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Author Topic: R-V88 in Ancient Iberia
Clyde Winters
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Martiniano R, Cassidy LM, Ó'Maoldúin R, McLaughlin R, Silva NM, Manco L, et al. (2017) The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods. PLoS Genet 13(7): e1006852. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1006852

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Abstract


Recent ancient DNA work has demonstrated the significant genetic impact of mass migrations from the Steppe into Central and Northern Europe during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. In Iberia, archaeological change at the level of material culture and funerary rituals has been reported during this period, however, the genetic impact associated with this cultural transformation has not yet been estimated. In order to investigate this, we sequence Neolithic and Bronze Age samples from Portugal, which we compare to other ancient and present-day individuals. Genome-wide imputation of a large dataset of ancient samples enabled sensitive methods for detecting population structure and selection in ancient samples. We revealed subtle genetic differentiation between the Portuguese Neolithic and Bronze Age samples suggesting a markedly reduced influx in Iberia compared to other European regions. Furthermore, we predict individual height in ancients, suggesting that stature was reduced in the Neolithic and affected by subsequent admixtures. Lastly, we examine signatures of strong selection in important traits and the timing of their origins.
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The authors argue that the three Bronze Age individuals carrying R1b1a2, represent R-M269, but this is false they represent V88 and M18. Moreover, they fail to show discontinuity because, we find R1b1a (R-L754) carried by Villabruna, who lived 15kya in north-west Italy, and was a member of the Epigravettian culture. R-L754 has a high frequentcy among Africans.

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C. A. Winters

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Clyde Winters
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V88 and the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype

Euronuts have no limit to their blatant and stealthily rewriting of history to "whiteout" Black and African people. The aDNA of the CHG and EF of Europe is R1b1a2. Although ISOGG 216 makes it clear this haplogroup is V88, in the research literature they are referring to this clade (R1b1a2) as R1b-P312/M269 , eventhough M269 is R1b1a1a2.

The presence of R1b1a2 in Europe is explained by the migration of the Kushites into Europe via Gibraltar and Anatolia

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C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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(readable sized chart, Clydeification reduction removed)

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One R-V88 (R1b1a2) individual here
from bronze age Iberia (Torre Velha 3, TV32032)

No remains as old as that have been found in Africa. Therefore one cannot say R-V88 did not originate in Europe

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
(readable sized chart, Clydeification reduction removed)

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One R-V88 (R1b1a2) individual here
from bronze age Iberia (Torre Velha 3, TV32032)

No remains as old as that have been found in Africa. Therefore one cannot say R-V88 did not originate in Europe

They have not reported them yet. Don't worry they have them in the pipeline, they are just waiting to get people prepared by the Iberian bs. Once they say RV88 is found in aDNA from North Africa, they will argue the Iberian origin myth. This myth will never suffice because their is 100 years of archaeological research that places the origin of Iberian cultures in Africa from 44k BC to 1492 AD. 1492 was when the Moors were forced from Iberia.


The fact that the Anatolians and Lavantines were Kushites, and we can place the ancestral population in Africa, make the appearence of R1b1 an African haplogroup. Moreover, there is no way to avoid the fact that the Iberian culturtes all originated in Africa.

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C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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Sudan, home of the Kushites is not even on here, so much for your Kushite V88 theory

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
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Sudan, home of the Kushites is not even on here, so much for your Kushite V88 theory

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Click on the picture to see the video.
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LOL. Stop making stuff up the kushites lived in the Sudan, North Africa and Levant/Anatolia.

Eurocentrists attempt to limit the extent of the Kushite empire. The Weni inscription makes it clear that many states were inhabited by the ḫ3st, or Kushites.

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The map above makes it appear that only Irthet was Kush, but the Weni inscriptions includes Wawat, Yam and Temeh as being inhabited by Kushite = ḫ3st.

quote:


The inscription of Weni reads:

“His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet khas [Kusites], the Mazoi khas [Kushites], the Yam khas [Kushites], among the Wawat Khas [Kushites], among the Kau khas [Kushites], and in the land of Temeh.”




In the Weni inscription we can clearly see that Kushites were living in Upper and Lower Egypt. The final comment in the Weni inscription made it clear that ḫ3st (khas=Kushites) were also “in the land of Temeh”.

On this map, Temeh is situated to the south of Irthet, but in Egyptian Temeh, meant Lower Egypt.


The Egyptians made it clear that LOWER EGYPT was called : TAMEH , and UPPER EGYPT : TA SHEMA .


Because the ḫ3st (khas = Kushites), were living in Lower Egypt, when the Kings of Heqa ḫ3st took control of Egypt during the Hyksos period they were returning to the lands of their ancestors as Heqa ḫ3st (khas= Kushites) (Kings of the Kushites).

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The khas [Kushites ] belonged to the C-Group people and lived in Upper and Lower Egypt between 3700-1300 BC and were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups: the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South.

Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader as “Hati Tehenu”. The name Hati corresponds to the name Hatti - a tribe in Anatolia. However, the Hatti people often referred to themselves as Kashkas. Kashkas corresponds to ḫ3st (Khas), and the Hyksos were identifying their ethnic origins when they called themselves ḫ3st
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C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:


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The map above makes it appear that only Irthet was Kush, but the Weni inscriptions includes Wawat, Yam and Temeh as being inhabited by Kushite = ḫ3st.



The inscription of Weni reads:

“His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet khas [Kusites], the Mazoi khas [Kushites], the Yam khas [Kushites], among the Wawat Khas [Kushites], among the Kau khas [Kushites], and in the land of Temeh.”



That has nothing to do with V88 or Iberia. You're rambling
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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:


 -

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The map above makes it appear that only Irthet was Kush, but the Weni inscriptions includes Wawat, Yam and Temeh as being inhabited by Kushite = ḫ3st.



The inscription of Weni reads:

“His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet khas [Kusites], the Mazoi khas [Kushites], the Yam khas [Kushites], among the Wawat Khas [Kushites], among the Kau khas [Kushites], and in the land of Temeh.”



