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Author Topic: L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa, new human origin model, Cabrera 2018
the lioness,
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https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/12/13/233502.full.pdf

(pre print)

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago.
2018

Vicente M Cabrera, View ORCID ProfileJulia Patricia Marrero Rodriguez, View ORCID ProfileKhaled K Abu-Amero, Jose M Larruga
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/233502


Abstract

Background: After three decades of mtDNA studies on human evolution the only incontrovertible main result is the African origin of all extant modern humans. In addition, a southern coastal route has been relentlessly imposed to explain the Eurasian colonization of these African pioneers. Based on the age of macrohaplogroup L3, from which all maternal Eurasian and the majority of African lineages originated, that out-of-Africa event has been dated around 60-70 kya. On the opposite side, we have proposed a northern route through Central Asia across the Levant for that expansion. Consistent with the fossil record, we have dated it around 125 kya. To help bridge differences between the molecular and fossil record ages, in this article we assess the possibility that mtDNA macrohaplogroup L3 matured in Eurasia and returned to Africa as basic L3 lineages around 70 kya. Results: The coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African L3 lineages, both around 71 kya, are not significantly different. The oldest M and N Eurasian clades are found in southeastern Asia instead near of Africa as expected by the southern route hypothesis. The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE haplogroup is very similar to the age of mtDNA L3. A Eurasian origin and back migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y-chromosome haplogroup E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of maternal L3 and paternal E lineages are positively correlated. This correlation is not fully explained by geographic or ethnic affinities. It seems better to be the result of a joint and global replacement of the old autochthonous male and female African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers. Conclusions: These results are congruent with a model proposing an out-of-Africa of early anatomically modern humans around 125 kya. A return to Africa of Eurasian fully modern humans around 70 kya, and a second Eurasian global expansion by 60 kya. Climatic conditions and the presence of Neanderthals played key roles in these human movements.

Results: The coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African 28 L3 lineages, both around 71 kya, are not significantly different. The 29 oldest M and N Eurasian clades are found in southeastern Asia 30 instead near of Africa as expected by the southern route hypothesis. 31 The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE haplogroup is very
32 similar to the age of mtDNA L3. A Eurasian origin and back 33 migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y- 34 chromosome haplogroup E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of 35 maternal L3 and paternal E lineages are positively correlated. This 36 correlation is not fully explained by geographic or ethnic affinities. It 37 seems better to be the result of a joint and global replacement of the 38 old autochthonous male and female African lineages by the new 39 Eurasian incomers.

