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DD'eDeN
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E.thiop.ia/Tabiya
Deus/Zeus/Zion/Tawny/Taupe/tabby(cat)/labbi(H:lion)/roan(reddish horse)

seeing sun at dawn/dusk means you are arisen to mountaintop level, exposed to the sun; something that our ancestral pygmies in the tropical rainforest rarely witnessed, but open-sky people later became enthralled by.

Legesse said that in Tigrinha/Amharina languages, Ethiopia is called Tabiya. That fits Nubia and Libya in rhythm, and parallels the Sioux Indian tribe:

Nubia/Tabia/Libia = 3 bands of NE Africa 'tribe'
NTL(uai)bia = Ndula(Bambuti pygmy:interior/under) + bia (??)[Note: Ota Benga, the Pygmy displayed at zoo, his actual name was Bye Otai Mbenga].

Nakota/Dakota/Lakota = 3 bands of Sioux tribe = NDL(a)kota = Ndula(Mbuti pygmy: interior/under) + cote/goati/Coat(skin of bison). These bands lived in open-sky plains (steppe/savanna/prairie) inside buffalo hide tipis.

Tipi/Top links to Bantu Topan(Canopy/Sky god) and to both Tabiya/Ethiopia and to (English) taupe (gray with brown) & tawny/fauna/aura as related to the dawn, likely linked to (Z)oroaster =(Z)AurAvestan (related to but distinct from Vedas).

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/ascent-of-man-human-evolution-apes-chimpanzees-lucy-australopithecus-robin-crompton-a7230371.html

“We haven’t abandoned the trees. We are perfectly good in the trees if we choose to go up there – and take our shoes off.”

The ancient fossil of an Australopithecus hominid – the same genus as the famous Lucy – was found in South Africa in the 1990s, but was only dated last year.

Whereas Lucy was just 1.1 metres tall, the South African fossil, nicknamed Little Foot, was about the same size as a modern Western woman.

[DD: More likely KhoiSan woman? Western scientists tend to enlarge bones to match themselves]

According to Professor Crompton, Lucy was a pygmy Australopithecus, much like there are pygmy Homo sapiens today.

Little Foot is the most complete Australopithecus ever found with, crucially, both legs surviving virtually intact.

Professor Crompton, an expert in computer modelling of walking who has worked on Lucy for 20 years, now plans to use Little Foot’s dimensions to establish exactly how she walked.

Twenty years ago, he caused international controversy when he was the first to claim Lucy walked upright much like modern humans do – based on computer models – and he believes Little Foot will finally put the argument to rest.

But Professor Crompton and other scientists have found evidence that our foot is kept stiff by muscles and tendons, rather than locked in place by the bones.

“Humans have flexible feet just like other apes. There’s nothing special about them and in particular they resemble the foot of gorillas,” he said.

“There is little special about human feet to suggest they are primarily adapted to life on the ground.

- - -

Getting closer to the truth. Human ancestors lived along feeder streams (no crocs) in dome huts in circular camps in openings surrounded by thorn thickets in the tropical rainforest.

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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Hadza in East African Rift Valley

(Unread but might be of interest, by "Joe Gruffbane" at SAP)

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/sci.anthropology.paleo/LJrzucxiB3c
- - -
Notes: "Giants, gigantic" these formerly referred to both body size and to time, so the older the event or ancestor, the "bigger". Same thing in the bible.

Aka is an ancient clan name:
in Congo Basin : Aka pygmies, Baka pygmies,
in Andamans Islands: Aka Bea pygmies,
in African Rift Valley Hadza ancestors: Aka Kaanebe (per Hadza Oral History)
and Lake Malawi: Aka Fula pygmies (per Bantu Oral History).

Sandawe KhoiSan of Rift make conical huts = Sandhu = Xanadu Mongolian camp
Bambatwa pygmies of southern Congo speak with clicks and keep hearths in their huts, while other pygmies don't click and keep the campfire outside the hut.

I'd guess that the Melanesian self-name Kanak (including Samoan: Tanata and Hawaiian: Kanaka) is derived from A.ka.na, as is Ashanti/Akan language of Ghana.

Sandawe (Wassandaui) of Tanzania near Bubu and Mpondwe Rivers.

- - -


"The Hadza's oral history of their own past is divided into four epochs, each inhabited by a different culture. According to this tradition, in the beginning of time, the world was inhabited by hairy giants called the Akakaanebe or Gelanebe, "ancestors". The Akakaanebe did not possess tools or fire; they hunted game by staring at it and it fell dead; they ate the meat raw. They did not build houses but slept under trees, as the Hadza do today in the dry season. In older versions of this story, fire was not used because it was physically impossible in the earth's primeval state, while younger Hadza, who have been to school, say that the Akakaanebe simply did not know how.
In the second epoch, the Akakaanebe were succeeded by the Tlaatlanebe, equally gigantic but without hair. Fire could be made and used to cook meat, but animals had grown more wary of humans and had to be chased and hunted with dogs. The Tlaatlanebe were the first people to use medicines and charms to protect themselves from enemies and initiated the epeme rite. They lived in caves.
The third epoch was inhabited by the Hamakwabe "nowadays", who were smaller than their predecessors. They invented bows and arrows, and containers for cooking, and mastered the use of fire. They also built houses like those of Hadza today. The Hamakwabe were the first of the Hadza's ancestors to have contact with non-foraging people, with whom they traded for iron to make knives and arrowheads. The Hamakwabe also invented the gambling game lukuchuko.
The fourth epoch continues today and is inhabited by the Hamaishonebe, "modern". When discussing the Hamaishonebe epoch, people often mention specific names and places, and can approximately say how many generations ago events occurred."[15]

The Hadza received introgression from a hominid that split off from our lineage 1.2-1.3 million years ago.
The last sweep of hairlessness (dark skin genes) occurred in Africa 1.2 million years ago.
1.3 Million year old introgression = hairy ergaster, hairy giants without fire

The Hadza's are "little people" dominated by Y Hap A and therefore closest to "Former Y Adam" (160k old A not 270k+ year old A00). Neighbor tribes of little people, and possibly the Hadza, also have 700k introgression.
700K introgression = Kabwe/ Bodo Archaic Homo Sapiens and the spread of Levaloise into Africa.
700K Introgression = African "heidelbergs," hairless giants with fire

160K- Age of Hadza's A lineage, earliest date of proto-Microliths in Africa (Aterian culture, bows and arrows, first fossils of Archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Africa).

Homo Ergaster and Homo Heidelbergensis in Africa are both extremely tall. Ergaster has been said to average 6'1 and some populations of "Archaic Homo Sapiens" reached 7' on average.

Archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens, on the other hand, are all much shorter.

Mbo people (270k old Y Hap 270k) are average global height (5'8 - 5'10) or taller, whereas all groups dominated by Y Haplogroup A (not A00) are well below global average (5 foot to 5'4).

The only other populations worldwide who exibit 5' to 5'4 average in males are those dominated by Y hap C or D or which contain basal Y Hap C.

Y hap D dominate Andaman Islanders have similar 600k Introgression.
Proto-microliths and 5' tall robust archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens appear in Northern India 150k ago alongside larger bodied Levaloise using Archaic Homo Sapiens who have been there since 600k years BP.

The 150K old 5' tall Archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens has a shoulder bone almost identical to Andamanese islanders. Other than being robust they are anatomically modern, as all early anatomically modern people were. The difference between Anatomically modern and Archaic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in this case, and in most cases, is in the features of the face and skull.

