha in Odisha, Vithoba in Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan. Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna has also spread in the Western world, largely due to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The name originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark" or "dark blue".[11] The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha in the Vedic tradition, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening".[12] Sometimes it is also translated as "all-attractive", according to members of the Hare Krishna movement.[13]

As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in murtis as black or blue-skinned. Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets and titles, which reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter", Govinda, "Finder of the cows" or Gopala, "Protector of the cows", which refer to Krishna's childhood in Braj (in present day Uttar Pradesh).[14][15] Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, Jagannatha, a popular incarnation of Puri, Odisha in eastern India.[16]

Iconography[edit]





Krishna with cows, herdsmen and Gopis, Pahari painting [Himalayan] from Smithsonian Institution
Krishna is easily recognized by his representations. Though his skin color may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in murtis, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with a blue skin. He is often shown wearing a silk dhoti and a peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristically relaxed pose, playing the flute.[17][18] In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other with a flute raised to his lips, in the Tribhanga posture, accompanied by cows, emphasizing his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids) i.e. Gopikrishna, stealing butter from neighbouring houses i.e. Navneet Chora or Gokulakrishna, defeating the vicious serpent i.e. Kaliya Damana Krishna, lifting the hill i.e. Giridhara Krishna ..so on and so forth from his childhood / youth events.

A steatite (soapstone) tablet unearthed from Mohenjo-daro, Larkana district, Sindh depicting a young boy uprooting two trees from which are emerging two human figures is an interesting archaeological find for fixing dates associated with Krishna. This image recalls the Yamalarjuna episode of Bhagavata and Harivamsa Purana. In this image, the young boy is Krishna, and the two human beings emerging from the trees are the two cursed gandharvas, identified as Nalakubara and Manigriva. Dr. E.J.H. Mackay, who did the excavation at Mohanjodaro, compares this image with the Yamalarjuna episode. Prof. V.S. Agrawal has also accepted this identification. Thus, it seems that the Indus valley people knew stories related to Krishna. This lone find may not establish Krishna as contemporary with Pre-Indus or Indus times, but, likewise, it cannot be ignored.[19][20]





Bala Krishna dancing, 14th century CE Chola sculpture, Tamil Nadu.from Honolulu Academy of Arts.
The scene on the battlefield of the epic Mahabharata, notably where he addresses Pandava prince Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often with supreme God characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the chakra or in his two-armed form as a charioteer. Cave paintings dated to 800 BCE in Mirzapur, Mirzapur district, Uttar Pradesh, show raiding horse-charioteers, one of whom is about to hurl a wheel, and who could potentially be identified as Krishna.[21]

Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures:[22] his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, or his main queens Rukmini and Satyabhama.

Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort Radha. Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but as Radha Krishna,[23] a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools Rudra[24] and Nimbarka sampradaya,[25] as well as that of Swaminarayan sect. The traditions celebrate Radha Ramana murti, who is viewed by Gaudiyas as a form of Radha Krishna.[26]

Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (Bala Krishna, Bāla Kṛṣṇa the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter or Laddu in his hand being Laddu Gopal.[27][28] Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha of Odisha, Vithoba of Maharashtra,[29] Venkateswara (also Srinivasa or Balaji) in Andhra Pradesh, and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.

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mena7
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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

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God Hanuman

Hanuman (/ˈhʌnʊˌmɑːn, ˈhɑːnʊ-, ˌhʌnʊˈmɑːn, ˌhɑːnʊ-/; Hanumān in IAST)[1] is a Hindu god and an ardent devotee of Rama. He is a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and its various versions. He is also mentioned in several other texts, including Mahabharata, the various Puranas and some Jain texts. A vanara, Hanuman participated in Rama's war against the demon king Ravana. Several texts also present him as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. He is the son of Anjana and Kesari, and is also described as the son of Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth

Etymology and other names





Indonesian Balinese wooden statue of Hanuman
The Sanskrit texts mention several legends about how Hanuman got his name. One legend is that Indra, the king of the deities, struck Hanuman's jaw during his childhood (see below). The child received his name from the Sanskrit words Hanu ("jaw") and -man (or -mant, "prominent" or "disfigured"). The name thus means "one with prominent or disfigured jaw".[2] Another theory says the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han ("killed" or "destroyed") and maana (pride); the name implies "one whose pride was destroyed".[2] Some Jain texts mention that Hanuman spent his childhood on an island called Hanuruha, which is the origin of his name.[3]

According to one theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the proto-Dravidian word for male monkey (ana-mandi), which was later Sanskritized to "Hanuman" (see historical development below). Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Anuman (Tamil), Anoman (Indonesian), Andoman (Malay) and Hunlaman (Lao). Other names of Hanuman include:
Anjaneya,Hanumanta,
Anjaneya,[4] Anjaniputra or Anjaneyudu or Hanumanthudu (Telugu), all meaning "the son of Anjana".
Anjaneyar, used widely by rural Tamilians.
Kesari Nandan ("son of Kesari")
Marutinandan ("son of Marut") or Pavanputra ("son of wind"); these names derive from the various names of Vayu, the deity who carried Hanuman to Anjana's womb
Bajrang Bali, "the strong one (bali), who had limbs (anga) as hard as a vajra (bajra)"; this name is widely used in rural North India.[2]
Sang Kera Pemuja Dewa Rama, Hanuman, the Indonesian for "The mighty devotee ape of Rama, Hanuman"

