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mena7
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Indigenous American in full color - copper colored people

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Depictions of early Mexicans

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Lithograph of indigenous American women.

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Italian Blackamoor bust of a American Native

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An emblem of america


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Native Races of North and South America

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mena7
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iriquios beadwork | Historic Iroquois and Wabanaki Beadwork. Probably Iroquois queen

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Iroquois man with black hat

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Iroquois man and women

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Historic Iroquois and Wabanaki Beadwork: Goldie Jamison Conklin, a Seneca from the Allegany Reservation

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Land of the Iroquois by Robert Griffing

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Mulato Iroquois woman

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mena7
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Iroquois Indians during the French and Indian War

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Historic Iroquois and Wabanaki Beadwork: An Intriguing Narragansett & Wampanoag Image from 1925

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historic painting of a Black Mohawk Indian in Moorish style garments

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ORIGINAL PAINTINGS OF BLACK MOHAWK INDIANS IN MOORISH GARB

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Tel-maz-há-za, a Warrior of Distinction, 1834, George Catlin, oil on canvas, 29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 60.9 cm), Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

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mena7
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Customs and habits of the ancient Natives. From New York Public Library Digital Collections.

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Natives in America

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john ogilby america | ... the book America ], c1673 by Arnoldus Montanus (Ogilby), Amsterdam

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1671 Original 1st ED Arnoldus Montanus View Warrior Indian Chief North America

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Brazilian Indians roasting human body parts in 1600s (Tupinamba?)

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ndian 'races' of the Americas

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Mississippi Native Americans

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The proof is hidden in plain sight.

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It's said natives a.k.a. aboriginal American negroes couldn't grow beards Quincy Hott Said "That's A Moses Beard!" They Claim American Indians Did Not And Could Not Grow Beards Right? Allegorie Amerika, Hinterglasbild, 28 x 23 cm, Augsburg, letztes Viertel 18. Jh., nach Stichvorlage von Giovanni Volpato (1733-1803) Date 18th century

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American Indian

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Man Smoking a Pipe, Peru, 1780s Martinez Companon y Bujanda "Negro," shows a black man smoking a long stemmed pipe, holding what appears to be a long handled spade. He wears a conical cap, tattered pantaloons, and a chemise or shirt; he may have a storage pouch hanging over his chest.

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mena7
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Fruit and Vegetable Vendor, Brazil, ca. 1641 C. Ferrao and J. P. Soares Titled, "Molher Negra" (a corruption, according to the translators, of the Portuguese "mulher negra" [black woman]). The woman, with a child at her side, is carrying a basket of fruit, wearing a short skirt, large hat, and bead necklace; a white clay pipe is tucked into her skirt.

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mena7
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Queen Calafia

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Queen Califia

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Queen Calafia

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California mistaken as an island

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Queen Califa

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http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/queen-khalifa-aka-califiacalafia-the-black-empress-of-california/comment-page-1/

QUEEN KHALIFA (AKA CALIFIA/CALAFIA) THE BLACK EMPRESS OF CALIFORNIA

California, the land of the ever-living Muurish Empress Calafia/Califia. Calafia was the title of each empress. California was her land. She was known to be black of skin, of the muurish nationality, and ruled over Islands and Islands of black people, from California, Baja, to Hawaii.

A muurish Island, ruled by women. It was first mentioned in the records of the western European christians in the seventh century, and retold “The Song of Roland” where a passing mention of a place called Califerne, was made perhaps because it was the caliph’s domain. See (Putnam, Ruth (1917). Herbert Ingram Priestley. ed. California: the name. Berkeley: University of California)

Spanish conquistadors told stories about a mystical black muurish queen that ruled a State of California, situated in the same location as the present day California. The modern state of State California continues the legacy and the memory of this great black Queendom and its Queens.

CalifiabyTheArthurWright (Califia, Queen of California painting by Arthur Wright)

The Muurs and Calafia

Khalifa means God’s ruler (in Muurish Arabic).

The story of Calafia was later re-narrated in the book The Adventures of Esplandián, a book written in 1500, probably based on stories gleaned from the old Muurish seamen of Spain, Portugal, Holland, Belgium and England.

