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Genetic legacy of the Paleolithic black Asians

The migration history of haplogroup D-M174 is most mysterious. By now, we have known little about the origin and dispersal of this haplogroup. This haplogroup was derived from African haplogroup DE-M1 (YAP insertion) and is associated with a short black Asian physical style. Haplogroups E and D are brother haplogroups. While haplogroup E was carried westwards to Africa by the tall black people, haplogroup D might have been carried eastwards to East Asia by the short black people (Figure 3).

Haplogroup D-M174 has high frequencies in the Andaman Negritos, the northern Tibeto-Burman populations and the Ainu of Japan, and also appears at low frequencies in other East and Southeast Asian and Central Asian populations (Figure 1) [20,22,30,31]. A northern Tibeto-Burman population, the Baima-Dee, comprises nearly 100% of haplogroup D. There are three main subclades of haplogroup D, that is, D1-M15, D2-M55 and D3-P99, and many unclassified minor sub-haplogroups. Haplogroup D1-M15 is prevalent in the Tibetans, Tangut-Chiang and Lolo, and is also found at very low frequencies among the mainland East Asian populations [32,33]. Haplogroup D2-M55 is restricted to various populations of the Japanese Archipelago. Haplogroup D3-P99 is found at high frequencies among Tibetans and several Tibeto-Burman minorities in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces that reside in close proximity to the Tibetans, such as Pumi and Naxi [32]. The paragroup D* is restricted to the Andaman Islands [31], which has been isolated for at least 20 thousand years. Some other minor haplogroups, also included in D*, can be found around Tibet. Most of the populations with haplogroup D have very dark skin color, including the Andamanese, some of the Tibeto-Burman and Mon-Khmer people. The Ainu people may have developed pale skin to absorb more ultraviolet light in high latitude regions.

For the origin of haplogroup D, Chandrasekar et al. suggested that the CT-M168 gave rise to the YAP insertion and D-M174 mutation in South Asia based on their findings of the YAP insertion in northeast Indian tribes and the D-M174 in Andaman islanders [34]. In that case, haplogroup E with YAP insertion might also have an Asian origin. However, this hypothesis is seldom supported by any evidence. If haplogroup D originated in Africa, it is most mysterious how it has traveled through the populations with haplogroups CF to East Asia.

Another mystery is how haplogroup D has migrated from southwestern East Asia all the way to Japan. It could have gone either through mainland East Asia or through Sundaland (Figure 2B). The mainland route seems to be shorter than the Sundaland route. Shi et al. proposed that the northward expansion of D-M174 to western China might predate the migrations of other major East Asian lineages at about 60 thousand years ago using the ASD time estimation method with an average Y-STR evoltionary mutation rate of 0.00069 per locus per 25 years. Subsequently, these frontier populations could have traveled eastward through a northern route via Korea or through a southern route via Taiwan and a Ryukyu land bridge to Japan, where they might have met the earlier Australian style settlers. The current relic D-M174 in East Asia was probably edged out of eastern China by the later northward migration of haplogroup O and the Neolithic expansion of Han Chinese [32]. However, there has never been any evidence from genetics or archaeology that haplogroup D2 or Negritos have migrated to eastern China. In contrast, there are still many Negrito populations in Sundaland from Malaya to the Philippines. It was possible that Negritos occupied the whole of Sundaland in the late Paleolithic Age. Therefore, these populations might move directly from the Philippines to Taiwan and Ryukyu. The only problem is that no haplogroup D has been found in the Negritos in the Philippines. Their paternal lineages might have been replaced by the expansion of haplogroups C2 and K from Papua around 18 thousand years ago using the BATWING time estimation method [35] or a more recent migration of haplogroup O from mainland East Asia [36]. However, due to the lack of data, the history of haplogroup D, as a genetic legacy of the Paleolithic Age in East Asia, remains a mystery.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687582/

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Questions expose liars

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
On academia,edu

Academia.edu does not "publish" papers in the senses of providing peer review and/or making them available in a recognized venue with a history of publication on a topic. People can POST papers to Academia.edu, whether or not they have been published elsewhere. For a scholar, publication in a peer-review venue should be the first priority, and then making those published papers available for others (e.g., through Academia.edu) is the next priority. Most people avoid posting original research on the internet until they have had a chance to publish it in a recognized journal or book or internet venue.