That has nothing to do with V88 or Iberia. You're rambling
LOL. Read the article. The authors claim R1b was introduced to Iberia by the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya people who originated in Anatolia/Levant. The Kushite Anatolians were the Kaska, Hati and other followers of Apophis who came from Anatolia and ruled the land of Temeh or Lower Egypt. The presence of Kushites in Temeh and Anatolia prove the African origin of these populations

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C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
The Kushite Anatolians were the Kaska, Hati and other followers of Apophis who came from Anatolia and ruled the land of Temeh or Lower Egypt. The presence of Kushites in Temeh and Anatolia prove the African origin of these populations

^^ the questioner, it's only worth talking to Clyde as entertainment. He is quite mad.
He claims the the Anatolians were Kushites, The Dravidians were Kushites, the Sumerians were Kushites, The Hyksos were Kushites

I'm not making this up. He has articles claiming all these people were Kushites

One wonders if this is the effects of too much Kush on the brain

All of Clyde's ideas were formulated in the 70s and it doesn't matter if Jesus comes down from the heavens and tries to correct an error. Dr. Clyde is set in his ways.

It works like this. You have a theory. Then any new information that leans toward it you exaggerate tremendously
and anything that doesn't you take out a gun and shoot it
That's what Clyde means when he says he's a falcificationist

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
The Kushite Anatolians were the Kaska, Hati and other followers of Apophis who came from Anatolia and ruled the land of Temeh or Lower Egypt. The presence of Kushites in Temeh and Anatolia prove the African origin of these populations

^^ the questioner, it's only worth talking to Clyde as entertainment. He is quite mad.
He claims the the Anatolians were Kushites, The Dravidians were Kushites, the Sumerians were Kushites, The Hyksos were Kushites

I'm not making this up. He has articles claiming all these people were Kushites

One wonders if this is the effects of too much Kush on the brain

All of Clyde's ideas were formulated in the 70s and it doesn't matter if Jesus comes down from the heavens and tries to correct an error. Dr. Clyde is set in his ways.

It works like this. You have a theory. Then any new information that leans toward it you exaggerate tremendously
and anything that doesn't you take out a gun and shoot it
That's what Clyde means when he says he's a falcificationist

If I am wrong why don't yu present evidence proving they were not Kushites.
.


Click on the picture to see the video.
.
 -
.
.

LOL. Stop making stuff up the kushites lived in the Sudan, North Africa and Levant/Anatolia.

Eurocentrists attempt to limit the extent of the Kushite empire. The Weni inscription makes it clear that many states were inhabited by the ḫ3st, or Kushites.

.

.
 -

.
The map above makes it appear that only Irthet was Kush, but the Weni inscriptions includes Wawat, Yam and Temeh as being inhabited by Kushite = ḫ3st.

quote:


The inscription of Weni reads:

“His majesty made war on the Asiatic Sand-dwellers and his majesty made an army of many ten thousands; in the entire South, southward to Elephantine, and northward to Aphroditopolis [Busiris]; in the Northland on both sides entire in the [stronghold], and in the midst of the [strongholds], among the Irthet khas [Kusites], the Mazoi khas [Kushites], the Yam khas [Kushites], among the Wawat Khas [Kushites], among the Kau khas [Kushites], and in the land of Temeh.”




In the Weni inscription we can clearly see that Kushites were living in Upper and Lower Egypt. The final comment in the Weni inscription made it clear that ḫ3st (khas=Kushites) were also “in the land of Temeh”.

On this map, Temeh is situated to the south of Irthet, but in Egyptian Temeh, meant Lower Egypt.


The Egyptians made it clear that LOWER EGYPT was called : TAMEH , and UPPER EGYPT : TA SHEMA .


Because the ḫ3st (khas = Kushites), were living in Lower Egypt, when the Kings of Heqa ḫ3st took control of Egypt during the Hyksos period they were returning to the lands of their ancestors as Heqa ḫ3st (khas= Kushites) (Kings of the Kushites).

 -

The khas [Kushites ] belonged to the C-Group people and lived in Upper and Lower Egypt between 3700-1300 BC and were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups: the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South.

Sahure referred to the Tehenu leader as “Hati Tehenu”. The name Hati corresponds to the name Hatti - a tribe in Anatolia. However, the Hatti people often referred to themselves as Kashkas. Kashkas corresponds to ḫ3st (Khas), and the Hyksos were identifying their ethnic origins when they called themselves ḫ3st
.
 -

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C. A. Winters

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Clyde Winters
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
The Kushite Anatolians were the Kaska, Hati and other followers of Apophis who came from Anatolia and ruled the land of Temeh or Lower Egypt. The presence of Kushites in Temeh and Anatolia prove the African origin of these populations

^^ the questioner, it's only worth talking to Clyde as entertainment. He is quite mad.
He claims the the Anatolians were Kushites, The Dravidians were Kushites, the Sumerians were Kushites, The Hyksos were Kushites

I'm not making this up. He has articles claiming all these people were Kushites

One wonders if this is the effects of too much Kush on the brain

All of Clyde's ideas were formulated in the 70s and it doesn't matter if Jesus comes down from the heavens and tries to correct an error. Dr. Clyde is set in his ways.

It works like this. You have a theory. Then any new information that leans toward it you exaggerate tremendously
and anything that doesn't you take out a gun and shoot it
That's what Clyde means when he says he's a falcificationist

I am a falcificationist because I confirm the Afrocentric Curriculum which was developed over the past 200 years.


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Afro-American scholars have met the standards of scholarship for almost 200 years supporting the role of Blacks in ancient history.

During this period Eurocentric researchers have attempted to whiteout , Blacks from history.

Knowledge is cumulative. In other words we build new knowledge on the research of the giants in our field. From your lack of knowledge about DuBois' it is clear you have no recognition of the fact that what you guys are writing about has already been discussed formerly, and your job should be confirming or disconfirming what these giants wrote.