Calafia is introduced as “… a regal Muurish black woman, courageous, strong of limb and large in person, full in the bloom of womanhood, the most beautiful of a long line of queens who ruled over the mythical realm of California.”

She supposedly commanded a fleet of ships with which she ruled and maintained peace in the surrounding lands, and islands including Baja and Hawaii. She reportedly kept an aerial defense force of “griffins”, and other fabulous animals which were native to California, trained to defend the land against invanders.

She was so powerful she could project her imperial power over the seas of the mediteranean at will. The Esplandian narrates that Calafia maintained cultural and trading contacts with the Muurs of Africa. It told of her wars in the mediterranean seas, in Anatolia, the Byzantine empire and in southern Europe. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calafia#cite_ref-Sabir2004_23-1

According to the author of The Adventures of Esplandián:

“Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks.”(Putnam, Ruth (1917). Herbert Ingram Priestley. ed. California: the name. Berkeley: University of California)

The crusader and conqueror of the territory of California Hernán Cortés and his men were familiar with the book. Cortés quoted liberally from the book and it did have an influence on his decision to look for the Island of California. As governor of Mexico he sent out an ill-fated expedition of two ships, one guided by the famous pilot Fortún Ximénez. That expedition did not fare well at all and most of the ships and the men were lost.

In 1535, Cortés led an expedition back to the land of Calafia or California, and decided to re-named it Santa Cruz. However, that name did not stick, as the natives, and the Muurs and the black Indians and red Indians and so-called whites continued to use the ancient and old name of the land “California”.

Cortes himself and his contemporaries appeared to have used the name too. In 1550 and 1556, the name appears three times in reports about Cortés written by Giovanni Battista Ramusio.

Thus over the years of increasing conquest, colonization and rape of the land of California, the ancient land of the muurs has held onto its name and identity, in the knowledge that one day, it will be as it was in the beginning.

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jantavanta
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All the videos produced in the Black in Latin America series wants Henry Louis Gates Jr to make us accept that all there were no Black aboriginal Americans

http://www.pbs.org/show/black-in-latin-america/

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mena7
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Iroquois Empire

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Seneca chief cornplanterb

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leaders from five Iroquois nations (Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca) assembled around …
The Granger Collection, New York or Iroquois congress


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Distribution of Northeast Indians.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Or I think it is a Iroquois Empire.

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Thayendenaega aka Joseph Brandt Mohawk leader


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The Iroquois (/ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/ or /ˈɪrəkwɑː/) or Haudenosaunee (/ˈhoʊdənoʊˈʃoʊni/)[1] are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the "Iroquois League," and later as the "Iroquois Confederacy," and to the English as the "Five Nations" (before 1722), and later as the "Six Nations," comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora peoples.

The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, and by offering shelter to displaced peoples.

The historic Erie, Susquehannock, Wyandot (Huron), and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are often considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all culturally and linguistically descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language; however, they were traditionally enemies of the nations in the Iroquois League.[2]

In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, and about 80,000 in the United States.

Formation of the League[edit]

Iroquois painting of Tadodaho receiving two Mohawk chiefs
The Iroquois League was established prior to European contact, with the banding together of five of the many Iroquoian peoples who'd originated 'to the south'.[36][a] Reliable sources link the origins of the Iroquois confederacy to 1142 and an agricultural shift when corn was adopted as a staple crop. [37] Many archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed about 1450.[38][39] Arguments have been made for an earlier date.[note1 1]


Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawidah by Sanford Plummer
One theory argues that the League formed shortly after a solar eclipse on August 31, 1142, an event thought to be expressed in oral tradition about the League's origins.