A new mtDNA model about the origin and dispersion of Homo 693 sapiens
694 At mtDNA level, the sampling and data accumulated during the last 695 thirty years, including those contributed by ancient DNA studies, 696 allow us to propose a more detailed model of the origin and 697 worldwide spread of modern humans than the ones proposed three 698 decades ago. There are three fossil series in northwest, northeast, 699 and southern Africa that chronologically and morphologically
700 recapitulated the evolution of Homo sapiens from early archaic 701 around 600 kya to early moderns by 200 kya [123]. The recent 702 dating of Middle Stone Age tools (315 ± 34 kya) and early modern 703 human fossils (286 ± 32 kya) from Jebel Irhoud in Morocco, places 704 the emergence of our species, and of the Middle Stone Age, close in 705 time and long before the age of about 200 kya previously suggested 706 for the common origin of all humans in eastern Africa [124]. These 707 data coincide in time with the existence of an old Y-chromosome 708 lineage (A00) detected in samples of western-central African 709 ascendance and dated 338 kya (95% CI: 237-581 kya), remarkably 710 older than common estimates based on the Y-chromosome and 711 mtDNA TMRCAs [125]. The fact that the following more divergent Y- 712 chromosome A lineages (A0, A1a) also have a western-central
bioRxiv preprint first posted online Dec. 13, 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/233502.
713 African location, strongly supports this region as the origin of an 714 ancestral human population from which the ancestors of early 715 modern humans emerged [90, 103]. The most ancient splits and 716 spreads of the mtDNA lineages also situated the hypothetical origin 717 of all extant maternal lineages around this area. Although the
718 earliest L0 clade diverged around 145 kya (Additional file 1: Table 719 S3) and had its first expansions in southern Africa (L0d, L0k), the 720 subsequent splits gave rise to L1 and L5 around 131 kya and 123 721 kya spreading to western and eastern Africa respectively. These 722 long range African dispersions place its putative origin somewhere 723 in Central Africa (Figure 1a). The same "centre-of-gravity" argument 724 was used by other authors to suggest a Central African origin [126]. 725 It is worth mentioning that while ancestral southern African
726 Khoesan-speaking population still maintain high frequencies of 727 primitive L0d and k lineages [94, 106, 127, 128], and that in the 728 hunter- gatherer populations of central-western Africa the L1c 729 haplogroup is dominant [108, 109], L5 in eastern Africa has today 730 only a marginal presence [114, 129], most probably due to its
731 displacement produced by more recent waves of better adapted 732 incomers. The presence of L5 in southern Africa and eastern Mbuti 733 pygmies [70, 109, 118, 127] is the result of later migrations. Most 734 probably, next split, around 100 kya, also occurred in Central Africa 735 resulting in sister clusters L2 and L3'4'6 that, respectively, produced 736 initial westward and eastward expansions (Figure 1a). Although the 737 oldest L2 lineages have been sampled in western Africa [130], 738 today, as result of successive spreads inside the continent, this 739 clade has a pan-African range [119]. In eastern Africa, the cluster 740 L3'4'6 was the embryo of the full Eurasian maternal diversity. Its first 741 split was haplogroup L6 that nowadays is a rare eastern lineage with
bioRxiv preprint first posted online Dec. 13, 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/233502. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
742 a deep founder age (about 100 kya) but a rather recent expansion 743 (about 25 kya). It has been found at frequencies below 1% in 744 Egyptians [131], Somalis [132], Kenyan [133], and eastern Nilotes 745 from Uganda [114]. Mean frequency rise in Ethiopia (3.15 ± 1.15 %) 746 with a maximum (15.8%) in Ongota, an extinguishing linguistic
747 isolate of uncertain adscription [129]. Outside Africa L6 has not been 748 detected in the Levant [134]. It is present in the Arabian Peninsula at 749 frequencies below 1% in Saudi samples but raises 12% in some 750 Yemeni samples [135]. Attending to the L6 phylogeny (Additional file 751 2: Figure S1), it seems that not all the Yemeni lineages are a subset 752 of the eastern African lineages as there is at least one for which its 753 common node coincides with the expansion of the whole
