...
EgyptSearch Forums Post New Topic  New Poll  Post A Reply
my profile | directory login | register | faq | forum home

  next oldest topic   next newest topic
» EgyptSearch Forums » Egyptology » Cultural similarities between ancient Kmt and other areas in Africa (Page 2)

 - UBBFriend: Email this page to someone!   This topic comprises 3 pages: 1  2  3   
Author Topic: Cultural similarities between ancient Kmt and other areas in Africa
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
First off, I NEVER said that there were NO other cultures in Africa that built in stone. You are getting me ALL WRONG. Kudos for the photos, I appreciate posts, since they are VERY informative. Most of the cultures you posted I ALREADY know about, except for the Swahili ones or the ones of the Nok. The POINT was that you were quibbling over every word I said and MISUNDERSTANDING the WHOLE point. NONE of those other ruins has any CARVINGS of DAILY LIFE AND CEREMONIES. Therefore, most of what we know about their dress, daily life and ceremonial customs comes from artifacts that are prone to DECAY, moreso than the IMAGES found on Egyptian structures.

So, bottom line, do you feel that these cultures that built in stone represent MOST cultures in Africa. I think not. As a matter of fact, I can say with ALL certainty that MOST cultures in the word, in ancient times, DID NOT BUILD IN STONE. But of course, you think Africa is DIFFERENT.....
And NO I dont HAVE to list all ancient cultures of the world to KNOW this. Look at it this way, I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.

But back to the thread and the topic.

None of these structures ALONE allow us to glimpse daily life and activity the way you see in Egypt, except for the monuments of Aksum and Meroe, which are RELATED to Egypt anyway.

Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
You want to learn about culture of the examples provided, you'll have to dig more, and do research; but wait a minute, you already know about these cultures! And yeap, I am still waiting on the specifics of those "Most African cultures" that didn't build anything in stone, much less leaving anything behind on their culture [glimps of what the artist saw as part of life in their society]! Tell us about these "Most African cultures", and what you know about their daily life and activity. I really could care less about what you think per se, but more to the point of how you intend to corroborate your questionable claims. That is why I need to know the specifics of what it is you are talking about. The perceptive will have already noticed that examples of these [pertaining to glimps of life in the said African society] have been posted here; it of course, goes without saying, I don't expect you to be observant enough to know what is being talked about.


quote:
Doug M:
None of these structures ALONE allow us to glimpse daily life and activity the way you see in Egypt, except for the monuments of Aksum and Meroe, which are RELATED to Egypt anyway.

Which Aksumite monument(s) are you referring to, and how is/are Aksumite monument(s) related to Egypt "anyway"?
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:

You want to learn about culture of the examples provided, you'll have to dig more, and do research; but wait a minute, you already know about these cultures!

Non Sequitir. I NEVER said I know everything about all cultures in Africa. YOU said that. And I get the impression that YOU think you do and it makes your head hurt to see someone else post something, which threatens your position as CHIEF KNOW IT ALL OF AFRICA Trust me I am much more humble than that. I DO know enough to know that MOST did not build in stone, especially before and during the time of the Dynastic period in Egypt. MY point still stands, unless you can prove otherwise. If you need to figure out what MOST means, then you NEED to stop asking me and CONSULT a dictionary, o wise one of Africa.

quote:

And yeap, I am still waiting on the specifics of those "Most African cultures" that didn't build anything in stone, much less leaving anything behind on their culture [glimps of what the artist saw as part of life in their society]! Tell us about these "Most African cultures", and what you know about their daily life and activity.

NONE of the images you posted show scenes of daily life CARVED in stone like the Egyptians. If so, please point it out. I ONLY was comparing the DURABILITY of images carved in stone versus the NON DURABILITY of the ITEMS depicted. But, OF COURSE, now I have to show you the CHEMICAL make up of ALL items used in ALL African societies to SAY this right? YOu come off as a pompous, egotistical, SELF appointed GATEKEEPER, as if someone HAS to go through you in order to be ALLOWED to state their opinions. What are YOUR CREDENTIALS that allows you to spout so much NONSENSE. How many books have YOU written? How many times have you BEEN to Africa? How many African cultures can YOU name? How many African Cultures do you know in INTIMATE detail concerning language, culture and history? Pont being everyone on this board may not have the same level of knowledge, but that is the POINT of this board. If I KNEW everything already, I SURE wouldn't come here expecting to LEARN anything. You are just being ASININE for NO OTHER PURPOSE than just out of spite. NOTHING you are saying is making the least amount of sense, but I WILL make YOU UNDERSTAND the silliness of YOUR WAYS my son.


quote:

I really could care less about what you think per se, but more to the point of how you intend to corroborate your questionable claims. That is why I need to know the specifics of what it is you are talking about. The perceptive will have already noticed that examples of these [pertaining to glimps of life in the said African society] have been posted here; it of course, goes without saying, I don't expect you to be observant enough to know what is being talked about.