[40][41] [42] Anthropologist Dean Snow argues that the archaeological evidence does not support a date earlier than 1450, and that recent claims for a much earlier date "may be for contemporary political purposes".[43] [Razz] .231 In contrast, other scholars note that when anthropological studies were made, only male informants were consulted, even though the Iroquois people had distinct oral traditions held by males and females, thus excluding half of the historical story which was told by women. [44] For this reason, origin tales tend to emphasize Deganawidah and Hiawatha while the role of Jigonsaseh largely remains unknown because this part of the oral history was held by women. [44]

According to oral traditions, the League was formed through the efforts of two men and one woman. They were Dekanawida, sometimes known as the Great Peacemaker, Hiawatha, and Jigonhsasee, known as the Mother of Nations, whose home acted as a sort of United Nations. They brought together two other men to create the union among tribes. Those men were tribal leaders Dekanawidah and Tadadaho. These five brought the Peacemaker's message, known as the Great Law of Peace, to the squabbling Iroquoian nations, who were fighting, raiding and feuding with one another and other tribes, both Algonkians and Iroquoian people. There were originally only five nations that joined themselves into the League giving rise to the many historic references of Five Nations of the Iroquois[b] (or as often, just "The Five Nations").[36] With the addition of the southern Tuscarora in the 17th century, these original five tribes are the others which still compose it today: the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca. There were as many, and likely a few more tribal peoples[45] including the populous Wyandot (Huron) with Iroquoian language, social organization, and cultures that were to later go extinct as tribes[c] which did not join the league when invited[d] after the decades over which the multiple bloodlettings of the Beaver Wars, and the various colonial frontier wars with the Indians, through the French and Indian War. After the end of the later, which was in effect a civil war between Iroquois who'd backed both sides,

According to legend, an evil Onondaga chieftain named Tadodaho was the last converted to the ways of peace by The Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha. He was offered the position as the titular chair of the League's Council, representing the unity of all nations of the League.[46] This is said to have occurred at Onondaga Lake near present-day Syracuse, New York. The title Tadodaho is still used for the League's chair, the fiftieth chief who sits with the Onondaga in council.

With the formation of the League, the impact of internal conflicts was minimized, the council of fifty thereafter ruled on disputes,[36] displacing raiding traditions and most of the impulsive actions by hotheaded warriors onto surrounding peoples. This allowed the Iroquois to increase in numbers while pushing down rival nations' numbers.[36] The political cohesion of the Iroquois rapidly became one of the strongest forces in 17th- and 18th-century northeastern North America; though only occasionally used as representations of all five tribes until about 1678,[36] when negotiations between the governments of Pennsylvania and New York seemed to awake the power.[36] Thereafter, the editors of American Heritage write the Iroquois became very adroit at playing the French off against the British,[36] as individual tribes had played the Swedes, Dutch, and English.[36] The editors of American Heritage magazine suggest the Iroquois spokesmen were politically sophisticated, and as manipulative as many a modern politician.[36]

As has been noted above, there were peoples who spoke languages in the same linguistic family,[36] but who were not part of the League of whom it is known were culturally similar including reputations of being as fierce, as territorial—yet before the Beaver Wars, were known to co-exist in societies which more often than not, were at peace and conducting trade with the Iroquois[36] when the French and Dutch first explored, conducted maritime fur trading and first settled North America. The explorer Robert La Salle in the 17th century identified the Mosopelea as among the Ohio Valley peoples defeated by the Iroquois[47] in the early 1670s, whereas the Erie and peoples of the upper Allegheny valley were known to have fallen earlier during the Beaver Wars, while by 1676 the Susquehannock[e] were known to be broken as a power between three years of epidemic disease, war with the Iroquois, and frontier battles as settlers took advantage of the weakened tribe.[36]

According to one theory of early Iroquois history, after becoming united in the League, the Iroquois invaded the Ohio River Valley in the territories that would become the eastern Ohio Country down as far as present-day Kentucky to seek additional hunting grounds. They displaced about 1200 Siouan-speaking tribepeople of the Ohio River valley, such as the Quapaw (Akansea), Ofo (Mosopelea), and Tutelo and other closely related tribes out of the region. These tribes migrated to regions around the Mississippi River and the piedmont regions of the east coast.[48]

Expansion[edit]
In Reflections in Bullough's Pond, historian Diana Muir argues that the pre-contact Iroquois were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose cultivation of the corn/beans/squash agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population. They made war primarily against neighboring Algonquian peoples. Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption of agriculture. This enabled them to support their own populations large enough to have sufficient warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois conquest.[49] The People of the Confederacy dispute whether any of this historical interpretation relates to the League of the Great Peace which they contend is the foundation of their heritage.[citation needed]


Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage. It depicts a battle between Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake Champlain
The Iroquois may be the Kwedech described in the oral legends of the Mi'kmaq nation of Eastern Canada. These legends relate that the Mi'kmaq in the late pre-contact period had gradually driven their enemies – the Kwedech – westward across New Brunswick, and finally out of the Lower St. Lawrence River region. The Mi'kmaq named the last-conquered land Gespedeg or "last land," from which the French derived Gaspé. The "Kwedech" are generally considered to have been Iroquois, specifically the Mohawk; their expulsion from Gaspé by the Mi'kmaq has been estimated as occurring c. 1535–1600.[50][page needed]

Around 1535, Jacques Cartier reported Iroquoian-speaking groups on the Gaspé peninsula and along the St. Lawrence River. Archeologists and anthropologists have defined the St. Lawrence Iroquoians as a distinct and separate group (and possibly several discrete groups), living in the villages of Hochelaga and others nearby (near present-day Montreal), which had been visited by Cartier. By 1608, when Samuel de Champlain visited the area, that part of the St. Lawrence River valley had no settlements, but was controlled by the Mohawk as a hunting ground. On the Gaspé peninsula, Champlain encountered Algonquian-speaking groups. The precise identity of any of these groups is still debated.

The Iroquois became well known in the southern colonies in the 17th century by this time. After the first English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia (1607), numerous 17th-century accounts describe a powerful people known to the Powhatan Confederacy as the Massawomeck, and to the French as the Antouhonoron. They were said to come from the north, beyond the Susquehannock territory. Historians have often identified the Massawomeck / Antouhonoron as the Haudenosaunee. Other Iroquoian-language tribes included the Erie, who were destroyed by the Iroquois in 1654 over competition for the fur trade.[51][page needed]

Between 1665 and 1670, the Iroquois established seven villages on the northern shores of Lake Ontario in present-day Ontario, collectively known as the "Iroquois du Nord" villages. The villages were all abandoned by 1701.[52]

Over the years 1670–1710, the Five Nations achieved political dominance of much of Virginia west of the fall line and extending to the Ohio River valley in present-day West Virginia and Kentucky. As a result of the Beaver Wars, they pushed Siouan-speaking tribes out and reserved the territory as a hunting ground by right of conquest. They finally sold the British colonists their remaining claim to the lands south of the Ohio in 1768 at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix.

Women in society[edit]
Further information: Clan Mother and Matriarchy
The Iroquois are a matriarchal Mother Clan system. No person is entitled to 'own' land, but it is believed that the Creator appointed women as stewards of the land. Traditionally, the Clan Mothers appoint leaders, as they have raised children and are therefore held to a higher regard. By the same token, if a leader does not prove sound, becomes corrupt or does not listen to the people, the Clan Mothers have the power to strip him of his leadership.

The Iroquois had a matrilineal system: women held property and hereditary leadership passed through their lines. They held dwellings, horses and farmed land, and a woman's property before marriage stayed in her possession without being mixed with that of her husband. They had separate roles but real power in the nations. The work of a woman's hands was hers to do with as she saw fit. At marriage, a young couple lived in the longhouse of the wife's family. A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband was able to ask him to leave the dwelling and take his possessions with him.[120]

The children of the marriage belong to their mother's clan and gain their social status through hers. Her brothers are important teachers and mentors to the children, especially introducing boys to men's roles and societies. The clans are matrilineal, that is, clan ties are traced through the mother's line. If a couple separated, the woman traditionally kept the children.[121] The chief of a clan can be removed at any time by a council of the women elders of that clan. The chief's sister was responsible for nominating his successor.[121]

Spiritual beliefs[edit]

Member of the False Face Society
Like many cultures, the Iroquois' spiritual beliefs changed over time and varied across tribes. Generally, the Iroquois believed in numerous deities, including the Great Spirit, the Thunderer, and the Three Sisters (the spirits of beans, maize, and squash). The Great Spirit was thought to have created plants, animals, and humans to control "the forces of good in nature", and to guide ordinary people.[122] Orenda was the Iroquoian name for the magical potence found in people and their environment.[123]