754 haplogroup. Based on its peculiar phylogeography, the possibility 755 that L6 could have originated from the same out-of-Africa southern 756 migration that colonized Eurasia was suggested [135]. If this were 757 the case, this early L6 expansion would give genetic support to the 758 reported presence of modern humans in the Arabian Peninsula, 759 around 125 kya, based on archaeological evidence [12–14]. This 760 suggestion also enjoys climatic support as this period coincides with 761 humid environmental conditions in Arabia [136]. However, it seems 762 that this possible human expansion did not extend beyond the
763 Peninsula as L6 derived lineages have not yet been detected across 764 Eurasia. The return to arid conditions, most probably, caused the 765 decline of the populations carrying the L6 lineage that had to retreat 766 to refuge areas as the highlands of Yemen and Ethiopia until more 767 favorable conditions made possible their subsequent recovery in
768 eastern Africa and Yemen. The long mutational stem that precedes 769 the expansion of L6 (Additional file 2: Figure S1), would faithfully 770 represent that strong and long bottleneck. Next phylogenetic
bioRxiv preprint first posted online Dec. 13, 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/233502. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
771 bifurcation produced the ancestors of L3 and L4 haplogroups 772 (Additional file 2: Figure S1). Nowadays, the highest frequencies 773 and diversities of L4 are found in eastern Africa, but it has spread 774 over the entire continent (Table 3). Besides, it has been detected at 775 frequencies below 1% in the Levant [137], and the Arabian 776 Peninsula [74, 138]. Most probably, as consequence of drift effects, 777 some populations show outstanding frequencies of L4. In western 778 Africa, Samoya (28.6%) and Kassena (21.2%) samples, speakers of 779 the Gur linguistic family, stand out [72]. In Ethiopia, the cases of the 780 Omotic-speaking Hamer (18.2%), the Cushitic-speaking Daasanach 781 (22.2%), and the Nilotic-speaking Gumuz (24.0%) and Nyangatom 782 (21.6%) are also remarkable [129, 139]. However, without any 783 doubt, are the Tanzanian click-speaking Hadza (58%) and Sandawe 784 (43%) whom show the highest values for L4 in Africa [111–113], 785 this, together with the elevated frequencies that Hadza (50%) and 786 Sandawe (15%) present for the Y-chromosome haplogroup B-M112 787 [140], points to human expansions from the North as those that most 788 strongly influenced the gene pool of these groups. Attending to the 789 age of bifurcation from L3 (around 95 kya), it could be thought that 790 these L4 expansions occurred before our proposed return to Africa 791 of L3 basic lineages. However, as the main spreads of its 792 descendant clusters L4a (54.8 kya) and L4b (48.9 kya) [94, 138] had 793 taken place around the same time window that the majority of the L3 794 and L2 branches in Africa, the most probable explanation is that 795 improved climatic conditions after 60 kya motivated a global 796 demographic growth on the African continent. Noticed that the 797 evidence for an L3 first expansion in East Africa [89] is likewise in 798 support of the out-of-Africa scenario than of a Eurasian back-flow as 799 proposed here. We hypothetically situated the L3'4 node in
bioRxiv preprint first posted online Dec. 13, 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/233502. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.
800 northeast Africa or the Near East (Figure 1a) to allow an out-of- 801 Africa of the pre-L3 clade. The Y-chromosome CDEF ancestor had 802 to be its male counterpart. Other female and male lineages could 803 have moved with them but, presumably gone extinct without 804 contributing either to the maternal or paternal gene pools of the 805 living human populations of Eurasia. 806 Under the scenario proposed here, early anatomically modern 807 humans went out of Africa around 125 kya with a simple Middle 808 Stone Age technology that was not superior to that manufactured by 809 the Neanderthals. Favored by mild climatic conditions, these African 810 pioneers progressed through West Asia and reached Central Asia 811 overlapping in its way with the southern geographic range occupied 812 by the Neanderthals. A new vision of the fossil and archaeological 813 records of those regions [88, 141, 142] might uncover the path 814 followed by those early African colonizers. At favorable conditions 815 for both hominin groups, we might predict limited exchange of skills, 816 lithic technology, and sex. However, when after 75 kya glacial 817 environments became dominant, Neanderthals had to retreat 818 southwards pushing out humans in its way. Confronted with the 819 northern foothills of the Himalayas, humans moved in two directions, 820 westwards to return to Africa, and eastwards to reach southeastern 821 Asia across China (Figure 1b). The second part of this model has 822 been already outlined in precedent articles [53–55].