I teach educational philosophy on occasion. In this class I just don't talk about contemporary educators I also talk about the Greek philosophers.

The themes Ironlion, Mike, Marc and I write about is part of a 200 year tradition of Afro-American scholarship. Many Afro-American researchers need to learn to respect your own scholars. Don't let white supremacy continue to blind you to the truths of history.

Afrocentrism, is a mature social science that was founded by Afro-Americans almost 200 years ago.

These men and women provided scholarship based on contemporary archaeological and historical research the African/Black origination of civilization throughout the world. These Afro-American scholars, mostly trained at Harvard University (one of the few Universities that admitted Blacks in the 19th Century) provide the scientific basis the global role played by African people in civilizing the world.

Afrocentrism and the africalogical study of ancient Black civilizations was began by Afro-Americans.



The foundation of any mature science is its articulation in an authoritive text (Kuhn, 1996, 136). The africalogical textbooks published by Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) provided the vocabulary themes for further afrocentric social science research.

The pedagogy for ancient africalogical research was well established by the end of the 19th century by African American researchers well versed in the classical languages and knowledge of Greek and Latin. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) in the Freedom Journal, were the first African Americans to discuss and explain the "Ancient Model" of history.


These afrocentric social scientists used the classics to prove that the Blacks founded civilization in Egypt, Ethiopia, Babylon and Ninevah. Cornish and Russwurm (1827) made it clear that archaeological research supported the classical, or "Ancient Model" of history.

Edward Blyden (1869) also used classical sources to discuss the ancient history of African people. In his work he not only discussed the evidence for Blacks in West Asia and Egypt, he also discussed the role of Blacks in ancient America (Blyden, 1869, 78).

By 1883, africalogical researchers began to publish book on African American history. G.W. Williams (1883) wrote the first textbook on African American history. In the History of the Negro Race in America, Dr. Williams provided the schema for all future africalogical history text.

Dr. Williams (1883) confirmed the classical traditions for Blacks founding civilization in both Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia) and West Asia. In addition, to confirming the "Ancient Model" of history, Dr. Williams (1883) also mentioned the presence of Blacks in Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. Dr. Williams was trained at Howard.

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A decade later R.L. Perry (1893) also presented evidence to confirm the classical traditions of Blacks founding Egypt, Greece and the Mesopotamian civilization. He also provided empirical evidence for the role of Blacks in Phoenicia, thus increasing the scope of the ASAH paradigms.


Pauline E. Hopkins (1905) added further articulation of the ASAH paradigms of the application of these paradigms in understanding the role of Blacks in West Asia and Africa. Hopkins (1905) provided further confirmation of the role of Blacks in Southeast Asia, and expanded the scope of africalogical research to China (1905).

This review of the 19th century africalogical social scientific research indicate confirmation of the "Ancient Model" for the early history of Blacks. We also see a movement away from self-published africalogical research, and publication of research, and the publication of research articles on afrocentric themes, to the publication of textbooks.

It was in these books that the paradigms associated with the "Ancient Model" and ASAH were confirmed, and given reliability by empirical research. It was these texts which provided the pedagogic vehicles for the perpetuation of the africalogical normal social science.

The afrocentric textbooks of Hopkins (1905), Perry (1893) and Williams (1883) proved the reliability and validity of the ASAH paradigms. The discussion in these text of contemporary scientific research findings proving the existence of ancient civilizations in Egypt, Nubia-Sudan (Kush), Mesopotamia, Palestine and North Africa lent congruency to the classical literature which pointed to the existence of these civilizations and these African origins ( i.e., the children of Ham= Khem =Kush?).

The authors of the africalogical textbooks reported the latest archaeological and anthropological findings. The archaeological findings reported in these textbooks added precision to their analysis of the classical and Old Testament literature. This along with the discovery of artifacts on the ancient sites depicting Black\African people proved that the classical and Old Testament literature, as opposed to the "Aryan Model", objectively identified the Black\African role in ancient history. And finally, these textbooks confirmed that any examination of references in the classical literature to Blacks in Egypt, Kush, Mesopotamia and Greece\Crete exhibited constancy to the evidence recovered from archaeological excavations in the Middle East and the Aegean. They in turn disconfirmed the "Aryan Model", which proved to be a falsification of the authentic history of Blacks in early times.

The creation of africalogical textbooks provided us with a number of facts revealing the nature of the afrocentric ancient history paradigms. They include a discussion of:

1) the artifacts depicting Blacks found at ancient sites

recovered through archaeological excavation;

2) the confirmation of the validity of the classical and Old

Testament references to Blacks as founders of civilization in Africa and Asia;

3) the presence of isolated pockets of Blacks existing outside Africa; and

4) that the contemporary Arab people in modern Egypt are not the descendants of the ancient Egyptians.


The early africalogical textbooks also outlined the africalogical themes research should endeavor to study. A result, of the data collected by the africalogical ancient history research pioneers led to the development of three facts by the end of the 19th century, which needed to be solved by the afrocentric paradigms:

(1) What is the exact relationship of ancient Egypt, to Blacks in other parts of Africa;

(2) How and when did Blacks settle America, Asia and Europe;

(3) What are the contributions of the Blacks to the rise, and cultural expression ancient Black\African civilizations;

(4) Did Africans settle parts of America in ancient times.

As you can see the structure of Afrocentrism were made long before Boas and the beginning of the 20th Century.In fact , I would not be surprised if Boas learned what he talked about from the early Afrocentric researchers discussed in this post.

As you can see Afro-Americans have be writing about the Global history of ancient Black civilizations for almost 200 years. It was Afro-Americans who first mentioned the African civilizations of West Africa and the Black roots of Egypt. These Afro-Americans made Africa a historical part of the world.

Afro-American scholars not only highlighted African history they also discussed the African/Black civilizations developed by African people outside Africa over a hundred years before Bernal and Boas.

Your history of what you call "negrocentric" or Black Studies is all wrong. It was DuBois who founded Black/Negro Studies, especially Afro-American studies given his work on the slave trade and sociological and historical studies of Afro-Americans. He mentions in the World and Africa about the Jews and other Europeans who were attempting to take over the field.