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DD'eDeN
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Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas

Tristan Charles-Dominique cs 2016
PNAS doi 10.1073/pnas.1607493113

Africa hosts contrasting communities of mammal browsers: it is the ideal
background for testing their effect on plant communities & evolution.
In this study at the continental scale, we reveal which mammal browsers
are most closely associated with spiny communities of trees.
We then show a remarkable convergence between the evolutionary histories
of these browsers (the bovids) & spiny plants.
Over the last 16 Ma, plants from unrelated lineages developed spines 55
times.
These convergent patterns of evolution suggest that the arrival &
diversification of bovids in Africa changed the rules for persisting in
woody communities.
Our data suggest that browsers predate fire by millions of years as agents
driving the origin of savannas.


Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene.
A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase
in C4 grasses, promoting fire.
Did mammals contribute to savanna expansion, by using spinescence as a
marker of mammal herbivory?
Looking at the present distribution of 1852 tree spp, we established that
spinescence is associated with 2 functional types of mammals:
- large browsers &
- medium-sized mixed feeders.



Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree spp, we found that spinescence
evolved at least 55 times.
The diversification of spiny plants
- occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans &
hyracoids,
- is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids (incl.the
antelope that predom.browse these plants today).

Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several
million years before fire-maintained savannas, probably in different
environments:
- Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates &
on nutrient-rich soils.
- Fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor
soils.
- - -



Afrotherians = elephants etc. are native to Africa.

Antelopes etc. are not from Africa, they moved in after the tectonic plate collision of Africa and EurAsia, along with many other taxa.

I claim that Homo sapiens originated in the tropical rainforest belt, mainly living along feeder streams (shallow tributaries which flowed into larger rivers or coastal estuaries) that did not have large predators (except leopards, which KhoiSan claim are the most dangerous animals to humans). Today's Congo Pygmies live in this way, choosing to camp in small forest openings which are surrounded by thickets (which grow fast when large old trees are felled by high winds above the canopy, same in temperate forest - blackberry thickets full of thorns grow quickly). While rainforest soils are generally poor in nutrients and are kept constantly moist, forest openings created by fallen trees are microclimates which have relatively rich soil (temporarily) and sun-dried surface, encouraging 'micro-savanna' conditions desirable to forest antelope seeking low-hanging foliage to browse. Similarly, in temperate forests that are logged, deer quickly invade to browse on the fallen vegetation and the new ground growth.

DDeden

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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snw.ntr = en.signat(ure/ory)

ensign (n.) 15c., "a token, sign, symbol; badge of office, mark or insignia of authority or rank;" also "battle flag, flag or banner of a ship or troop of soldiers," via Scottish, from Old French enseigne (12c.) "mark, symbol, signal; flag, standard, pennant," from Latin insignia (plural); see insignia, which is a doublet of this word.

sequel (n.) Look up sequel at Dictionary.comearly 15c., "train of followers," from Old French sequelle (14c.), from Late Latin sequela "that which follows, result, consequence," from sequi "to follow, come after, follow after, attend, follow naturally," from PIE root *sekw- (1) "to follow" (source also of Sanskrit sacate "accompanies, follows," Avestan hacaiti, Greek hepesthai "to follow," Lithuanian seku "to follow," Latin secundus "second, the following," Old Irish sechim "I follow"). Meaning "con.sequence" is attested from late 15c.

signet: late Middle English: from Old French, or from medieval Latin signetum, diminutive of signum ‘token, seal.’


sign (v.) Look up sign at Dictionary.comc. 1300, "to make the sign of the cross," from Old French signier "to make a sign (to someone); to mark," from Latin signare "to set a mark upon, mark out, designate; mark with a stamp; distinguish, adorn;" figuratively "to point out, signify, indicate," from signum (see sign (n.)). Sense of "to mark, stamp" is attested from mid-14c.; that of "to affix one's name" is from late 15c. Meaning "to communicate by hand signs" is recorded from 1700. Related: Signed; signing.sign (n.) Look up sign at Dictionary.comearly 13c., "gesture or motion of the hand," especially one meant to communicate something, from Old French signe "sign, mark," from Latin signum "identifying mark, token, indication, symbol; proof; military standard, ensign; a signal, an omen; sign in the heavens, constellation," according to Watkins, literally "standard that one follows," from PIE *sekw-no-, from root *sekw- (1) "to follow" (see sequel).

Ousted native token. Meaning "a mark or device having some special importance" is recorded from late 13c.; that of "a miracle" is from c. 1300. Zodiacal sense in English is from mid-14c. Sense of "characteristic device attached to the front of an inn, shop, etc., to distinguish it from others" is first recorded mid-15c. Meaning "token or signal of some condition" (late 13c.) is behind sign of the times (1520s). In some uses, the word probably is a shortening of ensign. Sign language is recorded from 1847; earlier hand-language (1670s).

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Similarities of Olmec/Mayan/Aztec calendar and Chinese calender: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/mayan-calendar-similar-ancient-chinese-early-contact-006612?nopaging=1

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DD'eDeN
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AustroAsiatic, Malay, Mbabaram gene analysis, SEA

http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2016/09/modern-southeast-asian-population.html

Nice pictures/maps.
- - -

Linguistically, the Austroasiatic languages (whose range is illustrated on the map below) are most familiarly represented by Vietnamese, even though Vietnam itself has a larger Han Chinese genetic component than it does an Austroasiatic one, due to migrations from Chinese rice farming populations into mainland Southeast Asia in the Bronze Age or later, very roughly contemporaneous with the Austronesian expansions.

These Chinese mass migrations, however, had far less impact on Island Southeast Asia than they did on mainland Southeast Asia. Other Austroasiatic languages are Khmer (a.k.a. Cambodian), Munda (spoken by some populations in Northern India who have ancestors in Southeast Asia), Nicobarese (spoken in the Southern Andamanese islands but not believed to be the language of the oldest layer of the indigenous Andamanese people whose language is widely classified as a language isolate).

Austroasiatic Language Map Per Wikipedia

South Asian migration to the region dates to about 2,500 years ago, but is very modest outside geographically adjacent Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar). Most of this migration was limited to South Asian elites who left only a little genetic footprint in the long run.

The supplementary materials also include an interesting TreeMix figure that highlights the ancestry of some notable negrito populations of the region which don't appear to be described in the figure above, although regrettably, the TreeMix figure is without a legend and the color scheme is not the same in this chart as in the one above from the same paper. The genetics of some of these populations are remarkably distinct from each other for populations that are often lumped in a single bucket by anthropologists.

The (closed access) paper and its abstract are as follows:

Alexander Mörseburg, et al., "Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians," European Journal of Human Genetics (15 June 2016).

The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/worlds-oldest-snowshoe-found-in-italys.html#IdVpFFKiplos9doB.97

" The discovery was made close to where the frozen, mummified remains of a Neolithic hunter were found by two German hikers 25 years ago. Since nicknamed Oetzi after a local mountain range, the mummified corpse has revealed a wealth of information on what people of the period wore and ate, how they hunted and armed themselves and how they travelled.

He is believed to have died 5,300 years ago as a result of a violent attack – he was shot by an arrow and then possibly hit with a blunt instrument such as a club. Scientists at the press conference said the discovery of the snowshoe was “exceptional”. "The shoe is evidence that people in the Neolithic period were living in the Alps area and had equipped themselves accordingly," said Dr Catrin Marzoli, the director of the province’s cultural heritage department. "

- - -

Might Otzi have used and left a coracle/snow-saucer in a glacial valley nearby?