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lamin
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You seem obsessed with these so-called "back-migration" models yet you din't seem to realize that Africa is just a landmass as are all the other continents.

The foolish assumption is that people who migrated from Africa cannot retain their African phenotypes if the places migrated to were of similar ecologies and climates.

Andaman Islanders, New Guineans, Fijians, Solomon Islanders and Melanesians(from the Greek "Melas" meaning "black") in general are all examples of "Homo Sapiens Africanus" regardless of areas of abode. So even if some hypothetical back migration did take place, then so what? A Fijian family back-migrating to, say, Kenya, East Africa would automatically be spoken to in Swahili.

The point that most researchers seem to ignore is that mutations are simply reshuffling of the A-T-C-G nucleotides on a DNA strand..

In the real world where living organisms confront each other and ecological nature, the result of that confrontation is what really counts. It is that confrontation that creates phenotypes and their corresponding genotypes.


Example: 5 UN Peacekeeper soldiers are ambushed somewhere and 1 of them is badly in need of a life-saving blood transfusion. The 4 other soldiers rush him to a rural hospital. The wounded soldier is Swedish and the others are from Uganda, Germany, India, and Japan. On subsequent blood tests, the Ugandan is A+, the Swede is A+, the 3 others not. What are the implications here?


FIJIANS
https://www.google.com/search?q=fijians+images&client=firefox-b&dcr=0&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiikNn06NHYAhWBI1AKHZnDCfAQ7AkIQw&biw=1067&bih=491


NEW GUINEA
https://www.google.com/search?q=new++guineans+images&client=firefox-b&dcr=0&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiupI_55tHYAhXCBcAKHe2SDnQQ7AkIPg&biw=1067&bih=491

[ 13. January 2018, 01:36 AM: Message edited by: the lioness, ]

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by lamin:


The foolish assumption is that people who migrated from Africa cannot retain their African phenotypes if the places migrated to were of similar ecologies and climates.

No such assumption is made in the article phenotypes are not mentioned
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Linda Fahr
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This mitochondrial DNA research was done by "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory", which an Australian - Bruce William Stillman is the director. How can I trust white Australian scientists if their people on purpose exterminated 90% of Australian natives aborigines on pretext they were subhumans? Only until recently they removed from Australian constitution that Australian aborigines were subhumans animals.

He is also the chairman of Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which recently published their genetic work research, which affirmed that Neanderthal Hominid have introduced a gene variant into the African Homo Sapiens population that enhanced human brain function. Which means, that African Homo Sapiens are intellectually inferior than humans which carry Neanderthal DNA?

It sounds to me to be a rotten manipulation as they did in South Africa schools until 1990s, by write in their history books, and taught in their schools, that European were the first humans to arrived and settled in South Africa. Therefore, South African territories belonged to white people.

In fact, we are seem in many African continent maps showing, North and South Africa regions as European, not Africa territories.

All these corrupted DNA tests results, are in fact, to continuous their occupation of lands they have invaded in the past. Before, they controlled the invaded population by wars and exterminations, and false history written in their books. Now they use false DNA tests to imposed their superiority and rewrite human history.

I like to see these white scientists to concentrating in explain why over 30% of their white race, blond and red hair, living in Europe carry a Central" Afghanistan" and East Asian Rhesus monkey recessive negative gene, which make them a "recent" related to Rheus Monkey??? Ohhh...wait, I thought our ancestors diverged from great apes, and not monkeys...

Can they tell us, since when in history those Europeans are carrying Rheus Monkey DNA? because I can see them in quite recent human history, engraved on King Hammurabi's Assyrian Black Stele, with his soldiers returning from Afghanistan carrying half humans creatures on leashes walking on their paws.

After all, these scientists should not be ashamed to tell us the truth about themselves, because, the Planet Earth is a "Big zoo", and somehow, humans are scientifically classified as an "rational animals".

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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Clyde Winters
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video link deleted
Clyde, self promotion of your videos is not allowed unless they are specifically about this article and quote from it throughout

-lioness
.

[ 13. January 2018, 11:24 AM: Message edited by: the lioness, ]

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
[QB] This mitochondrial DNA research was done by "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory"

please prove that the research was done by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, otherwise I am going to have to delete your post for false information
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Linda Fahr
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lioness,

Actually, the name of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is on the firs link you posted on this topic.

Therefore, should you delete yourself? Because I wouldn't know it was CSHL, research if I didn't click on your this link you posted.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/12/13/233502

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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Linda Fahr
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lioness,

By the way. I think you must read website names and the source, before posting. Seems like you are very distracted. Beside, I think you are very rude.
That's why Egyptsearch website is rotten. Few people still posting. If you continuous to harassing and treating participants, which is already very few, you will end up posting to yourself.

Good luck!

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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the lioness,
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Ok I see it, it's the logo at the top. I kept searching the text,
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Linda Fahr
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lioness,

What the "nonprofit organization" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory wants us to believe, is that all people living in Africa today, are not of Africa origin. In their theory all original "archaic Africans" were replaced by back to Africa Eurasians fully developed modern humans.

Starting with the majority of African living in the Subsahara region, do not have DNA contamination from Neanderthal. If their theory is correct, all Africans should have Neanderthal DNA, Denisovan DNA, including Rhesus monkey recessive negative gene, found in over 30% of European, Central, South, and East Asians, brought with them in their back to Africa theory. This factor alone, destroyed their "LAB FAKE RESULTS"!