There is no one who can deny the fact that Leo Hansberry founded African studies in the U.S., not the Jews.Hansberry was a professor at Howard University.

Moreover, Bernal did not initiate any second wave of "negro/Blackcentric" study for ancient Egyptian civilization. Credit for this social science push is none other than Chiek Diop, who makes it clear that he was influenced by DuBois.

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DuBois
Africalogical study of ancient history
There are four philosophical schools associated with the afrocentric study of ancient history: perennialist, essentialist, existentialist, and progressivist. The taxonomic system we use to classify the various afrocentric philosophical positions and related values affecting afrocentrism are modeled on philo-sophical developments associated with education.

We can use taxonomies of educational philosophies to discuss any proposed afrocentric curriculum because both education and philosophy are "cultural experiences". Moreover, because afrocentrism seeks to explain and delineate the story of African people, it clearly is a field of study which encompasses all aspects of the culture of Black and African people (Asante, 1990, 1991; Winters, 1994).

The perennialist afrocentrists study the great works. The adherents of this school include Martin Delaney (1978), Cornish and Russwurm (1827), Frederick Douglas (1966), and Edward Blyden (1869). These Afrocentrists see knowledge as truth, which is eternal.

The essentialist afrocentric school emphasize in their writing data that is well established through scientific research. Afrocentrists of this philosophical school include W. E. B. DuBois (1965, 1970), John Jackson (1974), C.A. Winters (1985, 1989, 1991, 1994) and Leo Hansberry (1981). They believe that as new research is published, it should be analyzed to discover how it relates to the ancient history of African and Black people to enrich our understanding of the past.

The existentialist afrocentrists believe that africalogical studies should thrive to teach African people to know more about themselves so we can have a better world. The afrocentric existentialists include J.A. Rogers, Anta Diop (1974, 1991), G.M. James (1954), Marcus Garvey (1966) and A.A. Schomburg (1979).


Research is the foundation of good science, or knowing in general. There are four methods of 1) Method of tenacity (one holds firmly to the truth, because "they know it" to be true); 2) method of authority (the method of established belief, i.e., the Bible or the "experts" says it, it is so); 3) method of intuition (the method where a proposition agrees with reason, but not necessarily with experience); and 4) the method of science (the method of attaining knowledge which calls for self-correction). To explain African origin of the Egyptians, I use the scientific method which calls for hypothesis testing, not only supported by experimentation, but also that of alternative plausible hypotheses that, may place doubt on the original hypothesis.

The aim of science is theory construction (F.N. Kirlinger, Foundations of behavior research, (1986) pp.6-10; R. Braithwaite, Scientific explanation, (1955) pp.1-10). A theory is a set of interrelated constructs, propositions and definitions, that provide a systematic understanding of phenomena by outlining relations among a group of variables that explain and predict phenomena.

Scientific inquiry involves issues of theory construction, control and experimentation. Scientific knowledge must rest on testing, rather than mere induction which can be defined as inferences of laws and generalizations, derived from observation. This falsity of logical possibility is evident in the rejection of the African origin of the Egyptians. These writers base their theories solely on observation--nonscientific knowledge is not science.
Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery, rejects this form of logical validity based solely on inference and conjecture (pp. 33-65). Popper maintains that confirmation in science, is arrived at through falsification.

Therefore to confirm a theory in science one test the theory through regorous attempts at falsification. In falsification the researcher uses cultural, linguistic, anthropological and historical knowledge to invalidate a proposed theory. If a theory can not be falsified through yes of the variables associated with the theory it is confirmed. It can only be disconfirmed when new generalizations associated with the original theory fail to survive attempts at falsification.

In short, science centers on conjecture and refutation. Given 200 years of research in Afrocentrism, our job is to confirm the research into the role of Blacks in ancient history uncovered by the giants in Afrocentric Social Sciences discussed above.

Dr. Winters has written extensively on the ancient history of the African diaspora. He has numerous sites on the web were explains the ancient history of African people. His major work is Afrocentrism: Myth or Science . In Afrocentrism: Myth or Science Dr. Winters provides a detailed discussion of how to study Afrocentrism and provides an intimate and detailed study of the ancient Black civilizations outside Africa in Europe, Asia and the Americas.

The final afrocentric philosophical school is the progressivist. The afrocentric school of progressivism believes that we should have knowledge of the process and futuristic focus on afrocentric studies. The major exponent of this frame of reference is Molefi K. Asante (1991).

In general Diop (1974, 1991) caused an africalogical social scientific revolution because he was able to prove that Egypt was the archetypical civilization for many West Africans. This was an important discovery because almost all of the slaves that were sold in the United States had originally came from West Africa. Verification of the Egyptian origin of West Africans provided African Americans with relationship to the ancient Egyptians.
Moreover, Diop's use of linguistics, and anthropological evidence to confirm the African origin of Egypt eliminated the need for africalogical researchers to use the classical writers to prove the African origin of Egypt (Diop, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1988). This finding by Diop has led africalogical researchers to seek a better understanding of African philosophy through an interpretation of Egyptian philosophy.

Moreover, africalogical researchers like Dr.Winters, have also began the reconstruction of the Paleo-African language used by Blacks in prehistoric times (Anselin, 1982, 1982b, 1989; Winters, 1994) so that we will know more about the culture and civilization of the Proto-Africans. Dr. Winters in Before Egypt: The Maa Confederation, Africa's First Civilization, is about the Maa civilization. The Maa civilization existed in the Saharan highlands. The people of Maa founded many civilizations including Egypt, and Sumer.

 -

Dr, Winters in Egyptian Language, Niger-Congo Speakers and the Mountains of the Moon , provides the linguistic evidence that confirms the hypothesis of Cheikh Anta Diop, L. Homburger, M. Delafosse that the Niger-Congo speakers and Egyptians had a common origin. In this book we argue that many Egytians living in the 22 sepats of Upper Egypt spoke Niger-Congo languages including the Bantu Fulani and Mande languages.