I've speculated that coracles were used to transport ice-blocks (wrapped in [gold-sticky-buttered] sheepskins {as in Jason's Golden Fleece} &/or reeds?) downstream from the Taurus/Zagros mountains to Mesopotamian river-side ice-storehouses, similar to later Roman sherbet methods. Otzi had arsenic-bronze residue and copper tools, so if he had a coracle it was probably ballasted with a metal umbo, which would make it stronger in white-water and a better snow-sliding-saucer. [www.amazon.com] [Note: "paricon" very close to parical (India:coracle) and parasol.]
Note: Buckler(round-shield) ~ bungalow/burglar(house-thief)/byre(OEdial. hut, cow shed)/mongolu(Mbuti:dome hut) [en.wikipedia.org]

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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Note: BaYaka = BiAka = Bye.Aka(clan) = Ba.ngla/Bungalo/mbuangualua/mongolu/buckler shield
- - -

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/tracing-path-of-pygmies-shared.html#RLdbbIDwCqulzDa1.97

Tracing the path of pygmies' shared knowledge of medicinal plants

When members of the BaYaka Pygmies living in the northern Republic of Congo get sick, they don't just go to

The findings show the important role of marital bonds in passing information to otherwise distant families.

"We found that long-term pair bonds between men and women allowed otherwise distant families to combine information on medicinal uses of plants," Salali says. "Living in multi-family camps, on the other hand, enabled Pygmies to exchange and accumulate plant knowledge related to cooperative foraging and social beliefs."

The most commonly reported medicinal uses of plants were for treating digestive and respiratory disorders. The BaYaka also use some plants for collecting caterpillars or honey and as a poison for killing monkeys or fish. Other plants were used to regulate social life, including matters concerning lying or sexual taboos.

- - -

Compare to KhoiSan !Xharo trade of etched eggshells & water bottle gourds (opo/calabash) & coconuts (Malay:kelapa)

- - -

Genetics of African Khoesan populations maps to Kalahari Desert geography

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/genetics-of-african-khoesan-populations.html#wYXp5CWJwHHAEDus.97











Genetics of African Khoesan populations maps to Kalahari Desert geography

Geography and ecology are key factors that have influenced the genetic makeup of human groups in southern Africa...

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xyambuatlaya

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DD'eDeN
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Dear "Sub-Saharan" genetics paper authors, are you "Sub-Canadian"?

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xyambuatlaya

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Tukuler
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Yup, sub brings inferiority to mind
which is why it was coined to
replace 'south of Sahara'.

The whole concept is bankrupt
since Sahel and Savannah
folk differ little from folk
of the Sahara.

Doc Ben taught us over 40 years ago that it's
The Black Man's North and East Africa


Way back in my university days
a Mzabi friend of mine used that
book to sit his Holy Quran upon.

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DD'eDeN
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Interesting articles at Academia.edu

Ryan Schacht Ryan Schacht
University of Utah, Anthropology, Post-Doc


The evolution of monogamy in response to partner scarcity

The evolution of monogamy and paternal care in humans is often argued to have resulted from the needs of our expensive offspring. Recent research challenges this claim, however, contending that promiscuous male competitors and the risk of cuckoldry limit the scope for the evolution of male investment. So how did monogamy first evolve? Links between mating strategies and partner availability may offer resolution. While studies of sex roles commonly assume that optimal mating rates for males are higher, fitness payoffs to monogamy and the maintenance of a single partner can be greater when...

Şevket Dönmez Şevket Dönmez
İstanbul üniversitesi, Archaeology, Faculty Member

“Türk Kurgan Kültürünün Trakya’da Bulunan İlk Örneği”, # Tarih 25 (Haziran 2016). 16-17.


Marianne Mödlinger Marianne Mödlinger
Université Bordeaux-Montaigne, IRAMAT-CRPAA, Post-Doc


A Re-evaluation of inverse segregation in prehistoric As-Cu objects

This study revaluates reported cases of prehistoric As-Cu objects with ‘silvery surfaces’, which are usually interpreted as the result of inverse segregation. Further possible explanations for such surfaces, such as an arsenic-rich α-solid solution, cementation, or post-depositional precipitation, are discussed. The segregation of arsenic was studied in As-Cu ingots produced in chill cast moulds at several compositions, which underwent surface treatment with an NaCl solution. The microstructure and surfaces of the As-Cu alloys were analysed using optical microscopy and SEM-EDXS. Special...

Gregory Mumford Gregory Mumford
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Anthropology, Faculty Member


The Sinai Peninsula, a special issue of the Journal for Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, vol. 7.1 (Lexington: the University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition, 2015), Edited by Gregory D Mumford (See JAEI for pdfs of issue contents; details attached)

SUMMARY: The Sinai Peninsula is a vast region, encompassing around 60,000 square kilometers with hundreds, if not thousands of archaeological sites, only a relative small sample of which have been fully explored. The Sinai attracted people in ancient times and continues to do so today, whether as a dwelling place, an area rich in resources, a defensive zone, a refuge, a holy site, or simply as a land through which merchants, armies, emissaries, and others might travel from one region to another. The papers presented here contribute to a greater understanding and appreciation of the rich...


János Jakucs János Jakucs
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Centre for the Humanities, Institute of Archaeology, Department Member


János Jakucs et alii and Alasdair Whittle: Between the Vinča and Linearbandkeramik Worlds: The Diversity of Practices and Identities in the 54th–53rd Centuries cal BC in Southwest Hungary and Beyond

Perhaps nowhere in European prehistory does the idea of clearly-defined cultural boundaries remain more current than in the initial Neolithic, where the southeast–northwest trend of the spread of farming crosses what is perceived as a sharp divide between the Balkans and central Europe. This corresponds to a distinction between the Vinča culture package, named for a classic site in Serbia, with its characteristic pottery assemblage and absence of longhouses, and the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), with equally diagnostic but different pottery, and its apparently culturally-diagnostic longhouses,...

Damien Flas Damien Flas
Université de Toulouse 2 - Jean Jaurès, TRACES Travaux et Recherches Archéologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés UMR 5608, Faculty Member


Reassessment of the Lower Palaeolithic (Acheulean) presence in the western Tien Shan

Kulbulak (Uzbekistan) is among the most important Paleolithic sites in Central Asia. Based on excavations from the 1960s to the 1980s, a stratigraphic sequence yielding 46 archeological horizons of the Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic has been described. The lowermost 22 layers were at that time defined as Acheulean, both in cultural and chronological aspects. Based on these previous works, Kulbulak has thus often been cited as one of the rarest occurrences of Lower Paleolithic and Acheulean in the region. However, this attribution was debatable. New excavations at Kulbulak in 2007–2010...


Mariarita Sgarlata Mariarita Sgarlata
Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Umanistiche, Faculty Member


Dalla catacomba ai loca sancta: la storia archeologica di Lucia

Karim Sadr Karim Sadr
University of the Witwatersrand, Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, Faculty Member


THE EFFECT OF URBAN SPRAWL ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES BETWEEN JOHANNESBURG AND THE RIVER VAAL: A GIS STUDY

Urban sprawl destroys archaeological sites. This paper examines the current urban sprawl of Johannesburg and its effect on the Iron Age and colonial ruins between the Witwatersrand Ridge and the River Vaal. Freely available satellite imagery and other relevant spatial data are analysed with open source Geographical Information System (GIS) and statistical software, in order to measure the damage done to archaeological sites. Among other things, this will improve the analysis of past settlement patterns.

Karim Sadr Karim Sadr
University of the Witwatersrand, Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, Faculty Member


REDUCING INTER-ANALYST VARIABILITY IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF IRON AGE STONE-WALLED STRUCTURES FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY OF THE SOUTHERN GAUTENG PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

Previous remote sensing studies of South African Iron Age stone-walled ruins revealed considerable variation in how different analysts subjectively classify the ruins into one or another of several architectural types. In our previous studies, such high disagreement in classifying individual ruins co-existed, curiously, with similarity in the regional site distribution maps produced by the different analysts. Here, we propose and test two hypotheses to explain this anomaly and to help reduce inter-analyst variations in classifying the ruins. We find support for both hypotheses. Our results...