In fact, this lab, wants to imposed that full developed modern humans are those people which have all kind of hominid and monkey DNA, which in fact exist in North Africa, Middle East, Europe, Caucus region, north and central Eurasia, south and eastern Asia. But, NOT among the pure African Homo Sapiens, which are living in the Subsahara region today, specifically the tallest average humans in the planet, which are the people living at the Omo river valley region, South Sudan, and Central Africa. All other African people have some degree of contamination, But, it was from foreign invasions which started after the Nile Civilizations were established for over two thousand years.

These false DNA tests results is absolutely geopolitical and because, Africa Continent, is the richest continent in mineral reserves, forest, fauna, water in the Earth. For over 2 thousand years, Europeans and Asians are exploring Africa's natural resources to survive, as well exploring America, and Australia were they invaded and exterminated 90% of it's populations, to steal the lands, natural resources, to enriched themselves.

In accordance with the "written history" White people are the most destructive people on Earth, not only by invasions, exterminations, but as well, environmental destruction. They will do anything to continuous to control, and destroy not only the planet Earth, but as well all other people that do not look like them...

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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Linda Fahr
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off topic....
By the way...have you seen Paul Marc Washington lately? I think he is one of the most 'BRILLIANT" historian alive...

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
[QB] This mitochondrial DNA research was done by "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory", which an Australian - Bruce William Stillman is the director. How can I trust white Australian scientists if their people on purpose exterminated 90% of Australian natives aborigines on pretext they were subhumans? Only until recently they removed from Australian constitution that Australian aborigines were subhumans animals.

He is also the chairman of Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which recently published their genetic work research, which affirmed that Neanderthal Hominid have introduced a gene variant into the African Homo Sapiens population that enhanced human brain function. Which means, that African Homo Sapiens are intellectually inferior than humans which carry Neanderthal DNA?


show us a link or article title that says that.

I don't see you doing proper quoting
or putting up URL links

quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:

Starting with the majority of African living in the Subsahara region, do not have DNA contamination from Neanderthal. If their theory is correct, all Africans should have Neanderthal DNA,

the articles says:


after 75 kya glacial environments became dominant, Neanderthals had to retreat southwards pushing out humans in its way. Confronted with the northern foothills of the Himalayas, humans moved in two directions, westwards to return to Africa, and eastwards to reach southeastern Asia across China (Figure 1b). The second part of this model has been already outlined in precedent articles

So this means Neanderthals might have pushed the humans back into Africa, humans who they did not mix with

but other humans who stayed in Eurasia did mix with Neanderthals

 -


_______________________________


DNA hints at ancient cousins
Scientists find evidence of an extinct humanlike species within modern-day Africans
ROBERTA KWOK
AUG 17, 2012 — 2

In a new study, scientists have found hints that some previously unknown ancestors of modern humans. They appear to have split off into a separate species more than a million years ago. Later, some modern humans appear to have mated with this sister species. Traces of that sister species persist today in the DNA of some African people. Scientists shared their new findings August 3 in Cell.

Modern humans belong to a group of animals called hominids. In the past, there were other hominids similar to modern humans, such as Neandertals. Those other hominids have since died out.

Sarah Tishkoff works at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. To learn more about human history, she and her colleagues studied DNA from three hunter-gatherer groups in Africa. They were the Pygmies, Hadza and Sandawe. The team analyzed samples from five people in each group.

A small fraction of the Africans’ DNA appeared to come from other, unknown hominids — the sister species. About 1.1 million years ago, these ancient hominids broke off from ancestors of modern humans to become a separate species. Then, sometime before about 30,000 to 70,000 years ago, this species mated with modern humans. That mating left a genetic mark that remains in the DNA of some people living in Africa today.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by lamin:


The foolish assumption is that people who migrated from Africa cannot retain their African phenotypes if the places migrated to were of similar ecologies and climates.

No such assumption is made in the article phenotypes are not mentioned
Do we need to recall your past posts by you on cacasoid affinities? You have a history, which people can trace. So, its very clear what the intent is.
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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
[QB] https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/12/13/233502.full.pdf

(pre print)

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago.
2018

Vicente M Cabrera, View ORCID ProfileJulia Patricia Marrero Rodriguez, View ORCID ProfileKhaled K Abu-Amero, Jose M Larruga
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/233502



This is a radically different theory than the standard OOA related theories and analysis of L3
I would say it's highly speculative at this point.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
[QB] https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/12/13/233502.full.pdf

(pre print)

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago.
2018

Vicente M Cabrera, View ORCID ProfileJulia Patricia Marrero Rodriguez, View ORCID ProfileKhaled K Abu-Amero, Jose M Larruga
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/233502



This is a radically different theory than the standard OOA related theories and analysis of L3
I would say it's highly speculative at this point.