Egyptian Languages , provides the genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence relating to the diverse Niger-Congo speakers who made up segments of the Egyptian nation. Readers of this book will learn that the Niger-Congo speakers originated in the Highland regions of Middle Africa: the Mountains of the Moon ; and that this population which later settled Upper Egypt, formerly belonged to the Ounanian culture.


 -
Clyde Winters

The last major confirmation of the ASAH paradigms was made by Clyde Ahmad Winters (1977, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1983d, 1984, 1985) when he expanded our understanding of the role of Blacks\Africans in Indo-China, India and China; and the ancient literacy of Blacks (1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). Using linguistic, anthropological and historical evidence, he proved that the earliest cultures of China and Indo-China were founded by Blacks from West Africa and modern Ethiopia (Winters, 1979, 1983d, 1985c, 1986b). In support of this history Dr. Winters has posted over 70 videos on YouTube.

Winters also made it clear that the earliest Japanese were Blacks and that Japanese is related to African languages (Winters, 1979, 1981, 1983a, 1983c, 1984). In addition he was able to prove that the founders of Xia and Shang were of African and Dravidian origin (1983c,1985c).

Using the findings of Wiener in regards to the writing of the Olmecs Winters discovered that the Blacks from West Africa left numerous inscriptions written in the Manding language (Winters, 1977, 1979, 1983a, 1985b) . Winters later discovered that due to the cognition between the Mande writing and ancient scripts used by the Minoans and Indus Valley he could read the Indus Valley Writing and the Linear A inscriptions (1985b).

• The study of Africans in ancient America has been fruitful. Dr. Leo Wiener, in Africa and the Discovery of America was the first to recognize that the ancient civilizations of Mexico had been incluenced by Africans. He was especially sure that the Mande speaking people influenced the religion and civilization of the Aztec and Maya people; and that the writing on the Tuxtla statuette was written in the Mande writing system.

Later Ivan van Sertima wrote an important book which highlighted the influence of Africans in Mexico. In They Came before Columbus, van Sertima discussed the African influence on the Olmec civilization, and the discovery of America by Abubakari, a ruler of the Mali empire in the 1300's A.D. Dr. Winters expands the discussion of Abubakari's voyage to America by discusing the colonies they left in North America and Brazil in his book African Empires in Ancient America.

 -

Dr. Clyde Winters has written extensively on the African origins of the Olmec. He deciphered the Olmec language and since then he has published numerous websites where he discussed the Olmec Kings and their civilization. The most important work of Dr. Winters is Atlantis in Mexico, in this book Dr. Winters provides a detailed account of the migration of the Mande speaking people from Africa to the Americas. He explains that they called themselves Xi (Shi) or Si people and provides an informative discussion of the Mexican traditions regarding the expansion of the Olmec from the Gulf Coast, to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

Atlantis in Mexico provide any researchers with a wealth of knowledge to understand the African origin of the Olmec. And the contributions of the Xi to the civilizations of Mexico.

Dr. Winters has expanded knowledge about the other Blacks who established colonies in the Americas before Europeans. In African Empires Ancient America,Dr. Winters discussed the Axumite, Mound Builders and other ancient Black Americans.

Recently, Dr. Winters has been interested in the recovery of Black Native American history as result Dr, Winters has written a book that details the history of the Black Native Americans.

 -

Any good research theme results in new hypotheses related to that theme. Although we have concetranted on anthropological, historical and and archaeological themes related to Afrocentrism, Dr, Winters has begun to write on the phylogeography of African people.


 -

Proficiency in a language other than English, helped africalogical researchers conduct the normal africalogical social science. It was DuBois' (1965, 1970) and Hansberry's knowledge of German that allowed these afrocentrists to conduct research into the role of Blacks in Egypt and Ethiopia. J.A. Rogers mastered many languages including French and German to prove that Blacks inhabited almost every continent on the globe. Dr. C. A. Winters (1977,1981\1982, 1985, 1991, 1994) had to learn Arabic, Chinese, Malinke, Portuguese, Otomi, Mayan, Swahili, Tamil and Tokharian (Kushana) to conduct his africalogical studies of Blacks in Asia and the Americas. Dr. Wintes used his linguistic knowled to decipher the Olmec, Meroitic and Minoan writing systems. Dr, Winters gives a detailed explanation of his decipherment of Meroitic writing numerous Meroitic inscriptions deciphered and in his book: Meroitic Writing and Literature.

In the 1960's due to the rise of independence in the east African country of Tanzania, Swahili became a language used by africalogical scientists. Swahili terms were used to explain and define the phenomena associated with africalogy. This is one of the reasons that the terms used in the Kwanza ceremonies practiced by blacks are Swahili lexical items (Coleman, 1971).
Swahili is still among africalogical researchers but today Egyptian is recognized as the classical language for africalogical research (Wimby, 1980). Diop (1974,1991) popularized the idea that Egyptian should be used as the classical language for the study of ancient africalogical language and historical studies. As a result, most of the africalogical researchers today concentrate on Egypt and use Egyptian terms to explain the culture and Proto-African language of Africa people (Carruthers, 1977,1980).

Dr. Winters in Afrocentrism: Myth or Science , Has been able to update the literature regarding African civilizations in Asia, Europe and the Americas. This text provides the blueprint necessary for students to understand why the Afrocentric model of history continues to find support from the archaeological, linguistic and anthropological fields of study

This africalogical research by Winters (1981/1982, 1983b, 1983d, 1989a, 1991, 1994) made it clear that the first civilizations in Indo-China and China were founded by Blacks. He has also proved the lie to Hume's (1875) claim that Blacks have "No literacy" and "No letters".



These scholars recognized that the people of ancient Greece, Southeast Asia and Indo-China were African people. When giants in study of Afrocentrism discussed Blacks in Asia they were talking about people of African descent.