______________________________________________


quote:


Our view of scientific publishing is that once you have finished writing a paper, you should post it immediately on the internet. Peer review should be done post-publication, and it should be done by the community, Reddit-style

-- Richard Price,
academia.edu’s founder and CEO

If you will notice all Clyde's links in his last post are on academia.edu

They allow you to post, and have a not yet instituted peer review afterwards

These papers Clyde posts on academia.edu would be able to make it into scientific journals that do a peer review first to see if the research methods meet scientific standards

For instance if you say "The Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene" and have zero DNA testing indicating that your paper is not going to get published.

However if you said " We hypothesize the Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene" it would be acceptable

But Clyde won't revise his statement on the video because he's trying to trick people into thinking there are DNA testing results that show Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene.

This is why Clyde Winters research cannot be trusted.

Stupid Euronut. My articles at Academia Edu, were published in peer reviewed journals listed on the papers. They were just added to my published work already at Academia Edu. Bernardo's paper was never published in a research journal.

.
 -

.

In addition, no one at ES has debunked any of my research papers. To falsify a research paper you have to cite research that disputes the findings and results in a research paper. This has not been done. If anyone had falsified my research I am sure they should have found a publisher for their work.

If anyone here debunked my work they should be able to cite their published work. Put up , or shut up.

.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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Clyde Winters
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.
 -
.

.

No one at ES has debunked any of my research papers. To falsify a research paper you have to cite research that disputes the findings and results in a research paper. This has not been done. If anyone had falsified my research I am sure they should have found a publisher for their work.

There is a stupid brainwashed ES poster who claims he has debunked my research. This moron claims that Native Americans only carry M269, but this was an ignorant--claim because Native Americans carry varied R1 clades.

Moreover the majority of Native Americans carry haplogroup R M-173, not M269. Malhi et al (2008) claims the frequency was 73%.

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If anyone here debunked my work they should be able to cite their published work. Put up , or shut up.


--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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 -

Clyde can you please remove or edit this video until you properly reference your claim on Khosian and Fuegians carrying M174

thanks


Your professional reputation is on the line here

quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:

No I will not edit the video. I made a hypothesis and I stand by it. You can disagree with it but I will not retract it. Over time I may be proven correct.


You are making a hypothesis that Khosians and Fuegians carry M174 now, here in the forum

But you don't say it's a hypothesis in the video.

Clyde please remove or edit your video on youtube to say

" I hypothesize Khosians and Fuegians carry M174"

thanks

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Clyde Winters
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No I will not edit the video. I made a hypothesis and I stand by it. You can disagree with it but I will not retract it. Over time I may be proven correct.

Researchers apply whatever haplogroup they which to aDNA because of the association of genes to various haplogroups.

Looking at ancient DNA to determine ancient population origins can be misleading. Let’s look at dna of Ust-ishim and Clovis-Anzick man as it compares to modern populations.


 -
Although it is clear that Ust-ishim was T2b3, the popular press claims he belonged to the haplogroup U clade. Look at the cousins of Ust-ishim it is these modern people who belong to the U clade that are his cousins. See: http://www.fi.id.au/2014/11/ust-ishim-ancient-dna-has-matches-with.html


Look at the Clovis-Anzick DNA matches to modern people.

 -

If you look closely you can see how they match many Non-Native Americans. See http://www.fi.id.au/2014/09/clovis-anzick-1-dna-match-living-people.html


What does this mean? It means that researchers may only be giving us results that match their expectations of how the data should look.

IN relation to Anzick man Felix Immanuel noted that:

quote:


Just a quick recap, I processed the raw data for Clovis-Anzick-1 and uploaded into GEDMatch and to my surprise, there are matches as near as 3rd to 4th cousins. Now, that's a real problem because, the matches are to a DNA sample older than 12500 years. This is practically impossible and very mysterious.[/img] I will investigate step-by-step and see what are all the possibilities and failure points, which could solve the problem. But before that, we need to be absolutely sure that these matches are indeed valid. From the matches, I requested for phased kit and I indeed got one - Thanks to Mario Diaz and Veronica.