Epithets and attributes

In addition, Hanuman has received several epithets, including:
Manojavam, the one who is swift as mind (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
Maarutatulyavegam, the one who has a speed equal to the wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
Jitendriyam, the one who has complete control of his senses (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
Buddhimataamvarishtham, the one who is most senior among intellectuals (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
Vaataatmajam, the one who is the son of wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
Vaanarayoothamukhyam, the one who is the chief of vanara army (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra). Similar in meaning to - Vaanaraanaamadheesham.
Shreeraamadootam, the one who is the messenger of Rama (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra).
Atulita Bala Dhaamam, the one who is the repository of incomparable strength.
Hemshailaabha Deham, the one whose body resembles a golden mountain.
Danujvana Krushanum, the one who is the destroyer of forces of demons.
Gyaaninaam Agraganyam, the one who is considered foremost among knowledgeable beings.
Sakala Guna Nidhaanam, the one who is the repository of all the virtues and good qualities.
Raghupati Priya Bhaktam, the one who is the dearest of all devotees to Lord Rama.
Sankata Mochana, the one who liberates (moca) from dangers (sankata)[2]

In the 3rd chapter of Kishkindha Kaanda of Valmiki Ramayana,[5] Rama describes many attributes of Hanuman's personality. Summarized as follows:
Ablest sentence maker.
Know-er of all Vedas and Scriptures.
Scholar in nine schools of grammars.
Possessing faultless speech and facial features

Historical development





Standing Hanuman, Chola Dynasty, 11th Century, Tamil Nadu,India
The word "Vrsakapi" or "Vrishakapi", later used as an epithet for Hanuman,[6] is mentioned in Rigveda (X:96). Some writers, such as Nilakantha (author of Mantra Ramayana) believe that the Vrishakapi of Rigveda alludes to Hanuman. However, other scholars believe that Hanuman is not mentioned in the Vedic mythology: the "Vrsakapi" of Rigveda refers to another deity[7] or is a common name for the monkeys.[8]

The orientalist F.E. Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman was a proto-Dravidian deity, and the name "Hanuman" was a Sanskritization of the Old Tamil word Aan-mandhi ("male monkey"). A Hindi writer Ray Govindchandra (1976) influenced by Pargiter's opinion, suggested that the proto-Indo-Aryans may have invented a Sanskrit etymology for the deity's name, after they accepted Hanuman in their pantheon.[6] However, the twentieth-century linguist Murray Emeneau, specializing in Dravidian languages, debunked this old theory, pointing out that the word mandi, as attested in Sangam literature, can refer only to a female monkey, and therefore, the word ana-mandi makes no semantic sense.[6] A twentieth-century Jesuit missionary Camille Bulcke, in his Ramkatha: Utpatti Aur Vikas ("The tale of Rama: its origin and development"), expresses the belief that Hanuman worship had its basis in the cults of aboriginal tribes of Central India.[7] According to him, Valmiki's Ramayana may have been influence by older tribal ballads[which?][dubious – discuss].

Hanuman came to be regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of Shiva by the 10th century CE (this development possibly started as early as in the 8th century CE).[7] Hanuman is mentioned as an avatar of Shiva or Rudra in the Sanskrit texts like Mahabhagvata Purana, Skanda Purana, Brhaddharma Purana and Mahanataka among others. This development might have been a result of the Shavite attempts to insert their ishta devata (cherished deity) in the Vaishnavite texts, which were gaining popularity.[7] The 17th century Oriya work Rasavinoda by Divakrsnadasa goes on to mention that the three gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – combined take to the form of Hanuman.[9]

Hanuman became more important in the medieval period, and came to be portrayed as the ideal devotee (bhakta) of Rama. His characterization as a lifelong brahmachari (celibate) was another important development during this period.[7] The belief that Hanuman's celibacy is the source of his strength became popular among the wrestlers in India.[10] The celibacy or brahmacharya aspect of Hanuman is not mentioned in the original Ramayana.[11

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mena7
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God Ganesha

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God Ganesha

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God Ganesha

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God Ganesha

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God Ganesha

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God Ganesha

Ganesha (/ɡəˈneɪʃə/; Sanskrit: गणेश, Gaṇeśa; About this sound listen (help·info)), also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.[2] His image is found throughout India and Nepal.[3] Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations.[4] Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India.[5]

Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.[6] Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles,[7] the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom.[8] As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.[9][10] Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors.[11] He was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity.[12] The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.

Etymology and other names

Ganesha as 'Shri Mayureshwara' with consorts Buddhi and Siddhi, Morgaon, Maharashtra (the central shrine for the regional Ashtavinayak complex)[13]
Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Sanskrit: श्री; IAST: śrī; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a Ganesha Sahasranama, a litany of "a thousand names of Ganesha". Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the Ganesha Purana, a Hindu scripture venerating Ganesha.[14]

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Sanskrit: गण; IAST: gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Sanskrit: ईश; IAST: īśa), meaning lord or master.[15] The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Śiva).[16] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.[17] Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaņas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.[18] Ganapati (Sanskrit: गणपति; IAST: gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".[17] The Amarakosha,[19] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vighnesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers),[20] Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST: gajānana); having the face of an elephant.[21]

Vinayaka (Sanskrit: विनायक; IAST: vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.[22] This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (aṣṭavināyaka).[23] The names Vighnesha (Sanskrit: विघ्नेश; IAST: vighneśa) and Vighneshvara (विघ्नेश्वर; vighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles)[24] refers to his primary function in Hindu theology as the master and remover of obstacles (vighna).[25]

A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillai (Tamil: பிள்ளை) or Pillaiyar (பிள்ளையார்).[26] A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child". He adds that the words pallu, pella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk", also "elephant tooth or tusk".[27] Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".[28]

In the Burmese language, Ganesha is known as Maha Peinne (မဟာပိန္နဲ, pronounced: [məhà pèiɴné]), derived from Pali Mahā Wināyaka (မဟာဝိနာယက).[29] The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand is Phra Phikhanet or Phra Phikhanesuan, both of which are derived from Vara Vighnesha and Vara Vighneshvara respectively, whereas the name Khanet (from Ganesha) is rather rare.

In Sri Lanka, in the North-Central and North Western areas with predominantly Buddhist population, Ganesha is known as Aiyanayaka Deviyo, while in other Singhala Buddhist areas he is known as Gana deviyo.