Noémi S Müller Noémi S Müller
British School at Athens, Fitch Laboratory, Department Member


Modelling thermal stresses in prehistoric cooking ware

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The Black Prince of Florence
1531 - 1537
Alessandro de' Medici, Head of State
Last legitimate heir of Lorenzo the Magnificent
by Catherine Fletcher

Miami Today: Books

 -

https://www.bol.com/nl/p/the-black-prince-of-florence/9200000051225928/

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Oldest-ever proteins extracted from 3.8-million-year-old African ostrich shells;

Dmanisi(Georgia, Caucasus) 1.7ma rhino, horse & deer teeth enamel.

Ann Gibbons 16.9.16

Scientists have smashed through another time barrier in their search for
ancient proteins from fossilized teeth & bones, adding to growing
excitement about the promise of using proteins to study extinct animals &
humans >1 Ma.
Until now, the oldest sequenced proteins are largely acknowledged to come
from a 700-ka horse in Canada's Yukon territory, despite claims of
extraction from much older dinosaurs.
<http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/06/signs-ancient-cells-and-proteins-fo
und-dinosaur-fossils>.

Geneticists (7th Internat.Sympos.Biomol.Archaeol.) reported extraction of
proteins from
- 3.8-Ma ostrich egg-shells in Laetoli &
- 1.7-Ma tooth enamel of extinct horses, rhinos & deer in Dmanisi.

Enrico Cappellini & Matthew Collins said their team had extracted &
decoded 5000 amino-acids from a half-dozen proteins, which they will now
analyze to determine the animals' sex, species etc.
Collins also reported that his team has extracted proteins from 3.8-Ma
ostrich egg-shells from Laetoli.
<http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/02/early-humans-toed-line>
Although such ancient proteins have not yet been recovered form hominin
fossils, these studies prove that such ancient proteins can survive, and
are fast becoming a resource to mine for information about the biology of
organisms too old to produce ancient DNA.

<http://www.sciencemag.org/category/archaeology>
doi 10.1126/science.aah7314

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xyambuatlaya

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https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/2016/09/18/archaeologists-find-worlds-oldest-fishhooks-on-okinawa-island/

the early modern humans who lived on tiny Okinawa Island between mainland Japan and Taiwan nearly 30,000 years ago are the world’s oldest known anglers. Now, archaeologists have discovered the oldest known fishhooks in a limestone cave in the island’s interior, dating back nearly 23,000 years. The fishhooks, all carved from shells, were found in Sakitari Cave, which was occupied seasonally by fishermen taking advantage of the downstream migrations of crabs and freshwater snails. Unlike their mainland counterparts, who fashioned tools and beads out of shells and stones, the ancient people of Okinawa Island used shells almost exclusively. Japanese archaeologists excavating the cave discovered both a finished and an unfinished fishhook that had been carved and ground from sea snail shells. By radiocarbon dating pieces of charcoal found in the same layer as the fishhooks, the researchers determined the hooks were between 22,380 and 22,770 years old. Accounting for margin of error, that gives them an edge over similar fishhooks found in East Timor (between 23,000 and 16,000 years old) and New Ireland in Papua New Guinea (20,000 to 18,000 years old). The findings lend support to the idea that these early modern humans were more advanced with maritime technology than previously thought, and that they were capable of thriving on small, geographically isolated islands.

See Fishing techniques of the Jomon people may have diffused from fishermen of the Wallacea-Spice Islander / Sundaland-Sahul region

This finding would also be more concordant with Matsumoto’s GM study The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobin G which found that none of the Japanese populations surveyed, including the Ainu or those from the Okinawa and southern islands shared the same GM marker pattern as southern Melanesian or Micronesian groups southern group, who showed a remarkably high frequency of the afb1b3 marker (excepting a very small component of the mainland Japanese in Osaka and Sendai that attributable to later admixing influxes from the continent). Other Japanese early fishing technology have shown similarities to prehistoric Northeast Pacific Rim fishing lithics.

- - -

Jomon (Pygmy) people, lived in dome huts per Ainu oral history

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Aka Pygmies of NE India [Assam] (Hruso, Hrusso)

Hiphop Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7epBWBzjjdY&feature=youtu.be

Songe Nimasow and friend Khandu Degio rap in the endangered Aka language of Arunachal Pradesh, India, near Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Bhutan and China.

Guy on right appears to be a Asian Pygmy. I'd heard of Burmese pygmies, I think these are them.

Words seem like Malay pronunciation but different

cf Aka Bea Pygmies of Andaman Islands
cf Aka, Baka, Bayaka Pygmies of Congo
cf Samre Pear Negritos of Cambodia

Wikipedia: Aka

"Aka (tribe)" redirects here. For the Pygmy tribe in Africa, see Aka people. For the subtribe of Hani, see Akha people.

Aka Alternative names: Hrusso[1]

The Aka, also known as Hrusso, are found in the Thrizino (cultural hub), Bhalukpong (commercial hub), Buragaon, Jamiri, Palizi, Khuppi area in West Kameng of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.

The Aka share strong cultural affinities with the Miji, and intermarriage with the Miji is prevalent.[3] Handicrafts, basket weaving and wood carving are the principal arts among the Aka tribe.

Dual language[edit]

Among the Aka live a second group of people, with their own language, the Koro. They are culturally integrated with the Aka, but have somehow maintained their separate, only distantly related Tibeto-Burman language. Koro has more similarities with the Tani language group, in easternmost Tibet. There are thought to be 800 to 1200 remaining speakers of Koro, and 4,000 to 6,000 speakers of Aka.

Face tattooing is another notable feature among some Aka. Especially in the case of the women, they tattoo their faces in a straight line from the forehead to the chin (cf Ainu women, West Coast AmerIndian women)

The Aka are mainly Animists–who are described to follow a variant of the Nyezi-No religion, which means Sky and Earth.[5]

Shizhou proved to be the most popular form of magic ritual among the Aka, and anybody who is angry may resort to conduct Shizhou rituals on his foe.

The rituals of Shizhou involve slaughtering a dog, draining the blood from its head, and either sprinkling a few drops of the blood onto the enemy undetected, throwing them into his house, or burning them in his hearth. If the ritual succeeds, the enemy is supposed to lose his life.
- - -
The area around is hill forest with cloud orchards, orchids, hoolok gibbons, crocs...

Aka linked to Hani Negritos of Thailand, Koro linked to Tani of Tibet.

http://www.webindia123.com/arunachal/people/akas.htm

http://www.ethnologue.com/language/hru

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Black Florida: Photo-documentary book of black communities of southern Florida, by Johanne Rahaman (from Trinidad, now living in Miami)

blackflorida.org {photo archive}

(Unfortunately, I can't access the site from Miami Public Library, perhaps because it is "Uncategorized". "Access to blackflorida.org is blocked according to the organization security policy")

http://block.mdpls.org/UserCheck/PortalMain?IID=7B8B2F35-881B-80D9-B036-AB1D0919E670&origUrl=aHR0cDovL2JsYWNrZmxvcmlkYS5vcmcv

Article in Miami New Times, Sept 22 2016
---
Also "Luke's Gospel" weekly article

Luke Records Returns
(Formerly of 2LiveCrew, He discovered Pitbull, TrickDaddy, etc., now restarting the record label)

Twitter: @unclelukereal1

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http://www.unz.com/gnxp/the-dead-weight-of-culture/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=the-dead-weight-of-culture

Razib writes on the current wealth of countries ruled by the Hapsburg empire:

"The map to the right shows GDP per capita in the European Union in 2014 broken down by regions. I’ve long observed that the wealthiest regions of Europe are disproportionately those which were long under Habsburg rule. This fact transcends ethnicity and religion. Catholic northern Italy, Catholic southern Germany, as well as Protestant Netherlands, are all notably economically productive, and were long under Habsburg rule or hegemony.