Sources provide different stories about Iroquois creation beliefs. Brascoupé and Etmanskie focus on the first person to walk the earth, called the Skywoman or Aientsik. Aientsik's daughter Tekawerahkwa gave birth to twins, Tawiskaron, who created vicious animals and river rapids, while Okwiraseh created "all that is pure and beautiful".[124] After a battle where Okwiraseh defeated Tawiskaron, Tawiskaron was confined to "the dark areas of the world", where he governed the night and destructive creatures.[124] Other scholars present the "twins" as the Creator and his brother, Flint.[125] The Creator was responsible for game animals, while Flint created predators and disease. Saraydar (1990) suggests the Iroquois do not see the twins as polar opposites but understood their relationship to be more complex, noting "Perfection is not to be found in gods or humans or the worlds they inhabit."[126]

Descriptions of Iroquois spiritual history consistently refer to dark times of terror and misery prior to the Iroquois Confederacy, ended by the arrival of the Great Peacemaker. Tradition asserts that the Peacemaker demonstrated his authority as the Creator's messenger by climbing a tall tree above a waterfall, having the people cut down the tree, and reappearing the next morning unharmed.[126] The Peacemaker restored mental health to a few of the most "violent and dangerous men", Ayonhwatha and Thadodaho, who then helped him bear the message of peace to others. [127]

After the arrival of the Europeans, some Iroquois became Christians, among them the first Native American Saint, Kateri Tekakwitha, a young woman of Mohawk-Algonquin parents. The Seneca sachem Handsome Lake, also known as Ganeodiyo,[128] introduced a new religious system to the Iroquois in the late 18th century,[129] which incorporated Quaker beliefs along with traditional Iroquoian culture.[122] Handsome Lake's teachings include a focus on parenting, appreciation of life, and peace.[128] A key aspect of Handsome Lake's teachings is the principle of equilibrium, wherein each person's talents combined into a functional community. By the 1960s, at least 50% of Iroquois followed this religion.[122]

Dreams play a significant role in Iroquois spirituality, providing information about a person's desires and prompting individuals to fulfill dreams. To communicate upward, humans can send prayers to spirits by burning tobacco.[122]

Iroquois ceremonies are primarily concerned with farming, healing, and thanksgiving. Key festivals correspond to the agricultural calendar, and include Maple, Planting, Strawberry, Green Maize, Harvest, and Mid-Winter (or New Year's), which is held in early February.[122] The ceremonies were given by the Creator to the Iroquois to balance good with evil.[126]

During healing ceremonies, a carved "False Face Mask" is worn to represent spirits in a tobacco-burning and prayer ritual. False Face Masks are carved in living trees, then cut free to be painted and decorated.[130] False Faces represent grandfathers of the Iroquois, and are thought to reconnect humans and nature and to frighten illness-causing spirits.[128] The False Face Society continues today among modern Iroquois.

Condolence ceremonies are conducted by the Iroquois for both ordinary and important people, but most notably when sachems died. Such ceremonies were still held on Iroquois reservations as late as the 1970s.[122] After death, the soul is thought to embark on a journey, undergo a series of ordeals, and arrive in the sky world. This journey is thought to take one year, during which the Iroquois mourn for the dead. After the mourning period, a feat is held to celebrate the soul's arrival in the skyworld.

"Keepers of the faith" are part-time specialists who conduct religious ceremonies. Both men and women can be appointed as keepers of the faith by tribe elders.[122]

Festivals[edit]
The Iroquois traditionally celebrate six major festivals throughout the year.[73] These usually combine a spiritual component and ceremony, a feast, a chance to celebrate together, sports, entertainment and dancing. These celebrations have historically been oriented to the seasons and celebrated based on the cycle of nature rather than fixed calendar dates.