Iconography

A 13th-century statue of Ganesha, Mysore District, Karnataka
Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art.[30] Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time.[31] He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, sitting down or on an elevated seat, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.

Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century.[32] The 13th century statue pictured is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900–1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example features some of Ganesha's common iconographic elements. A virtually identical statue has been dated between 973–1200 by Paul Martin-Dubost,[33] and another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal.[34] Ganesha has the head of an elephant and a big belly. This statue has four arms, which is common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand. The motif of Ganesha turning his trunk sharply to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a particularly archaic feature.[35] A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century.[36] Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standard configuration, Ganesha typically holds an axe or a goad in one upper arm and a pasha (noose) in the other upper arm. In rare instances, he may be depicted with a human head.[37]

The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but is turned towards the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (abhaya mudra).[38] The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.[39]

Common attributes

For thirty-two popular iconographic forms of Ganesha, see Thirty-two forms of Ganesha.


A typical four-armed form. Miniature of Nurpur school (circa 1810)[40]
Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art.[41] Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head.[42] One of his popular forms, Heramba-Ganapati, has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known.[43] While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, he acquires the head later in most stories.[44] The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was created by Parvati using clay to protect her and Shiva beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati. Shiva then replaced Ganesha's original head with that of an elephant.[45] Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary from source to source.[46][47] Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva's laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.[48]

Ganesha's earliest name was Ekadanta (One Tusked), referring to his single whole tusk, the other being broken.[49] Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk.[50] The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the Mudgala Purana, which states that the name of Ganesha's second incarnation is Ekadanta.[51] Ganesha's protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries).[52] This feature is so important that, according to the Mudgala Purana, two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: Lambodara (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and Mahodara (Great Belly).[53] Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (IAST: udara).[54] The Brahmanda Purana says that Ganesha has the name Lambodara because all the universes (i.e., cosmic eggs; IAST: brahmāṇḍas) of the past, present, and future are present in him.[55] The number of Ganesha's arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms.[56] Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts.[57] His earliest images had two arms.[58] Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in Central India during the 9th and the 10th centuries.[59] The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms.[60] According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki around his neck.[61] Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: yajñyopavīta)[62] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha's forehead may be a third eye or the Shaivite sectarian mark (IAST: tilaka), which consists of three horizontal lines.[63] The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead.[64] A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra (IAST: bhālacandra; "Moon on the Forehead") includes that iconographic element.[65] Ganesha is often described as red in color.[66] Specific colors are associated with certain forms.[67] Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography. For example, white is associated with his representations as Heramba-Ganapati and Rina-Mochana-Ganapati (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage).[68] Ekadanta-Ganapati is visualized as blue during meditation in that form.[69]

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DD'eDeN
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Interesting, Ganeesha / Ekadanta (elephant god) is perhaps linked to Etendaka (elephant shrew at Etendaka highlands, Namibia), which CL *claims links to Eden etymology, or perhaps Aten.
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an article on link between Etendaka mountains, Africa and Parana mountains, South America, a big marine extinction & tectonic shift/volcanism due to a cosmic impact at antipode

http://marcel.dellanoce.free.fr/lycee/w1scob2.jpg

http://bensantipodaltheory.com/appendix3.htm



First, even though the extinction charts do not show a major extinction event at 132 MYA, there was a significant marine extinction at that time. Called the Valanginian Weissert Oceanic Anoxic Event (VWOAE), this disaster occurred at the same time as the Parana and Etendeka volcanism.

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I strongly suspected that tectonic shifts result from cosmic impacts at antipode.

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*CL: "Jade skirt, 2d wife of tlaloc/Herla Halo of stone compass/calendar, Chalchiuitlicueyetentli(N)=etentli(N)=Etendaka), Eden=hem of Jade"

note: hem = rim = lip, so Crimea/(K)hem(t?)/(Ca)lypso/(Ca)li(p/ff)ornia?

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xyambuatlaya

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Goddess Lakshmi

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Goddess Lakshmi

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Goddess Lakshmi

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Goddess Lakshmi

Lakshmi ( lakṣmī, Hindi pronunciation: [ˈləkʃmi]) is the Hindu goddess of wealth, love, prosperity (both material and spiritual), fortune, and the embodiment of beauty. She is the wife and active energy of Vishnu.[1] Her four hands represent the four goals of human life considered proper in Hindu way of life – dharma, kāma, artha, and moksha.[2][3] Representations of Lakshmi are also found in Jain monuments. In Buddhist sects of Tibet, Nepal and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of Hindu goddess Lakshmi, with minor iconographic differences.[4]

Lakshmi is also called Sri[5] or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or Gunas, and also because she is the source of strength even to Vishnu. When Vishnu incarnated on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi took incarnation as his consort. Sita (Rama's wife),[5] Radha (Krishna's lover),[6][7] Rukmini, Draupadi and Satyabama are considered forms of Lakshmi.[8] In ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi.[9] The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband, states Patricia Monaghan, is "the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings".[10]

Archeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for goddess Lakshmi, in Scytho-Parthian kingdom and throughout India, by 1st millennium BC.[11][12] Lakshmi's iconography and statues have also been found in Hindu temples of southeast Asia, estimated to be from second half of 1st millennium AD.[13][14]

In modern times, Lakshmi is worshipped as the goddess of wealth. She is also worshipped as the consort of Vishnu in many temples. The festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima (Kojagiri Purnima) are celebrated in her honour

Symbolism and iconography

The iconography of Lakshmi carries symbolism.
The image, icons and sculpture of Lakshmi is represented with symbolism. Her name is derived from Sanskrit root words for know the goal and understand the objective.[23] Her four arms are symbolic of the four goals of human being that are considered good in Hinduism - dharma (pursuit of ethical, moral life), artha (pursuit of wealth, means of life), kama (pursuit of love, emotional fulfillment), and moksha (pursuit of self-knowledge, liberation).[3][25]