The observation is just that, an observation. I have no grand theory to explain what is going on. "

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xyambuatlaya

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Zika Virus - first detected at Ziika forest of Uganda near Lake Victoria

The scientists named it “Zika” — Ziika means “overgrown” in the local Luganda language, but the second “i” was dropped by colonialists who misheard its pronunciation.

[DD: Ziika ~ dziungla/jungle = cutover thicket]

Decades later, Zika Forest and the surrounding environs are overgrown once more. Like many semi-urban areas in Africa, it has suffered from human encroachment. In 1947, Uganda’s population was about 4.5 million; today, it is nearly 40 million.


Shape: http://www.bing.com/images/search?view=detailV2&ccid=ykM84rJI&pccid=PX54BwOv&id=5587EB1CBB035568969FF88E93A2A3D6DD4627C0&pmid=4723E2B36FFECBFBB0EDAFF9FD844F602F7D5C6B&q=zika%20viru s%20shape&qpvt=West%20Nile%20Virus%20Cell%20Structure&psimid=608028694382839350&iss=VSI&selectedIndex=6&count=35&adlt=strict

appears like 12 starfish twisting

Zika Virus in same family as West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever. Does not affect strongly people of Uganda, the mosquitoes prefer to bite high canopy monkeys. But Zika in America is in a different mosquito, much more aggressive to humans.

Possibility that small brains/crania of gorillas compared to their body size might be related to this?

- - -

birth defects - small cranium

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Zika+Disease&FORM=IRIBIP

Here in South Florida, weekly spraying of Naled to kill mosquitoes, Bt to kill waterborne larvae.

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xyambuatlaya

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http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/science/ancient-dna-human-history.html?&moduleDetail=section-news-0&action=click&contentCollection=Science®ion=Footer&module=MoreInSection&vers ion=WhatsNext&contentID=WhatsNext&pgtype=article

NYTimes article on only 1 OOA

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xyambuatlaya

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http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2016-09-01-1472759565-493250-extreme_extreme_vetting.jpg

Deaths in US caused by various causes (terrorists, hit by bus, toddler with gun etc.)

How do the numbers compare to the spate of Police killings of young black men?

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xyambuatlaya

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https://anthropology.net/2016/09/23/the-oldest-humans-aboriginal-australians/

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Oldest Azwan stone detching 4,300 years old pictographs of gazelles, ostriches, cattle

http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/9/40/193114/Heritage/Ancient-Egypt/Holy-predynastic-graffiti-uncovered-in-Aswan.aspx

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xyambuatlaya

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http://www.gocomics.com/getfuzzy/2016/09/25

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xyambuatlaya

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http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature18299.html

https://anthropology.net/2016/09/23/the-oldest-humans-aboriginal-australians/

But, note that the Australians were not mBabaram/Barrinean Pygmies, they were Pama-Nguyen (Open sky).

Most likely the Papuans were not Yali Pygmies but nDani (Open sky).

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xyambuatlaya

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Oran/Oranian culture @ Maju's blog: http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.com/2010/11/sunghir-ancient-mtdna-is-it-h1727.html?showComment=1474813099799

{Oran, Algieria = 2 lions = Aurah/Ari.El/Abrm(H)/dawn/tawn=tan/Lion.El, Oroan-roan-red-ore-ochre; Tangier/tangerine - Oro/Oran/orange/Orient}

"The only circumstance when this makes sense to have happened is at the genesis of the Oranian/Iberomaurusian culture, which is likely related to Iberian (Gravetto-)Solutrean, which has dates c. 22 Ka ago. The fact that we find several unmistakable H lineages in Taforalt (Oranian culture, 12 Ka ago, Kefi 2005) rather confirms this process of spread and demands at least Solutrean ages for mtDNA H1, H3, H4 and H7."

- - -

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2106866-five-wild-lionesses-grow-a-mane-and-start-acting-like-males/?utm_source=NSNS&utm_medium=ILC&utm_campaign=webpush&cmpid=ILC%257CNSNS%257 C2016-GLOBAL-webpush-lionesses

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Kushan empire & Yuezhi/(UeXine/Ukraine/Uighur.Ay\inU.tari ~ Kushan/Khotan/Kurgan/Hogan(Navajo hut)

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/new-findings-may-unlock-mystery-of.html#EyG7qX40PvDQkzCA.97

Wang Jianxin, a professor at China's Northwest University, said they found a large tomb believed to belong to royal families of the Kangju Kingdom in Southern Uzbekistan during a joint mission by Chinese and Uzbek archaeologists that began in 2013.

Wang, who is also in charge of the joint archaeological mission, said conventional wisdom holds that the Kushan Empire was built by Dayuezhi, another ancient nomad kingdom in the area, yet it was possible that the Kushan had defeated and incorporated the Dayuezhi.

According to Wang, since September 2015, archaeological experts from the two countries have been digging 20 km southwest of the Uzbek city of Samarkand, where they found the tomb along with pottery, stoneware, and other items made of bone, bronze and iron dating back to the 2nd century BC.

However, he noted more research and evidence are needed before coming to a conclusion about the relationship between the Kushan and Dayuezhi.

Read more at https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/new-findings-may-unlock-mystery-of.html#0tMcSZukm1ULvYpj.99

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Urartu Castle sewer system

The 2,800-year-old sewage system, which was discovered in the castle in 2004, was finally unearthed under the structures in the western part of the castle. The sewage is one meter in width and 30 meters in length and covered with fine stones.

The head of the Culture and Tourism Ministry-supported excavations, Rafet Çavuşoğlu, an associate professor in the Archaeology Department of Yüzüncü Yıl University, said the Çavustepe Castle was particularly important in history because it was once located on a major trading route.

“The Urartians thought carefully about what to build and where. They did everything in line with a project. When establishing this city 2,800 years ago, the Urartians made an urban plan and built structures according to infrastructure. This is very important to us. We found an engineering marvel here,” Çavuşoğlu said.

He added that the sewage system was built with stone and inside was a gutter through which water flowed.

“This work defines civilization to us. It shows how ancient civilization was developed. There is also a toilet in the palace section. The toilet water flows outside through the sewage system, which reveals that the Urartians were a very civilized society,” Çavuşoğlu said.

“During the construction of houses today, an excellent system is planned with schools, hospitals, mosques and infrastructure. Urartians did the same 2,800 years ago,” he added.

The city established around the castle was nearly one kilometer in diameter and surrounded by protective walls, according to the excavations head.

“Measures were taken against the danger of enemies. Large dikes were opened up on both the eastern and western sides. They made their defense system in this way,” Çavuşoğlu stated.

Source: Hurriyet Daily News [September 28, 2016]
Read more at https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2016/09/2800-year-old-urartian-sewage-system.html#OEQwCIwtUyFvDVOB.99

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New-found language of Tushan (Kushan?)

http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2012/05/new-ancient-language-discovered.html

"The earliest Dravidian writings are attested around this time, but no Dravidan language has ever been attested anywhere West of Pakistan."

Around 2,150 B.C.E., the short lived Gutian dynasty of Sumer, founded by invaders from the Central Zargo Mountains seized power from the dynasty that established the Akkadian Empire.


[Ein Gedi (Hebrew:wild goat kid spring) may be from Agade (Sanskrit) health water) DD]

About 3,400 years ago (1400 B.C.E.), the Northern Zargos Mountains and this site were both home to the Mittani Empire, whose leaders spoke a Sankrit derived Indo-Aryan language. But, the Mittani Empire was long gone by 800 B.C.E.