See: http://www.fi.id.au/search/label/Anzick



He added that
quote:


Clearly, an IBD segment of 5 cM above 500 SNPs with total IBD segments around 10+ cM cannot be 12500 years old. This is a fact and can be verified using known relationships in families and DNA companies are using these benchmarks all along for showing genetic matches. This fact is more than enough to conclude that the Clovis-Anzick-1 sample is not actually ancient. My best guess is, the infant boy's sample is just from the last century and it was wrongly labeled as 12500 years old or the sample got contaminated.


See: http://www.fi.id.au/search/label/Anzick

As you can see the DNA is not always a clear marker of actual ancient events or relationships between populations and individuals.

As a result, there is no need to redo my video, overtime my Fuegian-Khoisan matches may be proven correct.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
No I will not edit the video.

''why not?
It's not that hard to do.

Instead you are deceiving people by not informing them in the video that you are making a hypothesis

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Clyde Winters
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Researchers apply whatever haplogroup they which to aDNA because of the association of genes to various haplogroups.

Looking at ancient DNA to determine ancient population origins can be misleading. Let’s look at dna of Ust-ishim and Clovis-Anzick man as it compares to modern populations.


 -
Although it is clear that Ust-ishim was T2b3, the popular press claims he belonged to the haplogroup U clade. Look at the cousins of Ust-ishim it is these modern people who belong to the U clade that are his cousins. See: http://www.fi.id.au/2014/11/ust-ishim-ancient-dna-has-matches-with.html


Look at the Clovis-Anzick DNA matches to modern people.

 -

If you look closely you can see how they match many Non-Native Americans. See http://www.fi.id.au/2014/09/clovis-anzick-1-dna-match-living-people.html


What does this mean? It means that researchers may only be giving us results that match their expectations of how the data should look.

IN relation to Anzick man Felix Immanuel noted that:

quote:


Just a quick recap, I processed the raw data for Clovis-Anzick-1 and uploaded into GEDMatch and to my surprise, there are matches as near as 3rd to 4th cousins. Now, that's a real problem because, the matches are to a DNA sample older than 12500 years. This is practically impossible and very mysterious.[/img] I will investigate step-by-step and see what are all the possibilities and failure points, which could solve the problem. But before that, we need to be absolutely sure that these matches are indeed valid. From the matches, I requested for phased kit and I indeed got one - Thanks to Mario Diaz and Veronica.


See: http://www.fi.id.au/search/label/Anzick



He added that
quote:


Clearly, an IBD segment of 5 cM above 500 SNPs with total IBD segments around 10+ cM cannot be 12500 years old. This is a fact and can be verified using known relationships in families and DNA companies are using these benchmarks all along for showing genetic matches. This fact is more than enough to conclude that the Clovis-Anzick-1 sample is not actually ancient. My best guess is, the infant boy's sample is just from the last century and it was wrongly labeled as 12500 years old or the sample got contaminated.


See: http://www.fi.id.au/search/label/Anzick

As you can see the DNA is not always a clear marker of actual ancient events or relationships between populations and individuals.

As a result, there is no need to redo my video, overtime my Fuegian-Khoisan matches may be proven correct.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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Linda Fahr
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Calm Mr. Clyde Winters. I am NOT rejecting any evidence that Africans arrived in Brazil before Mongoloids. In fact, if you read again what I wrote which was that "Africans were the FIRST, humans to arrive in the America Continent", and a wave of Mongoloids arrived in later dates, but I didn't specified exactly the date of they arrival, except for the last wave that interbreed with the Amerindians Aymore. In fact, is no official data of the arrival of Mongoloids in Brazil, but, we know they did, and still live in isolation in the Amazon forest.

Now...I know Nied Guidon. I have been reading her interviews and about her work for over 15 years. I am fluent in Portuguese language, as well Spanish and English. In fact what she officially said, was that Africans Humans arrived in Brazil at least 60 thousand years ago. What I wrote about African arrival to be 54 thousands years, was based on arrival dates divergencies among Brazilians and Europeans archeologists which is between 48 to 60 thousands years. Dates from burned charcoal in the site indicated it is at least 100 thousand years. By the way...fragmented skulls and teeth have been found in the site as well, and distant relatives of them still living in the region. Excavations in Serra da Capivara sites still going on, but, more funds is need to complete the work, which started over 20 years ago.