In Lakshmi's iconography, she is either sitting or standing on lotus, and typically also carries lotus in one or two hands. Lotus carries symbolic meanings in Hinduism and other Indian traditions. It symbolically represents reality, consciousness and karma (work, deed) in Sahasrara context, and knowledge and self-realization in other contexts.[26] Lotus, a flower that blossoms in clean or dirty water, also symbolizes purity and beauty regardless of the good or bad circumstances in which its grows. It is a reminder that good and prosperity can bloom and not be affected by evil in one's surrounding.[27][28] Below, behind or on the sides, Lakshmi is sometimes shown with one or two elephants, and occasionally with an owl. Elephants symbolize work, activity and strength, as well as water, rain and fertility for abundant prosperity.[29] The owl, called Pechaka in eastern regions of India, signifies the patient striving to observe, see and discover knowledge particularly when surrounded by darkness. Owl, a bird that becomes blind in daylight, is also a symbolic reminder to refrain from blindness and greed after knowledge and wealth has been acquired.[30]

Wealth symbolically pours out from one of her hands in some representations, or she simply holds a jar of wealth in some representations. This symbolism has multiple meanings. Wealth manifested through Lakshmi means both material as well as spiritual wealth.[26] Her face and open hands are in a mudra that signify compassion, giving or daana (charity).[25]

Lakshmi typically wears a red dress embroidered with golden threads, symbolism for beauty and wealth. She, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, is often represented with her husband Vishnu, the god who maintains human life filled with justice and peace. This symbolism implies wealth and prosperity is coupled with maintenance of life, justice and peace

Names

Lakshmi has numerous names, and numerous ancient Stotram and Sutras of Hinduism recite her various names.[9][31] She is very closely associated with the lotus, and her many epithets are connected to the flower, such as:

lakshmi, kolkataPadma: lotus dweller
Kamala: lotus dweller
Padmapriya: One who likes lotuses
Padmamaladhara devi: One who wears a garland of lotuses
Padmamukhi: One whose face is as beautiful as a lotus
Padmakshi: One whose eyes are as beautiful as a lotus
Padmahasta: One who holds a lotus
Padmasundari: One who is as beautiful as a lotus

Her other names include:
Vishnupriya: One who is the beloved of Vishnu
Ulkavahini: One who rides an owl

Her other names include:[9] Ambika, Manushri, Mohini, Chakrika, Kamalika, Aishwarya, Lalima, Indira, Kalyani, Nandika, Nandini, Rujula, Vaishnavi, Samruddhi, Narayani, Bhargavi, Sridevi, Chanchala, Jalaja, Madhavi, Sujata, Shreya, Maheshwari, Madhu, Madhavi, Paramaa, Janamodini, Tripura, Tulasi, Ketaki, Malati, Vidhya, Trilochana, Tilottama, Subha, Chandika, Devi, Kriyalakshmi, Viroopa, Vani, Gayatri, Savitri, Apara or Aparajita, Aparna, Aruna, Akhila, Bala, Tara, Kuhu, Poornima, Aditi, Anumati, Avashyaa, Sita, Taruni, Jyotsna, Jyoti, Nimeshika, Atibha, Ishaani, Kalyani, Smriti and Sri.[31] She is also referred to as Jaganmaatha ("Mother of the Universe") in Shri Mahalakshmi Ashtakam

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Vishnu (/ˈvɪʃnuː/; Sanskrit: विष्णु, Viṣṇu) is a Hindu god, the Supreme God of Vaishnavism (one of the three principal denominations of Hinduism) and one of the three supreme deities (Trimurti) of Hinduism.[1] He is also known as Narayana and Hari. As one of the five primary forms of God in the Smarta tradition,[1] he is conceived as "the Preserver or the Protector"[2] within the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the divinity.

In Hindu sacred texts, Vishnu is usually described as having dark complexion of water-filled clouds and as having four arms. He is depicted as a pale blue being, as are his incarnations Rama and Krishna He holds a padma (lotus flower) in his lower left hand, the Kaumodaki gada (mace) in his lower right hand, the Panchajanya shankha (conch) in his upper left hand and the discus weapon considered to be one of the most powerful weapon acoording to Hindu Religion Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand

Etymology[edit]





A 4th–6th century CE Sardonyx seal representing Vishnu with a worshipper. The inscription in cursive Bactrian reads: "Mihira, Vishnu (right) and Shiva".
The traditional explanation of the name Vishnu involves the root viś, meaning "to settle" (cognate with Latin vicus, English -wich "village," Slavic: vas -ves), or also (in the Rigveda) "to enter into, to pervade," glossing the name as "the All-Pervading One".[3] Yaska, an early commentator on the Vedas, in his Nirukta, (etymological interpretation), defines Vishnu as viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā, "one who enters everywhere". He also writes, atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati, "that which is free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu".[4]

Adi Shankara in his commentary on the Sahasranama states derivation from viś, with a meaning "presence everywhere" ("As he pervades everything, vevesti, he is called Vishnu"). Adi Shankara states (regarding Vishnu Purana, 3.1.45): "The Power of the Supreme Being has entered within the universe. The root viś means 'enter into'." Swami Chinmayananda, in his translation of Vishnu Sahasranama further elaborates on that verse: "The root vis means to enter. The entire world of things and beings is pervaded by Him and the Upanishad emphatically insists in its mantra 'whatever that is there is the world of change.' Hence, it means that He is not limited by space, time or substance. Chinmayananda states that, that which pervades everything is Vishnu."[5]

Sacred texts - Shruti and Smriti[edit]

Shruti is considered to be solely of divine origin. It is preserved as a whole, instead of verse by verse. It includes the four Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda) the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Upanishads with commentaries on them.