Just to the North of the region of interest at the same time, the Uratu Kingdom was in existence in the Armenian Highlands.

One of the last attested West Eurasian non-Indo-European language was spoken in the Elamite Empire (2800 BCE to 550 BCE) in present day Iran (with proto-Elamite writings a few hundred years earlier), and according to Wikipedia: "Elamite is regarded as a language isolate and has no close relation to the neighboring Semitic languages, to the Indo-European languages, or to Sumerian, even though it adopted the Sumerian syllabic script." (I personally suspect some distant relationship between Elamite and the Sumerian, Hattic, Hurrian and Minoan languages.) These names aren't an obvious fit to any of these.

The best guess for the source of the people speaking the newly discovered language would be between Elam and the Neo-Assyrian empire. The Medes and Persians came onto the scene after the tablet was written.

Background on the author's work at this site can be found here: "He has also been working for over a decade at the site of Ziyaret Tepe in southeastern Turkey, now identified as the Neo-Assyrian provincial capital of Tushan, where he is both project epigrapher and directs excavations in the lower town."

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Papua dog/Australia dingo study

Phylogenetic analyses based upon mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct populations of dingo, one of which occurs in the northwest and the other in the southeast of the continent. Conservative molecular dating based upon mitochondrial DNA suggest that the lineages split approximately 8300 years before present, likely outside Australia but within Oceania. The close relationship between dingoes and New Guinea Singing Dogs suggests that plausibly dingoes spread into Australia via the land bridge between Papua New Guinea and Australia although seafaring introductions cannot be rejected. The geographical distribution of these divergent lineages suggests there were multiple independent dingo immigrations

[H/T GH at Human Migrations Yahoo Group; she mentioned that the mtDNA of aborigines of SE Austrl seem distinct from other Austl Aborigines.]

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_glacial_period#/media/File:IceAgeEarth.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_glacial_period

The Alps, the Himalayas, and the Northern glaciers. Anatolia was cold and dry then. Then the big melt, which raised sea levels 110m about 8ka, filling the freshwater Black sea oasis and greening the Sahara. Then 5ka the Sahara dried out again.
- - -

In reference to Otzi the Iceman's snowshoes found in the Alps and a later ski found in a Norse glacier.
- - -

I just read a book by Carl Zimmer, he said that chimps sometimes make and wear 'sandals' in thornbush areas. I didn't know that, the website I found doesn't have references:

" For one thing, chimpanzees and other apes have proved surprisingly gifted at making tools. In order to walk across thorn-covered ground, chimpanzees can fashion sandals out of leaves. In order to eat termites, they can strip sticks to create fishing tools. Unfortunately, a leaf-sandal doesn’t leave a fossil. But some researchers believe that the hands of hominids may shed some light on the mystery of tools." http://www.alearned.com/chimpanzee/
- - -
I think the 'sandals' are leaves/twigs compressed between the toes.

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3.5ka SW Greek - long Black curly hair

In 2015, archaeologists discovered a 3,500-year

old undisturbed shaft grave near the Palace of Nestor at Pylos in southwestern Greece. Excavators Dr. Shari Stocker and Professor Jack Davis describe spectacular weapons, ivory combs, seal stones, and Minoan-style gold rings, which afford unparalleled insights into art and ritual at the dawn of Mycenaean civilization. The University of Cincinnati archaeological excavations at the Palace of Nestor, Pylos resumed on May 18, 2015 for the first time since 1969. During the course of the campaign, the so-called grave of the “Griffin Warrior” was discovered a few hundred meters from the Palace.

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-D0OLR3jwCgc/V_fqnwa5RpI/AAAAAAABx5s/jG4N7rsh8BYRUvgYgtee8AMl1LxEIAhIwCLcB/s1600/Pyloswarrior01.jpg

This is the face of the mysterious 'Griffin warrior' from Pylos
Facial reconstruction of the mysterious 'Griffin warrior' from ancient Pylos
[Credit: Lynne Schepartz & Tobias Houlton,
University of the Witwatersrand]
The warrior was probably a very handsome man with long black hair, we have reconstituted his face based on a depiction of a warrior found on a seal inside the grave which will be presented next year, said to ANA-MPA Dr. Stocker. The reconstitution of the warrior's face was conducted by Lynne Schepartz and Tobias Houlton of the University of Witwatersrand of Johannesburg.

The so-called Griffin Warrior of Pylos aged between 30 and 35 was named after a griffin depicted on two objects found in the grave which indicate that the man in the grave was very important "the griffin reflects a very well known authority system that existed in Pylos and the Minoan Crete," said Stocker.

 -

The jewelry (+ 6 ivory combs) https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.gr/2016/10/lord-of-rings-rare-discovery-in-bronze.html#ZfGGw6wUzMaB1EE5.97

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The Cobalt pipeline: Tracing the path from deadly
hand-dug mines in Congo to consumers’ phones
and laptops, Todd C. Frankel, The Washington Post
[www.washingtonpost.com]

https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/business/batteries/congo-cobalt-mining-for-lithium-ion-battery/

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I'm reading a book: People, Parasites and Plowshares.

Interesting hypothesis about Southern Whites of Confederacy, hookworms causing anemia/"laziness" brought to the South by enslaved Africans. Rockefeller established a medical foundation, found that soil type mattered, hard clay resisted hookworm larvae movement, but sandy loam (good for cotton plantations) allowed hookworms to travel in moist soil to infect further.

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xyambuatlaya

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NOTE: ARI (Hebrew:lion/yellow/tawny); KhoiSan: ridgeback dog; India: dog

Huge significance!!

- - -

Razib Khan's article on Andaman, and also:

http://www.unz.com/gnxp/ancient-archaic-admixture-into-the-andamanese/

http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1005397

Evidence for a Common Origin of Blacksmiths and Cultivators in the Ethiopian Ari within the Last 4500 Years: Lessons for Clustering-Based Inference
Lucy van Dorp et al

The Ari peoples of Ethiopia are comprised of different occupational groups that can be distinguished genetically, with Ari Cultivators and the socially marginalised Ari Blacksmiths recently shown to have a similar level of genetic differentiation between them (FST ≈ 0.023 − 0.04) as that observed among multiple ethnic groups sampled throughout Ethiopia. Anthropologists have proposed two competing theories to explain the origins of the Ari Blacksmiths as (i) remnants of a population that inhabited Ethiopia prior to the arrival of agriculturists (e.g. Cultivators), or (ii) relatively recently related to the Cultivators but presently marginalized in the community due to their trade. Two recent studies by different groups analysed genome-wide DNA from samples of Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators and suggested that genetic patterns between the two groups were more consistent with model (i) and subsequent assimilation of the indigenous peoples into the expanding agriculturalist community. We analysed the same samples using approaches designed to attenuate signals of genetic differentiation that are attributable to allelic drift within a population. By doing so, we provide evidence that the genetic differences between Ari Blacksmiths and Cultivators can be entirely explained by bottleneck effects consistent with hypothesis (ii). This finding serves as both a cautionary tale about interpreting results from unsupervised clustering algorithms, and suggests that social constructions are contributing directly to genetic differentiation over a relatively short time period among previously genetically similar groups.


PLOS

Published: August 20, 2015
• http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005397

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xyambuatlaya

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Fiji settled by Asians via Taiwan, not Papuans

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/game-changing-study-suggests-first-polynesians-voyaged-all-way-east-asia

The four women were from a distinct population that had no evidence of mixing with the ancestors of people living in Papua New Guinea today, as the team reports in Nature this week. Instead, the women shared all their ancestry with the indigenous Atayal people in Taiwan and the Kankanaey people in the Philippines.