I know enough to know that your LOGIC is faulty. Yes, there were cultures in Africa that built in stone. HOWEVER, they are NOT in the MAJORITY. You keep trying to TWIST this into something ELSE. SHOW me, in any way you can, HOW THESE cultures are the MAJORITY of African cultures from ANY period and YOU will win the prize. My point is that they ARE NOT and it certainly stands to reason that it is NOT necessary to NAME all of the ancient cultures that existed in Africa to prove it.

quote:

Which Aksumite monument(s) are you referring to, and how is/are Aksumite monument(s) related to Egypt "anyway"?

 -

You posted a aksumite obelisk didnt you?
This obelisk is a representation IN STONE of wooden structures from Aksum. Therefore, a representation in stone of things from the daily life in Askum. I hope you understand why this is valuable, seeing as how wood is less durable than stone.

====================================================

All kidding and nonsense aside, it depends on HOW you define a "culture". If you define a culture along the lines of a language family or broad collection of various ethnicities, then fine, that NARROWS the count to a smaller group. However, if you count cultures as small groupings of peoples with independent chiefs and different cultural practices, then the NUMBER can reach the ceiling. How do YOU define a culture? In my mind, the cultures of Africa could be made up of groups as small as a few thousand on up to hundreds of thousands. Many would go "under the radar" since they are so small. In THAT sense there probably TOO many to name. If you go by languages that list grows exponentially:

from
http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/ethno/Nigr.html
Ethnic listing for Nigeria

quote:

Nigeria

100,580,000 (1995). Federal Republic of Nigeria. Literacy rate 42% to 51%. Information mainly from Hansford, Bendor-Samuel, and Stanford 1976; J. Bendor-Samuel, ed., 1989; CAPRO 1992; Crozier and Blench 1992. Locations for some languages indicate new Local Government Area (LGA) names, but the older Division and District names are given if the new names are not yet known. Also includes Lebanese, European. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Also includes Pulaar Fulfulde, Lebanese, European. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Blind population 800,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 22. The number of languages listed for Nigeria is 478. Of those, 470 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother tongue speakers, and 7 are extinct.

ABINSI (JUKUN ABINSI, RIVER JUKUN) [JUB] Gongola State, Wukari LGA, at Sufa and Kwantan Sufa; Benue State, Makurdi Division, Iharev District at Abinsi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. In Kororofa language cluster. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

ABONG (ABON, ABO) [ABO] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Abong town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Survey needed.

ABUA (ABUAN) [ABN] 25,000 (1989 Faraclas). Rivers State, Degema and Ahoada LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual. Dialects: CENTRAL ABUAN, EMUGHAN, OTABHA (OTAPHA), OKPEDEN. The central dialect is understood by all others. Odual is the most closely related language, about 70% lexical similarity. NT 1978. Bible portions 1973.

ACIPA, EASTERN (ACIPANCI, ACHIPA) [AWA] 5,000 (1993). Niger State, Kontagora LGA; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Towns include Randeggi and Bobi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Dialect: BOROMA (TABOROMA). 83% lexical similarity between Randeggi and Bobi; 52% with Shama, 47% to 50% with Kamuuku, 42% to 44% with Hungworo, 15% to 20% with Western Acipa. The people are called 'Acipawa'. An isolated area. The influence of the Hausa language or of the Muslim religion is slight. Traditional religion.

ACIPA, WESTERN (ACIPANCI, ACHIPA) [AWC] Niger State, Kontagora LGA; Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA. Towns include Kumbashi, Kakihum, and Karisen. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Unclassified. Dialect: CEP (TOCHIPO, TACEP, WESTERN ACIPANCI). 89% to 95% lexical similarity among the dialects; 15% to 20% with Eastern Acipa, 18% with Hungworo, 16% to 17% with Shama, 15% to 17% with Kamuku. The people are called 'Acipawa'. An isolated area. The influence of the Hausa language or of the Muslim religion is slight. A member of the Kamuku language cluster. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

ADUGE [ADU] 1,904 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Kwara State, Oyi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern. Survey needed.

AFADE (AFFADE, AFADEH, AFADA) [AAL] 20,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Borno State, Ngala LGA. Also in Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Survey needed.

AGATU (NORTH IDOMA, OCHEKWU) [AGC] 70,000 (1987 UBS). Benue State, Otuko Divison, districts of Agatu, Ochekwu, and Adoka; Plateau State, Awe and Nasarawa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. In Idoma dialect cluster. NT 1984. Bible portions 1951-1968.