Smṛti refers to all the knowledge derived and inculcated after Shruti had been received. Smrti is not 'divine' in origin, but was 'remembered' by later Rishis (sages by insight, who were the scribes) by transcendental means and passed down through their followers. It includes the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana which are Sattva Puranas.[6] These both declare Vishnu as Para Brahman Supreme Lord who creates unlimited universes and enters each one of them as Lord of Universe.

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A 13th-century Cambodian statue of Vishnu

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12th century stone sculpture of God Vishnu flanked by two apsaras one with a fan (left) and the other with Tambura (right).

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God Vishnu

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Ten avatars of Vishnu (Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Vamana, Krishna, Kalki, Buddha, Parshurama, Rama and Narasimha). Painting from Jaipur, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum

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Goddess Kali

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Goddess Kali

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Goddess Kali

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Goddess Kali

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Goddess Kali

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Goddess Kali

http://www.crystalinks.com/indiadieties.html

is the Hindu goddess associated with eternal energy. The name Kali comes from kale, which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva. Kali means "the black one". Since Shiva is called Kala - the eternal time, Kali, his consort, also means "the Time" or "Death" (as in time has come).

Although sometimes presented as dark and violent, her earliest incarnation as a figure of annihilation still has some influence. Various Shakta Hindu cosmologies, as well as Shakta Tantric beliefs, worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. She is also revered as Bhavatarini (literally "redeemer of the universe"). Comparatively recent devotional movements largely conceive Kali as a benevolent mother goddess.

Kali is represented as the consort of Lord Shiva, on whose body she is often seen standing. She is associated with many other Hindu goddesses like Durga, Bhadrakali, Sati, Rudrani, Parvati and Chamunda. She is the foremost among the Dasa Mahavidyas, ten fierce Tantric goddesses.


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God Trimurti
In Hinduism, the Trimurti 'three forms' - is a concept in Hinduism "in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva (Kali) the destroyer or transformer." These three deities have been called "the Hindu triad" or the "Great Trinity". Of the three members of the Trimurti, the Bhagavata Purana, which espouses the Vaishnavite viewpoint, explains that the greatest benefit can be had from Vishnu.

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God Brahma

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God Brahma

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God Brahma

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God Brahma

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God Brahma

http://www.crystalinks.com/indiadieties.html
is the Hindu god (deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. He is not to be confused with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hindu Vedanta philosophy known as Brahman. Also, in Sanskrit Grammer, Brahman is Nominative Singular of generic word Brahman, as Aatma is Nominative Singular for Aatman. Brahaman and Aatman are same in Vedanta Philosphy, the Para-Aatma (Supersoul) and Jeeva Aatma (Individual Soul) are Brahman. His consort is Saraswati, the goddess of learning. Brahma is often identified with Prajapati, a Vedic deity.

According to the Puranas, Brahma is self-born (without mother) in the lotus flower which grew from the navel of Vishnu at the beginning of the universe. This explains his name Nabhija (born from the navel). Another legend says that Brahma was born in water. In this he deposited a seed that later became the golden egg. From this golden egg, Brahma the creator was born, as Hiranyagarbha. The remaining materials of this golden egg expanded into the Brahmanda or Universe. Being born in water, Brahma is also called Kanja (born in water). Brahma is said also to be the son of the Supreme Being, Brahman and the female energy known as Prakrti or Maya.

At the beginning of the process of creation, Brahma created eleven Prajapatis (used in another sense), who are believed to be the fathers of the human race. The Manusmriti enumerates them as Marichi, Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, and Narada. He is also said to have created the seven great sages or the Saptarishi to help him create the universe. However since all these sons of his were born out of his mind rather than body, they are called Manas Putras or mind-sons.

Within Vedic and Puranic scripture Brahma is described as only occasionally interfering in the affairs of the other devas (gods), and even more rarely in mortal affairs. He did force Soma to give Tara back to her husband, Brihaspati. He is considered the father of Dharma and Atri.

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God Vishnu

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Narasimha vishnu man lion avatar

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Narasimha Vishnu man Lion

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God Vishnu
he Maintainer, Preserver is most famously identified with His avatars, or incarnations of God, most especially Krishna and Rama. Additionally, another important name for Vishnu is Narayana.

The Vishnu Sahasranama declares Vishnu as Paramatma (supreme soul) and Parameshwara (supreme God). It describes Vishnu as the All-Pervading essence of all beings, the master of - and beyond - the past, present and future, the creator and destroyer of all existences, one who supports, sustains and governs the Universe and originates and develops all elements within.

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The seductive enchantress Mohini, feminine form of Vishnu, is surrounded by giants and gods who fight for amrita. The giant Rahu hidden among the gods is denounced by the Sun and Moon and beheaded by Vishnu chakra. Tanjore or Andhrah, c.1727-58.

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God Shiva

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God Shiva

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God Shiva

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Dancing Shiva

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Dancing Shiva

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Dancing Shiva

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God Shiva

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Goddess Parvati
1200 Chola Bronze Statue of Parvati the female manifestation of Shiva (god is neither male nor female), sometimes represented side-by-side with him (god is neither one nor two). She’s sometimes worshipped in her terrifying aspect as the demon-slaying, ten-thousand-armed Durga; or, as Durga’s even more terrifying aspect, the graveyard-dancing witch, Kali

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Mohini avatar of Vishnu

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Shiva Bhairava, Cola period, 12th c.
is considered to be the supreme deity in Shaivism, a denomination of Hinduism. Many Hindus such as those of Smarta tradition are free to accept various manifestations of the divine as their chosen deity for worship, and those who prefer Shiva are called Shaivas. Shaivism, along with Vaisnava traditions that focus on Vishnu, and Sakta traditions that focus on the Goddess (Devi) are three of the most influential denominations in Hinduism.