Because X chromosomes are more likely to be inherited from mothers (sons get only a Y from their fathers), that suggests that much of the Melanesian DNA came through the male line, as Melanesian men interbred with Polynesian women. “The female ancestors of modern-day Oceanians are mainly Lapita, whereas their male ancestors include Papuans,” Skoglund says.

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https://www.facebook.com/sitikasim?hc_ref=NEWSFEED

The Orang Asli (aboriginal people) vs. the Forest Police of Malaya

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xyambuatlaya

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Another take on Polynesian settlement: Melanesians conquered ex-Taiwanese at Vanatua/Tonga:

http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2016/10/melanesians-conquered-tonga-and-vanuatu.html

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xyambuatlaya

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Polynesians voyaged all the way from East Asia.
< http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/game-changing-study-suggests-first-
polynesians-voyaged-all-way-east-asia>

- - -

Papua had pigs which must have been brought from China/Taiwan with Austronesians about 3ka, as pigs were not native to Papua.

Papuan pigs had no tapeworms (Taenia solis). Austronesians must have brought only suckling pigs, which had no chance to get tapeworms via feeding. In that region, human mothers may suckle piglets.

Recently Indonesia sent Balinese pigs to Papua which were infected with tapeworms, this resulted 5 years later in numerous Papuans falling into campfires, due to the pork tapeworms migrating to the brains of Papuans, who annually feast on almost raw pork. The 5 year delay was due to the long intra-intestinal larval stage, only the mature tapeworm caused delirium. [cf book: People, Parasites & Plowshares https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/recommended-people-parasites-and-plowshares/ ].

Papua is also the area where ceremonial cannibalism of deceased parents' brains produced prions (cf mad cow disease). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prion

Sugar cane is native to Papua. It may have been an early trade incentive, resulting in additional trade items back and forth (trepang, coconuts, spices, bananas, honey...) producing widespread adoption of fast long dugout logboat canoes, rather than the earlier (IMO) coracles used.

I think Papua is where the dugout logboat canoe was first invented, as a result of harvesting and later deliberate cultivation of wood boring grubs for food, resulting in empty wood shells.

Culinary uses[edit]

Sago worms in Papua New Guinea
The larval grub is considered a delicacy in Southeast Asian countries. The worm are considered a speciality in Vietnam,[27] Malaysian Borneo,[28][29] and in eastern Indonesia of West Papua, as well on Papua New Guinea.[30] Sago grubs have been described as creamy tasting when raw, and like bacon or meat when cooked. They are often prepared with sago flour. In Vietnam, the larvae are usually eaten alive with fish sauce. Other methods of cooking include toasting and steaming. They are eaten with sticky rice and salad or cooked with porridge. The larvae are known in the Vietnamese language as đuông dừa ("coconut beetle-larva").[27] The larvae are also eaten either raw or roasted in Malaysian Bornean states of Sabah and Sarawak, and regarded as a special high-nutrient meal among the natives there like the Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau and the Dayak.[29][31] It is called in Sabah as butod.[32] The Asmat, Korowai and Kombai peoples of southern New Guinea also hold the larva in high regard as a food source.[33] Sago worms are roasted on a spit to celebrate special occasions in New Guinea.[34]
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Grain agriculture followed H & G wetland reed 'cultivation'

direct botanical evidence emphases the importance of the wetlands as an under-recognized reliable plant resource. Significantly, the use of these reliable wetland plant resources at Kharaneh IV represents an unexpected ‘Neolithization’ pathway.

Risk, Reliability and Resilience: Phytolith Evidence for Alternative ‘Neolithization’ Pathways at Kharaneh IV in the Azraq Basin, Jordan

‘Neolithization’ pathway refers to the development of adaptations that characterized subsequent Neolithic life, ...

Our ancestors chose reeds over grain when quitting nomadic life

Fig 1. Location map of Kharaneh IV and the other sites mentioned. When ancient hunter-gatherers first began t...

PLOS 1, Pileta blog

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Siberian sculpture of Caucasian was altered to Sinitic

http://siberiantimes.com/other/others/features/f0264-siberias-stone-idols/

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Our Ancestors Were Breeding With At Least Four, But Potentially More Species Of Other Hominins
http://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/our-ancestors-were-breeding-with-at-least-four-but-potentially-more-species-of-other-hominins/

" But that wasn't the only cross-species sex our ancestors got up to. Known
only from a few fragments of bones, the enigmatic Denisovans evolved from
the same branch that gave rise to the Neanderthals, and are thought to
contribute to between 3 and 5 percent of the genomes of aboriginal
Australians. That is literally all we know about the Denisovans.

But even more mysteriously, it seems that there is genetic evidence for
another species that may have lived in Southeast Asia around the same time
as the Denisovans and us.
While no physical fossils have ever been found, genetic analysis of Pacific
Islanders seems to show that a distinct species of ancient human, thought to
be another sister group to the Neanderthals and Denisovans, may have been
breeding with our ancestors as they moved into Southeast Asia. Who these may
have been, nobody knows. Some suggest that the environment in this part of
the world means that fossils are unlikely to survive, while others argue
that as we know so little about the genetic diversity of the Denisovans,
this mysterious DNA could still be from them.

Yet this is not the first time that researchers have discovered what they
think is evidence for an ancient species of human hidden in our genes.
Analysis of people's genetics in Africa show that something similar may have
occurred there too, with suggestions of another cross-species romance. But
there is still a hole in African genetics.

"Africans have been underrepresented in genetics research - they're not as
well studied as European and Asian populations, yet they are more diverse
genetically than any other group," Dr Bohlender said.

With the rich evolutionary history of hominins within Africa, this will
likely yield even more interbreeding events, and it is highly likely there
are other yet to be revealed instances from other parts of the planet. As
ever, things are never quite as straightforward as they first seem."

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025791/

The Y-chromosome landscape of the Philippines: extensive heterogeneity and varying genetic affinities of Negrito and non-Negrito groups

Frederick Delfin,1,2 et al.

Abstract

The Philippines exhibits a rich diversity of people, languages, and culture, including so-called ‘Negrito' groups that have for long fascinated anthropologists, yet little is known about their genetic diversity. We report here, a survey of Y-chromosome variation in 390 individuals from 16 Filipino ethnolinguistic groups, including six Negrito groups, from across the archipelago. We find extreme diversity in the Y-chromosome lineages of Filipino groups with heterogeneity seen in both Negrito and non-Negrito groups, which does not support a simple dichotomy of Filipino groups as Negrito vs non-Negrito. Filipino non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome lineages reflect a chronology that extends from after the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, to the time frame of the Austronesian expansion. Filipino groups appear to have diverse genetic affinities with different populations in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, some Negrito groups are associated with indigenous Australians, with a potential time for the association ranging from the initial colonization of the region to more recent (after colonization) times. Overall, our results indicate extensive heterogeneity contributing to a complex genetic history for Filipino groups, with varying roles for migrations from outside the Philippines, genetic drift, and admixture among neighboring groups.

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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/World_Map_of_Y-DNA_Haplogroups.png

Colorized world map of Y-DNA haplogroups

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Melanin 'goddess' of Senegal

http://www.boredpanda.com/dark-skin-model-melanin-goddess-khoudia-diop/

Her facial bone structure seems to be EurAsian?