These researchers used anthropological, archaeological historical and linguistic evidence to support their conclusions. It is only natural that these well founded hypotheses developed by these scholars can be supported by population genetics.



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_________.(1994b). The Dravidian and African laguages, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 23 (1), 34-52.

________.2007. Afrocentrism Myth or Science.www.lulu.com Here


___________2007. Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa? BioEssays, 27(5): 497-498.

___________2007b. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics.

____________2008. Can parallel mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M Haplogroups. Int J Hum Genet, 13(3): 93-96.
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______________2008b. African millets taken to India by Dravidians. Ann of Bot, http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/eletters/100/5/903#49

_______________2008. ARE DRAVIDIANS OF AFRICAN ORIGIN
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________________Aurignacian Culture:Evidence of Western Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans, South Asian Antropologist, (2008) 8(1) pp.79-81.
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Archaeogenetics

___________2007. Did the Dravidian Speakers Originate in Africa? BioEssays, 27(5): 497-498.

___________2007b. High Levels of Genetic Divergence across Indian Populations. PloS Genetics. Retrieved 4/8/2008 http://www.plosgenetics.

____________2008a. Can parallel mutation and neutral genome selection explain Eastern African M1 consensus HVS-1 motifs in Indian M Haplogroups. Int J Hum Genet, 13(3): 93-96.
http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2007;volume=13;issue=3;spage=93;epage=96;aulast=Winters


_______________2008b. ARE DRAVIDIANS OF AFRICAN ORIGIN
http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-08-0-000-000-2008-Web/IJHG-08-4-317-368-2008-Abst-PDF/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C/IJHG-08-4-325-08-362-Winder-C-Tt.pdf
___________.2010. Y-Chromosome evidence of an African origin of Dravidian agriculture. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2(3): 030 – 033. http://www.academicjournals.org/IJGMB/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2010/Mar/Winters.htm

_____________2010b. 9bp and the Relationship Between African and Dravidian Speakers. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(4): 229-231. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v2-229-231.pdf


______________2010c. The Fulani are not from the Middle East. PNAS .
http://govst.academia.edu/documents/0174/1497/Fulani.pdf

___________.2010d. The Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(4): 294-299. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v2-294-299.pdf

____________.2010e. Paper Advantageous Alleles, Parallel Adaptation, Geographic Location andSickle Cell Anemia among Africans
Advances in Bioresearch,1(2):69-71. http://www.soeagra.com/abr/vol2/12.pdf

_______________ 2011a. The Demic Diffussion of the M-Haplogroup from East Africa to the Senegambia. BioResearch Bulletin ,4:51-54.
Retrieved 9/23/2011 at http://bioresonline.com/Documents/AA000168.pdf


____________.2011b. Munda Speakers are the Oldest Population in India. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology. 4 (2) Retrieved 9/21/2011 http://www.ispub.com/journal/the_internet_journal_of_biological_anthropology/volume_4_number_2_61/article/munda-speakers-are-the-oldest-population-in-india.html

_______________.2011c. Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin? Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. Vol. 3 , (6): 555-558. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v3-555-558.pdf


_______________,2011d. Olmec (Mande) Loan Words in the Mayan, Mixe-Zoque and Taino Languages . Current Research Journal of Social Science Year: 2011 Vol: 3 Issue: 3 Pages/record No.: 152-179. http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v3-152-179.pdf

______________.2011e. The Ancient Indian Populations Were Not Homogenous . Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences Year: 2011 Vol: 3 Issue: 2 Pages/record No.: 129-131

______________.2012. Comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA. Indian J Hum Genet [serial online] 2012 [cited 2012 Jul 1];18:137-8. Available from: http://www.ijhg.com/text.asp?2012/18/1/137/96686

_______________. 2011.The Gibraltar Out of Africa Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2311
________________.2012. Haplogroup L3 (M,N) probably spread across Africa before the Out of Africa event. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1590/770/reply

_________________.2011. Haplogroup M23 is probably not Asian in origin. Hg M23 is of Africa. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/2237
_____________A Sub-Saharan Origin for European Farmers http://olmec98.net/BlkFarmers.pdf

_____________There has been a Continous Indigenous Sub-Saharan Presence in North Africe for 30ky http://olmec98.net/ContinuousEurope.pdf

__________________.2012. First Europran Farmers were Sub-Saharan Africans http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1730/884.abstract/reply


Woodson, C.G. & Wesley, C.H. (1972). The Negro in Our History. Washington, D.C. Associated Publisher.


Get up off your knees and learn from the Afro-American scholars who began the study of Blacks in ancient history.



In conclusion, Afrocentrism is a mature social science. A social science firmly rooted in the scholarship of Afro-American researchers lasting almost 200 years. Researchers like Marc Washington, Mike and I are continuing a tradition of scholarship began 20 decades ago. All we are doing is confirming research by DuBois and others, that has not been disconfirmed over the past 200 years.


Aluta continua.....The struggle continues.....

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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^ Clyde tooting his own horn, part 983
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
^ Clyde tooting his one horn, part 983

Stop being jealous that Afro-Americans have written so much about our ancient history.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:

there is 100 years of archaeological research that places the origin of Iberian cultures in Africa from 44k BC



name one page from a book that says that
I never said a book I said research articles
so you have this huge bibliography above of Afrocentric authors and you can't find one book that says that ?
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:

there is 100 years of archaeological research that places the origin of Iberian cultures in Africa from 44k BC



name one page from a book that says that
I never said a book I said research articles
so you have this huge bibliography above of Afrocentric authors and you can't find one book that says that ?
There are numerous books on the African origin of Iberian civilization.