AGOI (RO BAMBAMI, WA BAMBANI, IBAMI) [IBM] 12,000 (1989 Faraclas). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong. Dialect: IKO. Survey needed.

AGWAGWUNE (AKUNAKUNA, AGWAGUNA, GWUNE, AKURAKURA, OKURIKAN) [YAY] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono. Dialects: ABAYONGO (BAYONO, BAYINO), ABINI (OBINI, ABIRI), ADIM (ODIM, DIM), ORUM, EREI (ENNA, EZEI), AGWAGWUNE, ETONO (ETUNO). A dialect cluster. Bible portions 1894. Survey needed.

AJAWA (AJANCI) [AJW] Bauchi State. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Unclassified. Became extinct between 1920 and 1940. The people now speak Hausa.

AKE (AIKE, AKYE) [AIK] 300 or fewer (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Lafia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Survey needed.

AKOKO, NORTH (NORTHERN AKOKO) [AKK] Ondo State, Akoko North LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Akokoid. Dialects: OYIN, OKE-AGBE, URO, ARIGIDI, ERUSU, AHAN (AHAAN), AYERE, UDO, AFFA (AFA), OGE, AJE. A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

AKPA (AKWEYA) [AKF] 5,500 in Akpa (1952 Robert G. Armstrong). Benue State, Otukpo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa. Dialect cluster. 84% lexical similarity with Ekpari. Survey needed.

AKPES (IBARAM-EFIFA) [IBE] 10,000 or more (1992 Crozier and Blench). Ondo State, Akoko North LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan-Akpes. Dialects: AKUNNU (AKPES), ASE, DAJA, EFIFA, ESUKU (ECHUKU), GEDEGEDE, IKOROM, IBARAM, IYANI. Yoruba is the lingua franca. Survey needed.

ALAGO (ARAGU, ARAGO, ARGO, IDOMA NOKWU) [ALA] 35,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Awe and Lafia LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Dialects: DOMA, AGWATASHI, KEANA, ASSAIKIO. 5% literate. Hausa is the second language. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1929.

ALEGE (ALEGI, UGE, UGBE) [ALF] 1,200 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Related to Gayi (Bisu of Obanliku cluster) of Nigeria and Cameroon. Survey needed.

AMBO [AMB] Baissa area. Unclassified. Survey needed.

AMO (AMON, AMONG, TIMAP, BA) [AMO] 3,550 (1950. Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Amo. Timap is the language, Kumap a speaker, Amap the people. Not close to other languages. Survey needed.

ANAANG (ANANG, ANNANG) [ANW] 1,000,000 (1990). Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. Related to Efik. Used as a medium of instruction in the schools. Survey needed.

ANGAS (NNGAS, KERANG, KARANG) [ANC] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Dialects: HILL ANGAS, PLAIN ANGAS. The people are called 'Kerang' or 'Karang'. NT 1979. Bible portions 1916-1928.

ARABIC, SHUWA (ARABE CHOA, SHUWA ARABIC, SHUA, CHADIC ARABIC) [SHU] 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL); 754.590 in Chad (1993); 63,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 50,000 in Niger (1991); 63,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 1,031,000 in all countries. Borno State, Dikwa, Konduga, Ngala, and Bama LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. No diglossia with Modern Standard Arabic. The term 'Shua' is considered perjorative by some people. Trade language. Muslim. NT 1967-1991. Bible portions 1964.

ARUM-CESU (ARUM-CHESSU) [AAB] Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Tarokoid. May be a dialect of Turkwam. Survey needed.

ATEN (GANAWURI, ETIEN, JAL, TEN, NITEN) [GAN] 40,000 (1988 Kjenstad). Plateau State, Barakin Ladi LGA; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, North-Central. Dialect: KWAKWI. The language is Ten, a speaker Aten, the people Niten. Bible portions 1940.

ATSAM (CAWAI, CAWE, CAWI, CHAWAI, CHAWE, CHAWI) [CCH] 30,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam. Closest to Piti. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1923-1932.

AUYOKAWA (AUYAKAWA, AWIAKA) [AUO] Jigawa State, Keffin Hausa and Auyo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1. Extinct.

AWAK (AWOK, YEBU) [AWO] 2,035 (1962). Bauchi State, Billiri-Kaltungo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak. Survey needed.

AYU (AYA) [AYU] 4,000 (1976 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Ayu. Survey needed.

BA (KWA, KWAH, BAA) [KWB] 7,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Kaakan, a village near Munga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kwa. Speakers use Bacama as second language. Different from Kwa' of Cameroon in the Bamileke group. Tradesmen: butchers. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

BAANGI (CIBAANGI) [BQX] 15,000 estimate (1996). Northern Niger State. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Survey needed.