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Free electricity?

https://media.giphy.com/media/3oEjHTcwpRZ2nTdSkE/giphy.gif

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xyambuatlaya

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Common chimps x bonobo chimps = hybridization of Central common chimps, not in West or East African chimps

Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos
Marc de Manuel ... Christina Hvilsom ... 2016
Science

Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees & bonobos have a complex
demographic history.
We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimps &
bonobos from 10 countries in Africa:
chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good
predictor of geographic origin at country & regional scales.
Multiple lines of evidence suggest:
gene-flow occurred from bonobos into the ancestors of central & eastern
chimps between 200 & 550 ka, probably with subsequent spread into
Nigeria-Cameroon chimps.
Together with another, possibly more recent contact after 200 ka,
bonobos contributed < 1 % to the central chimpanzee genomes.
Admixture thus appears to have been widespread during hominid evolution.

- - -

Ethiopian Rift dynamics

A pulse of mid-Pleistocene rift volcanism in Ethiopia at the dawn of
modern humans
William Hutchison cs 2016
Nature

The Ethiopian Rift Valley hosts the longest record of human co-existence
with volcanoes on Earth,
but current understanding of the magnitude & timing of large explosive
eruptions in this region is poor.

Detailed records of volcanism are essential for
- interpreting the palaeo-environments occupied by our hominin ancestors,
- evaluating the volcanic hazards posed to the 10 million people currently
living within this active rift zone.

Here we use new geo-chronological evidence to suggest:
a 200 km-long segment of rift experienced a major pulse of explosive
volcanic activity between 320 & 170 ka.
During this period,
- at least 4 distinct volcanic centres underwent large-volume > 10 km3
caldera-forming eruptions,
- eruptive fluxes were elevated 5 times above the average eruption rate
for the past 700 ka.

We propose that such pulses of episodic silicic volcanism would have
drastically remodelled landscapes & ecosystems occupied by early hominin
populations.

- - -

Note: !hxaro Khoi-San ostrich eggshell/etch/exchange/charge/cargo

The Siberian Times reports that beads made of ostrich eggshells were discovered in Denisova Cave, which is located in the Altai Mountains. The beads measure less than one-half inch in diameter and are thought to be between 45,000 and 50,000 years old. cuevadelapileta at BlogSpot


Inuit Eskimo Body Fat Gene Derived From Denisovans

A new pre-print finds that a gene that enhances selective fitness in Arctic Inuits related to body fat, which is protective in cold temperatures, has origins in the Denisovan genome. The only prior instance of likely selective fitness enhancing Denisovan introgression was of high altitude adaptation genes in Tibetans. Among other things, this suggests non-Melanesians experienced Denisovan introgression in the area where Denisovan remains were found, even if this ancestry was subsequently highly diluted.

A recent study conducted the first genome-wide scan for selection in Inuit from Greenland using SNP chip data. Here, we report that selection in the region with the second most extreme signal of positive selection in Greenlandic Inuit favored a deeply divergent haplotype that is closely related to the sequence in the Denisovan genome, and was likely introgressed from an archaic population. The region contains two genes, WARS2 and TBX15, and has previously been associated with adipose tissue differentiation and body-fat distribution in humans. We show that the adaptively introgressed allele has been under selection in a much larger geographic region than just Greenland. Furthermore, it is associated with changes in expression of WARS2 and TBX15 in multiple tissues including the adrenal gland and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and with regional DNA methylation changes in TBX15.

Fernando Racimo, et al., "Archaic adaptive introgression in TBX15/WARS2"
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/033928 .

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https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2016/10/30/skin-deep/

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Sumerian King's List
http://asorblog.org/2016/11/01/sumerian-king-list-history-kingship-early-mesopotamia/

Note: Gushur (‘Tree-Trunk’?) [DD: Unlikely]
- - -

In fact, the native title of this composition was simply ‘Kingship’, after its first word, nam-lugal.

nam-lugal an-ta e11-da-ba / Kiš.KI lugal-am3 / Kiš.KI-a GIŠ.UR3-e /
mu 600×3+60×6 i3-na

When kingship came down from heaven, (the city of) Kish was sovereign; in Kish, Gushur exercised (kingship) for 2,160 years.

So begins the oldest SKL manuscript, which dates to the time of Shulgi (ca. 2093-2046 BCE), the second king of the Third Dynasty of Ur (also called Ur III). Later compilers apparently felt uncomfortable with the prominence accorded to the city of Kish and provided a new beginning to the composition by devising a prior descent of kingship in the Sumerian city of Eridu.

In the original version, however, Kish was likely to have been the first seat of kingship. In that city a certain Gushur (‘Tree-Trunk’?) reigned for hundreds and hundreds of years. Similarly long-lived kings of Kish reigned until the city was defeated and kingship was transferred to Uruk, or rather to Eana, the sacred precinct of Uruk.

Various kings succeeded one another in Eana until Uruk was also defeated and kingship moved to another city. The same story is repeated many times; according to the SKL, kingship continued to shift from one city to another. In this narrative, all the rulers who allegedly held sovereignty over the whole of Babylonia are listed one after the other without interruption, except for one break – a time of political confusion and anarchy, during which it was not clear who the king was.

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Built by the Huns?

http://www.livescience.com/56855-ancient-stone-monuments-discovered-along-caspian.html

A massive, 1,500-year-old stone complex that may have been built by nomad tribes has been discovered near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan.

The complex contains numerous stone structures sprawled over about 300 acres (120 hectares) of land, or more than 200 American football fields, archaeologists reported recently in the journal Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia.


"When the area was examined in detail, several types of stone structures were identified," archaeologists Andrey Astafiev, of the Mangistaus State Historical and Cultural Reserve; and Evgeniï Bogdanov, of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Department's Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, wrote in the journal article. The smallest stone structures are only 13 feet by 13 feet (4 by 4 meters), and the biggest are 112 feet by 79 feet (34 by 24 m). [See Photos of the Massive Stone Structure and Artifacts]

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Egyptian ships: rowing vs sailing, night vs day

2.1 Henet-ship and Shabet-ship
The first important observation is that, in the ship scenes of the private tombs
of the early Old Kingdom, a differentiation between two different ship types
is possible. One type encompasses wooden ships with a prow bearing the head
of a hedgehog twisted backwards,32 this ship is called Henet.33 The other type
is made up of wooden vessels whose hull imitates that of marsh ships built
from papyrus stems,34 this type of ship is named Shabet.35 Both designations
are documented starting from the early Fourth Dynasty, that is, from the time
of Khufu and Djedefra.36
The main particularities of the hedgehog-headed Henet-ship and the Shabetship
can be easily discovered through examples of both vessels from the tomb
of Seneb in Giza, which is probably to be dated in the early Fourth Dynasty.37
In this early Giza tomb both ships are shown in a single relief field on the
south wall of the southern outer post of the false door. In the top register, a
Shabet-ship is being rowed; the inscription says: hnt m Sibt, "rowing in a
Shabet-ship". In the lower register, the representation of a Henet sailboat with
a prow in the shape of the turned-back head of a hedgehog can be found. Its
action is designated by the inscription as fijt tlw m hnt, "sailing in a Henetboat"
(fig. 3).
32 V.

40 The implications connected with the Henet- and Shabet-ships shall be discussed by the author in
a study under the title "Day and Night as represented in the Reliefs of the Old K i n g d o m "
[forthcoming].

http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/1499/1/Altenmueller_Funerary_boats_2002.pdf

- - -

Any link to the difference between mongolu(mother/moon night dome hut) and kupharigolu(father/sun-fire Day bowl boat)? Note -phari- = ferry = pharaoh-perro-pulq(boatsled) hound

Diagram 1: Convoy of sailing and rowing ships in a file.
The diagram makes it clear that, in principle, the position of the individual
ships within the sequence, whether sailing or rowing, does' not change. From
there, the only conclusion is that in both cases a kind of ferrying motion is
achieved
, a perpetual to and fro between two destinations.

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