Another good source is Lahavary 1963. Dravidian Origins and the West, https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.219801/2015.219801.Dravidian-Origins_djvu.txt

Dr. Lahavary uses the term Mediterranean to refer to the North Africans who spread civilization to Iberia. The term mediterranean is just an euphemisms for negro.As noted by Diop web page

Below are quotes from Lahavary

quote:

“The civilizations of the Languedoc (in the South of France), and even the Swiss civilization of Cortaillod, on the shores of the lake of Neuchatel, appear to be the daughters of these ancient Iberic civilizations of African origin The cardial ceramic, which is found in Sicily and of which the decorative designs have long subsisted in Iberia, presents great similarities with the incised ceramic of the upper valley of the Nile as far as the Sudan. The Iberic neolithic civilization has had also close relations with the Tunisian neolithic civilization of Capsian tradition (hence the name ‘ Hispano-Mauritanic * given to the incised Iberic ceramic).”(p.10) Note 7, page 10 associated with this passage:
[QUOTE]
For the N African influences on the islands of the Mediterranean and on Southern Spain, see also O Serra, Appunti suli’ elements punico a lihico helV onomastica Sarda, Vox Romanica, 19S3, 13 and Sostratos Mediterraneos , Rev de Filol Esp XL, 1956, pp 171- 20 8. For the Semitic influence see also the older, but still valuable work of H Lewy, JDie Semitischen Eremdwbrter in Gnechischen Berlm, 1895

“On the European shores and islands of the western and central Mediterranean, the first neolithic civilization is that of the incised pottery This culture, though also derived from the Near East, and more precisely, according to B Brea, from Syria and S E Anatolia, came to Europe by way of Sicily and Malta after a long stage m N Africa.

This civilization brings to Europe many elements of the predynastic Egyptian civilization of Amrat, and, doubtless, also Hamitic linguistic influences of which many important traces have survived to our day m the Celtic of the British Isles, as well as in Basque .From this type of culture derive, apparently, the civilizations of Windmill Hill in the South of England , of Stentinello in Sicily , ancient Cortaillod in Switzerland, El Garcel in Spain, and of Camp de Chassey in France But the Hispano-Maurussian civilization, on the other hand, according to Prof J M Santa Olalla and Prof 'Stekelis, has its first origins in Palestine where we find its essential characteristics 2000 years earlier “(p.14)

“About 3200-2900, an important series of migrations from North Africa brought African cultures to Iberia with their arts, which explains the relationship between the Indian and Iberic civilizations of this period as they had a common source.” (p.17)

“The excavations of Magara Sauar m the former Spanish zone of Morocco carried out by Prof Martmez Santa Olalla have thrown much light on the relations between the first bronze civilizations of Spain and those of N Africa”(p.18)

“In Italy, recent archaeological research, like the important excavations of Arene Candide, brought to an end since the last war (near the French frontier, not far from San Remo) have considerably increased our knowledge of the civilizations and populations of Northern Italy Comparing these new data with what was already known about the rest of Italy and Its islands, Italian prehistorians have come to thefollowing conclusions of which we give here a very brief summary In Southern Italy and in Sicily, the neolithic civilization of the Matera type arrived in a fully developed form from N Africa, after a stage at Malta.”(p.19) Note p.19,” Bovio Marconi, Inciztom rupestn all 'Addceura {Stciha), Palermo 1954 .A Kuhn The Fehbtlder Europas, Stuttgart, Kohlhammer, 1952.R. Vaufrey, L’art rupestre Ttord-Afrtcam, Mem Inst Paleontologie humame, 1939 , same, L’age de Part naturahste rupestre du Levant espagnol, L’Anthr vol 31, I /a, 1947. — The rock art recently discovered in Sicily, that of Spam, particularly of the grotto of Parpallo, and Saharan rock art are closely related, as also the rock art of Tanganyika [Tanzania].”


The late neolithic of Arene Candide^ which we may consider as Ibero-Maurussian in origin, is in the line of the north African neolithic of Egyptian predynastic inspiration, though more recent by over fifteen centuries These various civilizations were introduced into Italy by successive waves of immigrants, but these belonged, notwithstanding their relative diversity, to the same general ' Mediterranean " type. It is therefore not surprising that the ancient Italian toponymy of these populations, which has been transmitted by the classical authors, presents so striking a likeness to the ancient toponymy of western Asia, Iberia, the south of France, North Africa and last but not least, to that of Dravidian India There is thus, what V. Pisani has described as a Mediterranean toponymic unity^^ but which we do not hesitate to name, more appropriately, a Dravidian- Mediterranean one . The less fertile Sardinia was peopled somewhat later than Malta or Sicily, but likewise from N Africa. (pp.20-21)

“This fundamental unity of the peri Mediterranean civilizations with their extensions towards the west and the Atlantic, or towards the east and the Dravidian countries is evidenced by the funerary monuments, as well as by the pottery The funerary cists of Chamblandes in Western Switzerland are the same as those of Arene Candide The long barrows of Brittany, which are generally pre-megalithic, are similar to the ‘ long-barrows ’ of the British Isles The ringed pottery of Brittany found in the most ancient megalithic monuments is closely related, like the monuments themselves, to the Ibero-Saharian civilization, for circumstance, to that of Los Millares, in the South of Spain “.(pp.22-23)

“In Portugal, after the more negroid mesolithic race of Mugem [related to a similar contemporary type in Brittany (Teviec), also found in neolithic sepultures of Alsatia, of Western Switzerland, and which is similar to the Eurafrican type of upper Egypt of the fifth millenmum] ‘ Mediterraneans ’ settled in the country They belonged to a rather large-headed type, still seen today in parts of central Spain These colonizers brought to Portugal the new stone age cultures”. (pp.39-40)

“In Iberia, the brachycephals — ^who have never occupied more than a small region of the peninsula — ^had settled only after much more numerous contingents of longheads of the Western Mediterranean type'*^ coming from N Africa had spread over most of the country, already before 3500, who had brought with them, in successive migrations, the neolithic civilizations of their African former home .”(p.42)

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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So an Indian author from 1963.

I thought you were a man of the 70s but it's 60s

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
So an Indian author from 1963.

I thought you were a man of the 70s but it's 60s

The author was a European.I cite many recent authors in my paper.