What is radically different is that? If L3 was in Africa 70.000 years ago due to back migration, and is younger than L1, L2 while L3 which mostly comprises with “sub Sahara” Africans from the Sahel, Steppe and Sahara region. It can only mean that they migrated back from Asia carrying all these so called Eurasian genetic mutations along with them. [Big Grin]

By the way most of the studies you post are speculative and Eurocentric B.S.. But in this particular case you see it radically different, because it shot you in the foot.


This paper confirmed the history of the Asiatic black man.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
If L3 was in Africa 70.000 years ago due to back migration, and is younger than L1, L2 while L3 which mostly comprises with “sub Sahara” Africans from the Sahel, Steppe and Sahara region. It can only mean that they migrated back from Asia carrying all these so called Eurasian genetic mutations along with them. [Big Grin]


This paper confirmed the history of the Asiatic black man.

Amazing !
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
If L3 was in Africa 70.000 years ago due to back migration, and is younger than L1, L2 while L3 which mostly comprises with “sub Sahara” Africans from the Sahel, Steppe and Sahara region. It can only mean that they migrated back from Asia carrying all these so called Eurasian genetic mutations along with them. [Big Grin]


This paper confirmed the history of the Asiatic black man.

Amazing !
Indeed.

And to you it doesn’t matter the amount of ridiculousness and crazy stuff they write, although it doesn’t add up, you’ll still accept it as long as it is in support of Eurocentric B.S.. There are clear contradictions in the things you post and have posted throughout the years, with the acception, that they all claim a Eurasian back-migration into Africa. [Big Grin]


quote:
Within the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree, haplogroup L3 encompasses not only many sub-Saharan Africans but also all ancient non-African lineages, and its age therefore provides an upper bound for the dispersal out of Africa. An analysis of 369 complete African L3 sequences places this maximum at ∼70 ka, virtually ruling out a successful exit before 74 ka, the date of the Toba volcanic supereruption in Sumatra.

[...]

The L3 mtDNA pool within Africa suggests a migration from Eastern Africa to Central Africa ∼60 to 35 ka and major migrations in the immediate postglacial again linked to climate. The largest population size increase seen in the L3 data is 3–4 ka in Central Africa, corresponding to Bantu expansions, leading diverse L3 lineages to spread into Eastern and Southern Africa in the last 3–2 ka.

—Pedro Soares et al.

The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa

Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 29, Issue 3, 1 March 2012, Pages 915–927


Funny how:

quote:
In this study we presented only haplogroups displaying interesting results. A local evolution in Tunisian Berbers was observed in haplogroups L2a, L3*, and L3b.

[...]

Our results demonstrate an ancient local evolution in Tunisia of some African haplogroups (L2a, L3*, and L3b). The most ancient haplogroup is L3*, which would have been introduced from eastern sub-Saharan populations to North Africa about 20,000 years ago.

[...]

Our results also point to a less ancient western African gene flow to Tunisia involving haplogroups L2a and L3b. Thus the sub-Saharan contribution to northern Africa starting from the east would have taken place before the Neolithic. The western African contribution to North Africa should have occurred before the Sahara’s formation (15,000 BP).

--Frigi et al.

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian Berber Populations

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JoshuaTheOracle
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Thanks for the post the lioness, this adds to my research readily available

Haplogroup L2a1 was found in two specimens from the Southern Levant Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site at Tell Halula, Syria, dating from the period between ca. 9600 and ca. 8000 BP or 7500-6000 BCE - Fernández, E. et al., MtDNA analysis of ancient samples from Castellón (Spain): Diachronic variation and genetic relationships, International Congress Series, vol. 1288 (April 2006), pp. 127-129.


and the male counterpart

“Nonetheless, in 2015 Poznik and Underhill have claimed haplogroup E, arose outside Africa. This model of geographical segregation within the CT clade requires just one continental haplogroup exchange (E to Africa), rather than three (D, C, and F out of Africa). The timing of this putative return to Africa, between the emergence of haplogroup E and its differentiation within Africa by 58 kya, is consistent with proposals, based on non–Y chromosome data, of abundant gene flow between Africa and Arabia 50–80 kya.”