I am posting a 2007 interview with Niede Guidon. It is an official link of Brazilian government from the House of Representatives, which she explained her findings, and much more. It is long, but, if you are historian is a good idea to you to read the entire article, because it is not from Newspaper, or cheap blog. It can not be reproduced without permission of Brazilian government.

http://www2.camara.leg.br/agencia/noticias/106121.html

I also want you to know, that are hundreds of prehistoric sites in Brazil settled by Africans and Africans from South Asia and East Asia, which have been excavated, and others just have been discovered, and are in the process of examination.
There are many sites in South of Brazil, in the State of Santa Catarina. One of those sites is called "Sambaqui of Tarioba". The excavation was made as well in their enormous Mound of shells.
I am posting their Archeology Museum link for you.
In the right hand side of the page is a small video format, which you can enlarge to fit your pc monitor. In this video you can see many prehistoric skulls of Africans found in the excavation. One skull in particular is very archaic which I think was of a Neanderthal, or some transitional hominid which arrived among African Homo Sapiens in Brazil. As you will see, that other skulls are different and are of full developed humans.
The problem I have with, is their reconstruction by Southern States white Brazilians Academics which are extreme racists. In fact they are white supremacists. Clay figures made by them,to demonstrate what the excavated people look like, are more mongoloids than Africans. In fact, until today, they refused to have DNA tests on the Skeletons and Skulls found in the site. But they had the common sense to place an African descent as the Museum Curator.

http://www.museusdorio.com.br/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88&Itemid=113

Mr. Winters, after 10 years searching the origin of the Black people of Abkhazia I found them in the Subsahara Africa. The pictures taken of them in the Subsahara dated from 1800s. I would send the picture to you. But, I do not have how to communicate with you. If you can arrange, I can sent it by E-mail. I also will send to you other findings. I want you to know that I am not historian nor have an intention to be one, or much less write books. History for me is hobby, which I developed when I was Art Student, and had history of Arts in my curriculum. I also found the origin of the people of Mal'ta which settled in north west China. They are also from the Subsahara.

Just in case you want to arrange a communication with me beside EgyptSearch, you are welcome to do soo...

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
Calm Mr. Clyde Winters. I am NOT rejecting any evidence that Africans arrived in Brazil before Mongoloids. In fact, if you read again what I wrote which was that "Africans were the FIRST, humans to arrive in the America Continent", and a wave of Mongoloids arrived in later dates, but I didn't specified exactly the date of they arrival, except for the last wave that interbreed with the Amerindians Aymore. In fact, is no official data of the arrival of Mongoloids in Brazil, but, we know they did, and still live in isolation in the Amazon forest.

Now...I know Nied Guidon. I have been reading her interviews and about her work for over 15 years. I am fluent in Portuguese language, as well Spanish and English. In fact what she officially said, was that Africans Humans arrived in Brazil at least 60 thousand years ago. What I wrote about African arrival to be 54 thousands years, was based on arrival dates divergencies among Brazilians and Europeans archeologists which is between 48 to 60 thousands years. Dates from burned charcoal in the site indicated it is at least 100 thousand years. By the way...fragmented skulls and teeth have been found in the site as well, and distant relatives of them still living in the region. Excavations in Serra da Capivara sites still going on, but, more funds is need to complete the work, which started over 20 years ago.

I am posting a 2007 interview with Niede Guidon. It is an official link of Brazilian government from the House of Representatives, which she explained her findings, and much more. It is long, but, if you are historian is a good idea to you to read the entire article, because it is not from Newspaper, or cheap blog. It can not be reproduced without permission of Brazilian government.

http://www2.camara.leg.br/agencia/noticias/106121.html

I also want you to know, that are hundreds of prehistoric sites in Brazil settled by Africans and Africans from South Asia and East Asia, which have been excavated, and others just have been discovered, and are in the process of examination.
There are many sites in South of Brazil, in the State of Santa Catarina. One of those sites is called "Sambaqui of Tarioba". The excavation was made as well in their enormous Mound of shells.
I am posting their Archeology Museum link for you.
In the right hand side of the page is a small video format, which you can enlarge to fit your pc monitor. In this video you can see many prehistoric skulls of Africans found in the excavation. One skull in particular is very archaic which I think was of a Neanderthal, or some transitional hominid which arrived among African Homo Sapiens in Brazil. As you will see, that other skulls are different and are of full developed humans.
The problem I have with, is their reconstruction by Southern States white Brazilians Academics which are extreme racists. In fact they are white supremacists. Clay figures made by them,to demonstrate what the excavated people look like, are more mongoloids than Africans. In fact, until today, they refused to have DNA tests on the Skeletons and Skulls found in the site. But they had the common sense to place an African descent as the Museum Curator.