The worship of Shiva is a pan-Hindu tradition, practiced widely across all of India. Shiva is one of the five primary forms of the Divine in Smartism, a denomination of Hinduism that puts particular emphasis on five deities, the other four being Vishnu, Devi, Ganesha, and Surya. Another way of thinking about the divinities in Hinduism identifies Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva as each representing one of the three primary aspects of the Divine in Hinduism, known collectively as the Trimurti. In the Trimurti system, Brahma is the creator, Vishnu is the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva is the destroyer or transformer.

Attributes of Shiva

Third Eye: Shiva is often depicted with a third eye with which he burned Desire (Kama) to ashes.
Serpents: Shiva is often shown garlanded with a snake.
Crescent: Shiva bears on his head the crescent of the fifth day (panchami) moon. This is placed near the fiery third eye and this shows the power of Soma, the sacrificial offering, which is the representative of moon. It means that Shiva possesses the power of procreation along with the power of destruction.The moon is also a measure of time; thus the Crescent also represents his control over time. Thus Shiva is known by the names of Somasundara and Chandrashekara.
Sacred Ganga: Ganga, the holiest of the holy rivers, flows from the matted hair of Shiva. Shiva allowed an outlet to the great river to traverse the earth and bring purifying water to human beings. The flowing water is one of the five elements which compose the whole Universe and from which earth arises. Ganga also denotes fertility one of the creative aspect of Shiva.
Drum: A small drum shaped like an hourglass is known as a "damaru". This is one of the attributes of Shiva in his famous dancing representation known as Nataraja. A specific hand gesture (mudra) called damaru-hasta (Sanskrit for "damaru-hand") is used to hold the drum. This drum is particularly used as an emblem by members of the Kapalika sect.
Vibhuti: Vibhuti is three lines of ashes drawn on the forehead that represents the essence of our Being, which remains after all the malas (impurities of ignorance, ego and action) and vasanas (likes and dislikes, attachments to one's body, world, worldly fame, worldly enjoyments, etc.) have been burnt in the fire of knowledge. Hence vibhuti is revered as the very form of Shiva and signifies the Immortality of the soul and manifested glory of the Lord.
Ashes: Shiva smears his body with ashes (bhasma). Some forms of Shiva, such as Bhairava, are associated with a very old Indian tradition of cremation-ground asceticism that was practiced by some groups who were outside the fold of brahmanic orthodoxy. These practices associated with cremation grounds are also menteioned in the Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism. One epithet for Shiva is "Inhabitant of the cremation ground" referring to this connection.
Tiger skin: He is often shown seated upon a tiger skin.
Elephant and Deer Skin: Shiva also wears elephant skins. Similarly deer represent the jumping of minds (flickering mind). Shiva wears deer skin which indicates that he has controlled the mind perfectly.
Trident: (Sanskrit: Trishula) Shiva's particular weapon is the trident.
Nandi, the Bull, is his Vahana (Sanskrit for vehicle).
Lingam:Shiva is often worshipped in the form of a lingam.These are depicted in various forms. Mount Kailasha in the Himalayas is his traditional abode.
He is often represented as immersed in deep meditation.
He is said to eradicate Kama (sexual desire), Moha (material desire) and Maya (mundane thoughts) from his devotees' minds.

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http://www.crystalinks.com/indiadieties.html

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Mayan Calendar (above) Matches the Hindu Calendar

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It is interesting that this prediction of the emergence of a new world is prophesied to appear about the same time that the Mayans predicted it to come. The Mayan calendar began with the Fifth Great Cycle in 3114 BC and will end on December 21, 2012 AD. The Hindu Kali Yuga calendar began on 18 February 3102 B.C. There is only a difference of 12 years between the Hindu's beginning of the Kali Yuga and the Mayan's beginning of the Fifth Great Cycle.

The Golden Age Could Begin in 2012

The ancient Hindus mainly used lunar calendars but also used solar calendars. If an average lunar year equals 354.36 days, then this would be about 5270 lunar years from the time when the Kali Yuga started until 21 Dec 2012. This is the same year that the Mayans predict rebirth of our planet. It is also about 5113 solar years of 365.24 days per year, and is day number 1,867,817 into the Kali Yuga. By either solar or lunar years, we are over 5,000 years into the Kali Yuga and it is time for Lord Krishna's prophecy to happen according to the ancient Hindu scriptures. Lord Krishna's Golden Age could easily begin in 2012!

Mayan Prophecy Matches Hindu Prophecy

It is amazing that both calendars began at about the same time over 5,000 years ago and both calendars predict a totally new world and/or golden age after about 5,000 years into their calendars! We are definitely on to something with these Mayan and Hindu 2012 predictions. Historically, this is an amazing fact since these two ancient cultures did not have any contact.

The end of Kali Yuga occurs "When flowers will be begot within flowers, and fruits within fruits, then will the Yuga come to an end. And the clouds will pour rain unseasonably when the end of the Yuga approaches."

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God Trimurti

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Naga serpent

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Naga serpent

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Manasa Goddess of serpent

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Naga serpent

In Hindu myth, nagas are a primeval race of divine serpent-people that play an important part in religion. They are half human and half snake, and are still worshipped as the bringers of fertility, especially in southern India. Nagas are believed to live in palaces (Patala) in the underground city Bhogavati. They are considered the protectors of springs, wells and rivers. They bring rain, and thus fertility, but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. Their ruler is Sesha. Some of the nagas are: Ananta (symbol of eternity), Vasuki, Manasa (fertility goddess and protector against snake-bites), and Mucilinda.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%81ga#/media/File:NagaPhnomPenh.jpg


Nāga (IAST: nāgá; Devanāgarī: नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pali word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very great snake—specifically the king cobra, found in Indian religions, mainly Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. A female nāga is a nāgī or nāgiṇī


The word Naga comes from the Sanskrit, and nag is still the word for snake, especially the cobra, in most of the languages of India.

When we come upon the word in Buddhist writings, it is not always clear whether the term refers to a cobra, an elephant (perhaps this usage relates to its snake-like trunk, or the pachyderm’s association with forest-dwelling peoples of north-eastern India called Nagas,) or even a mysterious person of nobility.