Poznik, G David; et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48: 593–599.

I think this makes for a very strong case in the future for a black Asiatic people living in the Levant and Turkey/Akkad during antiquity, and adds a virtual genetic mirroring to that of ancient Egyptian Ramesses III E1b1a - Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study
BMJ 2012; 345 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8268 (Published 17 December 2012)
Cite this as: BMJ 2012;345:e8268

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Djehuti
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quote:
As posted elsewhere by Djehuti:

According to this paper they're simply stating that it's a possiblity that L3 coalesced in Eurasia before back-migrating to Africa but unless they find evidence of ancestral L3'4 in Asia or/and an archaeological site in Asia Pre-Toba in age that is derived from an African one, then it is just wishful thinking. And of course they propose the same Eurasian origins in regards to a paternal counterpart in this case YAP+ (DE). Though the highest frequency of DE* to date yet is found in Africa.

For the record Joshua, haplogroup L2 is an even older clade than L3 that experts never speculate is Eurasian but absolutely African. Which means its presence in the Levant is due to recent Out-of-African migration. The same can be said about the paternal E clade in mesolithic Levant--E-Z827-- which is a downstream or young descendant form of E-M123. In other words recent migration from Africa.

--------------------
Mahirap gisingin ang nagtutulog-tulugan.

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Oshun
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So... many of those "true negro" West Africans were Asiatics?
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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Oshun:
So... many of those "true negro" West Africans were Asiatics?

wikipedia, L3

quote:


L3 is common in Northeast Africa, in contrast to others parts of Africa where the haplogroups L1 and L2 represent two thirds of mtDNAs. L3 sublineages are also frequent in the Arabian peninsula.

According to Maca-Meyer et al. (2001), "L3 is more related to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most divergent African clusters L1 and L2". L3 is the haplogroup from which all modern humans outside Africa derive.




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Oshun
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..so 1/3rd are "Eurasian" including many of the "true negro" west Africans. I never said all non Northeast Africans were L3 or even that most were.
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Elmaestro
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@Lioness
L3 has the highest frequency in the Kanuri of Nigeria btw... So lets not go on a spin cycle... Don't forget that according to the OP haplogroup E is the paternal counterpart. It's quite clear that the synopsis is "most SSA's Are Eurasian", like Oshun is correctly pointing out.

EDIT..matterfact, the Herero has the highest, then Kanuri... being mindful of the number of samples, it should be noted that in aggregate the annang averages a lower frequency than the Kanuri

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the lioness,
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https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Expansion-of-mtDNA-Haplogroup-L3-within-and-ou-Soares-Alshamali/c536cccd0eb35b9a59cce2d062dead120aab9046

The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa.

Pedro Soares, Farida Alshamali, +9 authors Luísa Pereira
Published
2012

The L3 mtDNA pool within Africa suggests a migration from Eastern Africa to Central Africa ∼60 to 35 ka and major migrations in the immediate postglacial again linked to climate. The largest population size increase seen in the L3 data is 3-4 ka in Central Africa, corresponding to Bantu expansions, leading diverse L3 lineages to spread into Eastern and Southern Africa in the last 3-2 ka.


 -


 -

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the lioness,
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 -
Example of an Asian, Papua New Guinea

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Oshun
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quote:
Originally posted by Elmaestro:
@Lioness
L3 has the highest frequency in the Kanuri of Nigeria btw... So lets not go on a spin cycle... Don't forget that according to the OP haplogroup E is the paternal counterpart. It's quite clear that the synopsis is "most SSA's Are Eurasian", like Oshun is correctly pointing out.

And many more people that aren't L3 likely had family that mixed with L3 lineages at several times in history. So Eurasian or Eurasian admixed.
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lamin
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quote:
So... many of those "true negro" West Africans were Asiatics?
If there are "true negros"--then who are the "true blancos"? LOL. Or "true amarillos"--i.e "true yellows".
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