For instance, the Mid-winter festival, Gi’-ye-wä-no-us-quä-go-wä ("The supreme belief") ushers in the new year. This festival is traditionally held for one week around the end of January to early February, depending on when the new moon occurs that year.[73]:pp.200–201

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mena7
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Iroquois around a priest dress in Saturnalian black.g
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4 Mohawk chiefs

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Iroquois city

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Past: Iroquois Indians: Iroquois Chief ( Charles de Wolf Brownell, 1873)
Black Iroquois chief, I think in part of America, Europe, Asia and West Asia the majority of the population was Brown and White but the ruling class was Black.

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Historic Iroquois and Wabanaki Beadwork: Iroquois bandolier bags

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Seneca woman Ah-Weh-Eyu (Pretty Flower), 1908. | The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution.
Mulato Iroquois wom

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mena7
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Researchers and artists have reconstructed the face of a teenage girl who lived 12,000 years ago in Mexico, and it's not the kind of face a person might typically associate with Native Americans. The remains of the girl, nicknamed Naia (after the Greek term for a water nymph), were recovered from an underwater cave on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Naia is regarded as one of the earliest known residents of the Americas

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Karl Bodmer (1809-1893) Missouri Indian/Oto Indian/Chief of the Puncas from Travels in the Interior of North America Published: London and Paris 1832-1843 Hand-colored aquatints Dimensions: Varied

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Toltec

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The Indian Queen

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Thereal
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Nice images,they look like the afro Mexican.
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osirion
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There are Black people throughout the world. Is there someone that tries to say that Blacks are limited to Sub-Saharan West Africa? Same is true for White people, they can be found in places throughout the world in the Northern areas and would have likely wandered into Northern America.

Not really interesting since those Blacks are not anyway closely related to me. Rather Greeks are closely related to me far more so than Oceanic Negroes (just a term) or the pre-Clover New Guineans that made it to the new world.

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Definition of Insanity: Doing the same thing the same way over and over again but expecting different results.

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mena7
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false face masks | 59: Iroquois False Face Booger Mask circa 1940’s-50’s : Lot 59

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false face masks | Iroquois Carved False Face Mask From the Collection of : Lot 310

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ancient warrior masks of the world - Google Search

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TLINGIT POLYCHROMED WOOD MASKETTE

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Death of Captain James Cook (Hawaii)

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Jose C. Roza Masquerade Nuptuale... - People of Color in European Art History

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mena7
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Graman Quacy, Entdecker der Quassia (1690 - 1780) was a healer, botanist of great renown throughout the Netherlands. One of his remedies was a bitter tea he used to treat infections by intestinal parasites, based on the plant Quassia amara which is named after him, as the discoverer of its medicinal properties. Quassia is still used in industrially produced medicines today. In contemporary accounts he was described as "one of the most extraordinary black men in Suriname, and perhaps the worl...

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Marten van Mytens III Portrait of a Young Black Man in Eastern European Livery Vienna (c. 1750) oil on canvas Height: 190.5 cm (75 in)W...

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Painting of an Afro-Puerto Rican soldier wearing the uniform of the Free Black Militia of Puerto Rico of 1785. Painting by José Campeche, the first known visual artist painter of Puerto Rico.

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Black people in Brazil

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Comparative analysis. Contrevorsal image of a modern individual classified as Native American and an individual from late 1800 to early 1900, Native Americans of the past. Make your own decision..

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Black Europeans

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mena7
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Mena: I think that 1/3 of African Americans are the descendants of Black Native American. The reast of African Americans are the descendants of Black Africans and Black Europeans.

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Black Native American planter of tobaco display at the Virginia Museum.

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King of California places his crown of feathers on Admiral Drakes Head

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The Atlas Miller map from Portugal depicting natives in South Americas, 1519

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mena

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Wyhl at the Kaiserstuhl (Emmendingen), St. Blasius

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Black Mohawk in Moorish Garb

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Different races, same book.
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Sebastian Cabot map depicting the natives of South America

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mena

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Huitzilopochtli - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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Through the Rabbit Hole.....Masonic Apron circa 1840's Source:

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Toussaint Louverture (180m) Historical action epic based on the life of Toussaint Louverture, who led a successful slave rebellion in the 18th century that sparked the Haitian Revolution.