It is a term used for unseen beings associated with water and fluid energy, and also with persons having powerful animal-like qualities or conversely, an impressive animal with human qualities.

In WW II, learn how inhabitants of Nagaland came to the world’s attention.



Mythology

In myths, legends, scripture and folklore, the category naga comprises all kinds of serpentine beings.

Under this rubric are snakes, usually of the python kind (despite the fact that naga is usually taken literally to refer to a cobra,) deities of the primal ocean and of mountain springs; also spirits of earth and the realm beneath it, and finally, dragons.

In Indian mythology, Nagas are primarily serpent-beings living under the sea. Here we see the king and queen of water nagas worshipping Parshva, the Jain Tirthankara of the era before this one.

All nagas are considered the offspring of the Rishi or sage, Kasyapa, the son of Marichi. Kashyapa is said to have had by his twelve wives, other diverse progeny including reptiles, birds, and all sorts of living beings. They are denizens of the netherworld city called Bhogavati.

It ishttp://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/reptiles/reptiles15.htm believed that ant-hills mark
its entrance.

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The Naga serpent always have seven heads

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7 heads serpent ~ 7 lamps Sabbath

shamash(Hebrew word for the candle which lights the 7 lamps)

shamash(Akkadian) Sun God of Justice

ama.terasu(Japanese) sun goddess

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xyambuatlaya

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Jagannath, Indian Lord of the Universe Jai Jagannath, Jai Jagannath

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Luminous Art Jagannatha Krishnag

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Modern bazaar art version of the Jagannath Trio. 20th century.

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Black Jaganath, White wife and mulato children
Balabhadra, Subhadra and Jagannatha. Kalighat, Calcutta, 1860. The Jagannath trio, consisting of Jagannatha painted black as an alternative form of Krishna, Lord of the Universe, in the company of his brother Balabhadra and their little sister Subhadra in the middle.

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olour lithograph, lettered, inscribed and numbered 51. Jagannatha, considered to be a form of Krishna worshipped at Puri in Orissa, is enthroned with his brother Balarāma (to his right) and their sister, Subhadrā (to the left). Brahma, Vishnu, Garuda and two representations of Śiva are in the foreground. Chore Bagan Studio, Calcutta, c.1895

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Lord Jaganath

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Lord Jaganath

Jagannath (or Jagannatha), meaning "Lord of the Universe", is a deity worshipped by Hindus and Buddhists, mainly in the Indian states Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Gujarat, Assam, Manipur and Tripura[1] and by Hindus in Bangladesh. Jagannath is considered a form of Vishnu[2] or his avatar Krishna by the Hindus. Jagannath is worshipped as part of a triad on the "Ratnavedi" (jewelled platform) along with his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra.

The icon of Jagannath is a carved and decorated wooden stump with large round eyes and with stumps as hands, with the conspicuous absence of legs. The worship procedures, practices, sacraments and rituals of Jagannath do not conform with those of classical Hinduism.[3] It is made of wood, which is an exception to common Hindu iconographic deities of metal or stone.[4] The origin and evolution of Jagannath worship, as well as iconography, is unclear and has been subject to intense academic debate.

Jagannath lacks a clear vedic reference and is also not a member of the traditional Dashavatara concept or the classical Hindu pantheon,[5] though in certain Oriya literary creations, Jagannath has been treated as the Ninth avatar, as a substitute for the Buddha.[6]

Jagannath considered as a form of the Hindu God Vishnu, is non-sectarian[7][8][9] and has not been associated with any particular denomination of Hinduism in entirety, though there are several common aspects with Vaishnavism, Saivism, Shaktism, Smartism, as well as with Buddhism and Jainism.

The oldest and most famous Jagannath deity is established in Puri. The temple of Jagannath in Puri is regarded as one of the Char Dham (sacred Hindu pilgrimage places) in India.[10]

The most famous festival related to Jagannath is the Ratha yatra, where Jagannath, along with the other two associated deities, comes out of the Garbhagriha of the chief temple (Bada Deula). They are transported to the Gundicha Temple (located at a distance of nearly 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)), in three massive wooden chariots drawn by devotees. Coinciding with the Ratha Yatra festival at Puri, similar processions are organized at Jagannath temples throughout the world.

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Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of Punjab revered Jagannath

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Shri Ganeshi

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Lord Ganesh the Remover of Obstacles and the god of success

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Ganesha altar

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Shri Ganesh

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God Buddha

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God Buddha

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Seated Buddha Reaching Enlightenment, 11th–12th century. Central Tibet. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. (2012.458) | In Tibet the Buddha images from the 11th and 12th centuries reflect a deep interest in capturing the Buddha’s likeness as it was preserved in north India. Here great emphasis is placed on the Buddha’s humanity as can be seen in the sensitive treatment of his hands, feet and body.

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Buddha, late 5th century. India (Uttar Pradesh, Mathura). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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Standing Buddha, 2nd–3rd century, Schist H. 55 1/8 x W. 18 7/8 x D. 7 1/2 in. (140 x 48 x 19 cm). Lahore Museum, G-381. Loaned to Asia Society, NYC. [entry by LH, 30 March 2014].