A GENETIC CHRONOLOGY OF AFRICAN Y-CHROMOSOMES R-V88
AND R-M269 IN AFRICA AND EURASIA

quote:



There were numerous out of Africa exits into Iberia. The African migrants introduced into Europe, the
Aurignacian, Solutrean, Bell Beaker/Corded ware and Moorish cultures between 44,000 BC and 1492
AD. These Sub-Saharan populations belonged to the Black Variety


See: http://www.cibtech.org/J-LIFE-SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2017/VOL-7-NO-2/04-JLS-004-WINTERS-A-EURASIA.pdf [/QB][/QUOTE]

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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you list recent authors in your article

so what

that doesn't mean they support your position unless you have quotes to that effect.

You can have a theory on R-V88 and then list 20 recent articles on V88. Does that mean the articles are supporting your theory? No, it just means the articles were on the same or related topic.

I could theorize that the moon landing was fake and then list 20 articles about the moon landing. Does that mean all the articles say the moon landing was fake? No it just means they were on the topic of the moon landing.

This is where peer review comes in. Your articles have none
Except here, informally

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
you list recent authors in your article

so what

that doesn't mean they support your position unless you have quotes to that effect.

You can have a theory on R-V88 and then list 20 recent articles on V88. Does that mean the articles are supporting your theory? No, it just means the articles were on the same or related topic.

I could theorize that the moon landing was fake and then list 20 articles about the moon landing. Does that mean all the articles say the moon landing was fake? No it just means they were on the topic of the moon landing.

This is where peer review comes in. Your articles have none
Except here, informally

Peer Review means nothing. If there was real Peer review the Haber et al, and Freber et al, articles would not have been published because they have no archaeological evidence supporting their conclusions.

The authors of these articles maintain that just because an African carries Y-Chromosome R1b, and mtDNA U5, M1 and etc. they have to have mated with Europeans without any evidence.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
Peer Review means nothing. If there was real Peer review the Haber et al, and Freber et al, articles would not have been published because they have no archaeological evidence supporting their conclusions.

The authors of these articles maintain that just because an African carries Y-Chromosome R1b, and mtDNA U5, M1 and etc. they have to have mated with Europeans without any evidence.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. [/QB]

That's extremely hypocritical.
You say "they have to have mated with Europeans without any evidence"

Then without evidence you conclude "all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. "

Come on Clyde (C.O.C)
you do not have a methodology to prove all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

That is simply a religious belief you have

That's why you should write fiction, stop going half way

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
Peer Review means nothing. If there was real Peer review the Haber et al, and Freber et al, articles would not have been published because they have no archaeological evidence supporting their conclusions.

The authors of these articles maintain that just because an African carries Y-Chromosome R1b, and mtDNA U5, M1 and etc. they have to have mated with Europeans without any evidence.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

That's extremely hypocritical.
You say "they have to have mated with Europeans without any evidence"

Then without evidence you conclude "all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. "

Come on Clyde (C.O.C)
you do not have a methodology to prove all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

That is simply a religious belief you have

That's why you should write fiction, stop going half way [/QB]

My method is archaeogenetics. I use archaeology and genetics to determine population genetics.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. This confirmed by the fact that:

1) The civilizations in Iberia originated in Africa;

2) The inhabitants of the North African Neolithic, Sudan and Levant/Anatolia were Kushites

3) The textual, historical and archaeological evidence make it clear that the people in these areas were Kushites.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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the lioness,
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QUOTE]Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Clyde Winters:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
I see what your method is Clyde.

They call that circular logic.

No the method is called archaeogenetics. I use archaeology and genetics to determine population genetics.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. This confirmed by the fact that:

1) The civilizations in Iberia originated in Africa;

2) The inhabitants of the North African Neolithic, Sudan and Levant/Anatolia were Kushites

3) The textual, historical and archaeological evidence make it clear that the people in these areas were Kushites.


You don't know what circular logic is. Look into it.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

^ this has no logic to it. (not to mention there is no scientific publication that says Tutankhamun was an R1b carrier.


The fact is if a mummy carries a certain haplogroup and the mummy was found in Africa that does not mean the haplogroup is instantly African.

Clyde that is a very simplistic assumption.

Just because a mummy found in Africa carries a given haplogroup does not mean that they got it in Africa
It might be an indigenous haplogroup or it may not have been.
It may or may not be due to admixture with foreigners and it is documented that some Egyptians had foreign wives

And all 3 of your points in regard to Tutankhamun and the Abusir mummies do not resolve this.

You have no methodology

Furthermore you keep using the term Kushites and they are of a time period much later than neolithic. You should be using a term with proper association of the time period. Nobody uses "Kushites" they way you do, [/QUOTE]

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
QUOTE]Originally posted by the lioness,:
[qb]
You don't know what circular logic is. Look into it.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades.

^ this has no logic to it. (not to mention there is no scientific publication that says Tutankhamun was an R1b carrier.


The fact is if a mummy carries a certain haplogroup and the mummy was found in Africa that does not mean the haplogroup is instantly African.

Clyde that is a very simplistic assumption.

Just because a mummy found in Africa carries a given haplogroup does not mean that they got it in Africa
It might be an indigenous haplogroup or it may not have been.
It may or may not be due to admixture with foreigners and it is documented that some Egyptians had foreign wives

And all 3 of your points in regard to Tutankhamun and the Abusir mummies do not resolve this.

You have no methodology

Furthermore you keep using the term Kushites and they are of a time period much later than neolithic. You should be using a term with proper association of the time period. Nobody uses "Kushites" they way you do,

[/QUOTE]

My method is archaeogenetics. I use archaeology and genetics to determine population genetics.

The North African Neolithic and Abusir mummies aDNA, proves that Africans carried this mtDNA, and Tutankhamun R1b Y-Chromosome makes it clear all the so-called Eurasian haplogroups are in reality African clades. This confirmed by the fact that:

1) The civilizations in Iberia originated in Africa;

2) The inhabitants of the North African Neolithic, Sudan and Levant/Anatolia were Kushites

3) The textual, historical and archaeological evidence make it clear that the people in these areas were Kushites.

--------------------
C. A. Winters

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