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mena

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by osirion:
There are Black people throughout the world. Is there someone that tries to say that Blacks are limited to Sub-Saharan West Africa? Same is true for White people, they can be found in places throughout the world in the Northern areas and would have likely wandered into Northern America.

Not really interesting since those Blacks are not anyway closely related to me. Rather Greeks are closely related to me far more so than Oceanic Negroes (just a term) or the pre-Clover New Guineans that made it to the new world.

Dr. Keita attempts to explain Polytopicity , by claiming that although the Melanesians and Africans look similar they are not related because they speak different languages and possess disimilar genes.

Use of melanesians and Africans to exemplify Polytopicity was a bad analogy, because Africans and Melanesians are not only Negroes, they also share genes, placenames and language.

There is constant changes in the terminology for haplogroups as researchers attempt to imply that Africans carry one set of genes, and other populations outside Africa carry a different and unique set of genes. Although this is the case in many cases the populations are carrying African genes--whoes name has been changed to erase any unity between Sub-Saharan Africa and everyone else.

For example, Africans and Melanesians share haplogroups.

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In fact, they also share common placenames. Shared place names in Melanesia suggest that the Melanesians recently came to the Pacific from Africa, as claimed by the Fijians.

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The Melanesians probably belonged to the Niger-Congo and Dravidian speaking communities that formerly lived in the Sahara-Sahel region until 5-6kya. The Melanesians formerly lived in Africa and/or South China/Southeast Asia before they sailed to the Pacific Islans, probably as part of the Lapita migrations.

In figure 3 we see cognate Mande and Melanesian terms for vase, pot, arrow, cattle/ox, and fish. They also shared agricultural terms as well

  • Polynesian English Manding
    *talun fallow, land daa
    *tanem to plant daa
    *suluq torch, flame suu
    *kuDen cooking pot,bowl ku



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As you can see the Melanesians and Africans are not only negroid they also share genes, placenames and culture terms. Obviously, use of Melanesians and Africans does not support Polytopicity.

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C. A. Winters

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mena7
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Ancient American giants? 9-foot mummy allegedly found in California in 1895.

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mena

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Mississippians: and other Ancient Black Americans

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Mississippians: and other Ancient Black Americans

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Mississippians: and other Ancient Black Americans

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Mississippians: and other Ancient Black Americans

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Mississippians: and other Ancient Black Americans

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Ritual indígena en Sudamerica de Montanus, 1671
From the 1734 painting of James Oglethorpe presenting Yamacraw Indians to the Georgia Trustees in London: James Oglethorpe is holding the hand of a young Black boy.

Mena: I see that MikeIII of Real History WW maked some new picture slides on the Black Native North Americans.

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mena

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Pre-Columbian Peruvian Chancay Pottery Olla 887. Description: Pre-Columbian, Peruvian Chancay Pottery Olla Man Carrying A Lama. Pre-Columbian, Peru, North of Lima, Chancay, ca. 900 to 1300 CE. A very…

This figurine looks like Baron Samedi.

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Chamán con venado en el hombro de la Cultura de Chancay, Perú | Arte Prehispánico, Precolombino

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Figure of a Warrior, after 1325 Central Mexico, Tetzcoco?, Aztec, Post-Classic Period gold-silver-copper alloy | Cleveland Museum of Art

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Dios K'awill. Si observan bien esta escultura notaran que el pie izquierdo tiene forma de serpiente. Se dice que los Gobernantes mayas usaban a esta deidad como simbolo de su poder. Museo de Young

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/ OAXACA - Urnes funéraires. +4000 pièces. Pas destinées à recevoir le corps du défunt, contenait les denrées pour son alimentation et l'accompagnait. TC grise, ou ocre, polychromie. Récipients cylindriques et effigie. Colombin ou moule en 2 parties. Tec a varié au cours du temps, modelage/ moulage. Pigment rouge appliqué sur totalité de la pièce ou par soufflement sur certaines parties.

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Vida-Muerte - Cultura: huasteca. Medio: Arenisca, restos de pigmento. Coloque Encontrado: entre San Vicente Tancauyalab y Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, México. Fechas: 900-1250.

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mena

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