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Buddha, Gupta period, second half of 6th century India (probably Bihar) Bronze

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Tian Tan Buddha Statue (Big Buddha) | Hong Kong

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The big Tian Tan Buddha at the po lin monastery in Hong Kong, Guangdong province, China

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Buddha in Lingshan, Jiangsu, China

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Lantau Island, Hong Kong

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The happy Buddha, Lingyin Temple, Hangzhou, China Loved and Pinned by www.downdogboutiq... to our Yoga community boards

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Buddha Statue in Ayyuthaya Province, Thailand

Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha,[note 3] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[3] on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.[web 2] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.[4][note 4]

Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[5] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.[4][6]

Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened or divine[7] teacher who attained full Buddhahood, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

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Buddha Nswag Indonesia

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Thanthirimale Samadhi Statue, India

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Buddha_1251876.jpg

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Cambogia, buddha protetto dai naga, da bayon, stile di baphuon, xi sec

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Buddha Daibutsu, Kamakura, Japan

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National Museum Vietnamese History

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Mother Goddess (Matrika)

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Buddha, Northwest India or Pakistan, Kushan Period, 2nd-3rd century Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Located in the Art before 1300 Gallery

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Buddha Gandhara

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A Gray Schist Figure of Buddha Gandhara, circa 4th Century Seated in dhyanasana with his arms crossed before his chest in the gesture of teaching, dharmachakra mudra, wearing long flowing robes draped across his left shoulder, his face with a meditative expression and wavy hair rising to a domed topknot and backed by a nimbus 23¾ in. (68 cm.) high

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Mena, I have learned from you and my mind has been in South India for quite some time.

South Indian Murugan

Murugan is often referred to as God of Asia and is worshiped primarily in areas with Tamil influences. Subramanya is also a major deity among the Hindus of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Rituals like nagaradhane are unique to Uttara Kannada region of Karnataka. Kataragama in Sri Lanka temple is considered as the most holy abode of Muruga by Asians.

In Sri Lanka and India, Murugan has continued to be popular with all classes of society right since the Sangam age. This has led to more elaborate accounts of his mythology in the Tamil language, culminating in the Tamil version of Skanda Purana, called Kandha Purānam, written by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar (1350–1420 AD.) of Kumara Kottam in the city of Kanchipuram. (He was a scholar in Tamil literature, and a votary of the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy) Lord Muruga is married to two deities, Valli, a daughter of a tribal chief and Deivayanai (also called Devasena), the daughter of Indra. During His bachelorhood, Lord Murugan is also regarded as Kumaraswami (or Bachelor God), Kumara meaning a bachelor and Swami meaning God. Muruga rides a peacock and wields a bow in battle. The lance called Vel in Tamil is a weapon closely associated with him. The Vel was given to him by his mother, Parvati, and embodies her energy and power. His army's standard depicts a rooster. In the war, Surapadman was split into two, and each half was granted a boon by Murugan. The halves, thus turned into the peacock (his mount) and the rooster his flag, which also "refers to the sun".[12]

As Muruga is worshipped predominantly in South India, many of his names are of Tamil origin. These include Senthil, the red or formidable one; Arumugam, the six-faced one; Guhan and Maal-Marugan, the son-in-law of Vishnu. Murugan is venerated throughout the Tamil years and Sanskrit. There is a six-day period of fast and prayer in the Tamil month of Aippasi known as the Skanda Shasti. He is worshipped at Thaipusam, celebrated by Tamil communities worldwide near the full moon of the Tamil month Thai. This commemorates the day he was given a Vel by his mother in order to vanquish the Asuras. Thirukarthigai or the full moon of the Tamil month of Karthigai signifies his birth. Each Tuesday of the Tamil month of Adi is also dedicated to the worship of Murugan. Tuesday in the Hindu tradition connotes Mangala, the god of planet Mars and war.

He is worshipped as highest god in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada etc.

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Dr. Clyde Winters is right about many things. But, he does not explain his facts clearly. There is a connetion between Africa and India especially South Asia.

Thiruchendur Murugan Temple: Temple Gopuram

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The Hindu Temples of South India are pyramids.

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quote:
Originally posted by Red, White, and Blue + Christian:
Dr. Clyde Winters is right about many things. But, he does not explain his facts clearly. There is a connetion between Africa and India especially South Asia.

Thiruchendur Murugan Temple: Temple Gopuram

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The Hindu Temples of South India are pyramids.

what a you, kiddin we??
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I need a separate thread for this tpoic. It is a deep one. But, let me coninue since my mind has spent much time on South India. It is fantastic.
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Temple dedicated to snake goddess Nagaswari

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Now, I saw a Hindi movie with English subtitles about the Snake Goddess. I'm not sure if this is that same movie. It takes place in Southern India and an orphan girl is raised up by the Snake goddess and grows up to fight the evil eagle god Garuda. I know a Christian is not supposed to be looking at all this, but Jesus said we must be wise as a serpent, but harmless as a dove.

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The language is Tamil, a Dravidian language.

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Nagaswari

Wikipedia's Garuda page

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda

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mena7
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Nice post Red White and Blue Christians.

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Naga - an ancient race of semi divine serpent creatures beings first depicted in ancient Vedic Hindu mythology and oral folklore from at least 5000 B.C. They are extremely gifted shape-shifter, able to assume any shape they desire.

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Sri Tirupati Venkateswara .....

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Lord Venkateshwara

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mena

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Sri Venkatesa......

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Fudo Myoo, The Immovable One a.k.a. Acala Vidyaraja, by Kat Lanoe

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DID YOU KNOW THAT THE PATRON OF THE SAMURAI IS DEPICTED AS BLACK? YES, HE IS FUDO MYO-O--ONE OF THE 5 WISDOM KINGS IN JAPANESE MYTHOLOGY. HIS NAME MEANS THE IMMOVABLE AND HE IS CONSISTENTLY DEPICTED AS A FIERCE LOOKING BLACK MAN WITH SWORD IN HIS HAND! A JAPANESE PROVERB READS THAT "FOR A SAMURAI TO BE BRAVE HALF THE BLOOD IN HIS VEINS MUST BE BLACK!" WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? WHAT IS THE SYMBOLISM OF BLACKNESS IN JAPAN?

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The Five Wisdom Kings of mystical knowledge. Thangka

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mena

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Head of Buddha, early 800s Indonesia, Java, Borobudur, Sailendra Period, 9th Century volcanic stone,

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Buddha from Sothebys auction.

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mena

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