http://www.museusdorio.com.br/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88&Itemid=113

Mr. Winters, after 10 years searching the origin of the Black people of Abkhazia I found them in the Subsahara Africa. The pictures taken of them in the Subsahara dated from 1800s. I would send the picture to you. But, I do not have how to communicate with you. If you can arrange, I can sent it by E-mail. I also will send to you other findings. I want you to know that I am not historian nor have an intention to be one, or much less write books. History for me is hobby, which I developed when I was Art Student, and had history of Arts in my curriculum. I also found the origin of the people of Mal'ta which settled in north west China. They are also from the Subsahara.

Just in case you want to arrange a communication with me beside EgyptSearch, you are welcome to do soo...

Thank you for the information.

Mal'ta man was a Khoisan, he belonged to the Aurignacian/ Solutrean culture--both of which originated in SubSaharan Africa.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
the people of Mal'ta which settled in north west China. They are also from the Subsahara.


How do you know this?

Clyde, let her tell it, dont steal here thunder please

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
the people of Mal'ta which settled in north west China. They are also from the Subsahara.


How do you know this?

Clyde, let her tell it, dont steal here thunder please

LOL. We are talking about the same population.

 -

Correct today the Khoisan are said to not carry L3(M,N). This was probably not the case in the past. The Khoisan were the first amh to settle Europe. The evidence is that these first Europeans, the Khoisan, took with the same cultures they practiced in Africa, e.g., Solutrean.

There have been numerous "Negroid skeletons" found in Europe. Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, in Fossil Man, provide an entire chapter on the Africans/Negroes of Europe Anta Diop also discussed the Negroes of Europe in Civilization or Barbarism, pp.25-68. Also W.E. B. DuBois, discussed these Negroes in the The World and Africa, pp.86-89. DuBois noted that "There was once a an "uninterrupted belt' of Negro culture from Central Europe to South Africa" (p.88).

Boule and Vallois, note that "To sum up, in the most ancient skeletons from the Grotte des Enfants we have a human type which is readily comparable to modern types and especially to the Negritic or Negroid type" (p.289). They continue, "Two Neolithic individuals from Chamblandes in Switzerland are Negroid not only as regards their skulls but also in the proportions of their limbs. Several Ligurian and Lombard tombs of the Metal Ages have also yielded evidences of a Negroid element.

Since the publication of Verneau's memoir, discoveries of other Negroid skeletons in Neolithic levels in Illyria and the Balkans have been announced. The prehistoric statues, dating from the Copper Age, from Sultan Selo in Bulgaria are also thought to protray Negroids.

In 1928 Rene Bailly found in one of the caverns of Moniat, near Dinant in Belgium, a human skeleton of whose age it is difficult to be certain, but seems definitely prehistoric. It is remarkable for its Negroid characters, which give it a reseblance to the skeletons from both Grimaldi and Asselar (p.291).

Boule and Vallois, note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe. Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons sho many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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Clyde Winters
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The Khoisan originated in South Africa. The evidence that the Khoisan inhabited north Africa is the archaeological evidence illustrating the spread of the Aurignacian and Solutrean cultures from South Africa to North Africa, and thence Iberia.

Boule and Vallois, in Fossil Men , note that "We know now that the ethnography of South African tribes presents many striking similarities with the ethnography of our populations of the Reindeer Age. Not to speak of their stone implements which, as we shall see later , exhibit great similarities, Peringuey has told us that in certain burials on the South African coast 'associated with the Aurignacian or Solutrean type industry...."(p.318-319). They add, that in relation to Bushman art " This almost uninterrupted series leads us to regard the African continent as a centre of important migrations which at certain times may have played a great part in the stocking of Southern Europe.

 -


Finally, we must not forget that the Grimaldi Negroid skeletons show many points of resemblance with the Bushman skeletons". They bear no less a resemblance to that of the fossil Man discovered at Asslar in mid-Sahara, whose characters led us to class him with the Hottentot-Bushman group."

.


 -

.

This shows that by 44kya (Aurignacian culture) down to the Asselar culture 8400kya Khoisan were in North Africa.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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