BACAMA (BACHAMA, BASHAMMA, ABACAMA, BESEMA, BWAREBA, GBOARE) [BAM] 150,000 (1992); 300,000 together with Bata (1992). Adamawaa State, Numan and Guyuk LGA's, Kaduna State, northeast of Kaduna town. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialects: MULYEN (MULWYIN, MWULYIN), DONG, OPALO, WA-DUKU. In Bata dialect cluster. Trade language. Agriculturalists, fishermen. Bible portions 1915.

BADA (BADAWA, BADANCHI, BAT, MBADA, MBAT, MBADAWA, KANNA, JAR, JARAWAN KOGI, GARAKA, RIVER JARAWA, PLAINS JARAWA) [BAU] 10,000 (SIL). Plateau State, Kanam LGA; Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: KANTANA, GAR. The language is called 'River Jarawa' or 'Plains Jarawa'. A member of the Jarawa dialect cluster. Mainly traditional religion.

BADE (BEDDE, BEDDA, BEDDU, BEDE, GIDGID) [BDE] 250,000 (1993). Yobeo State, Bade LGA; Jigawa State, Hadejia LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper. Dialects: GASHUA, MAZGARWA, BADE-KADO, MAGWARAM. SHIRAWA. Shirawa dialect is extinct. Fair degree of bilingualism in Hausa, Kanuri, or Fulani. Closely related to Duwai and Ngizim, but separate languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

BAGIRMI (BAGARMI, BARMA, TAR BARMA, TAR BAGRIMMA, LIS, LISI) [BMI] A few in Nigeria; 67,000 in Chad (1993 Johnstone). Borno State, Maiduguri LGA. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Work in progress.

BAKOR (ABANYOM, ABANYUM, BEFUN) [ABM] 12,500 (1986). Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Survey needed.

BAKPINKA (UWET, IYONGIYONG) [BBS] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong. The language is reported to be dying out. Survey needed.

BALI (NDAGAM, BOLI) [BCN] 12,000 (1987). Taraba State, Numan LGA, at Bali, 30 km. from Numan on the road to Jalingo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Reported to be closely related to Kpasam and Yotti. They speak Hausa as second language, and some Bacama or Fulfulde. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, peanuts, rice. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

BANA (FALI) [FLI] 96,000 in Nigeria (1992); 13,000 in Cameroon; 109,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Dialects: THLUKFU, GILI (GUILI), BWAGIRA, PESKI. 'Bana' is the name in Cameroon, 'Fali' in Nigeria. Subgroups include the Vimtim, Muchalla, Bahuli, Julvu, Mijulu, Mua, Maduguva, Kiviya, Mukuta, Betso. People use Fulfulde or Hausa as second language. Little formal education. Hills, plains. Africulturalists: guinea corn, maize, peanuts, bambara nuts, tiger nuts, rice; animal husbandry: cows, sheep, goats, chickens. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

BANGWINJI (BANGUNJI) [BSJ] 6,000 or fewer (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Balanga and Billiri-Kaltungo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Noun class system is closer to Waja and Tula. Survey needed.

BARAWA (BAARAAWAA) [BWR] Bauchi State, near the Geji. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3. Survey needed.

BARIBA (BAATONUN, BATONNUM, BATONU, BAATONUN-KWARA, BARGU, BURGU, BORGU, BORGAWA, BERBA, BARBA, BOGUNG, ZANA) [BBA] 60,000 in Nigeria (1993); 342,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa); 400,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Kwara State, Borgu LGA; Niger State. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba. Bariba of Nigeria may require separate literature from Boko of Benin. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible in press (1995). NT 1977. Bible portions 1953-1968.

BARIKANCHI [BXO] Pidgin, Hausa based. Used in military barracks. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers.

BASA-KADUNA (BASSA-KADUNA, BASA-GUMNA, GWADARA BASA, BASA KUTA) [BSL] Niger State, Chanchaga LGA; Plateau State, Nassarawa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa. No fluent speakers left in 1987. Extinct.

BASHAR (BASHARAWA, BASHIRI, BORROM, BURRUM, BOGH) [BSX] 20,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Plateau State, Langtang and Wase LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Tarokoid. Survey needed.

BASSA-KONTAGORA [BSR] 10 speakers (1987). Niger State, Mariga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa. Nearly extinct.

BATA (GBWATA, BATTA, DEMSA BATA, GBOATI, GBWATE, BETE, BIRSA, DUNU) [BTA] 150,000 in Nigeria (1992); 2,500 in Cameroon; 152,500 in all countries. 300,000 together with the Bacama in Nigeria (1992). Adamawa State, Numan, Song, Fufore, and Mubi LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialects: ZUMU (ZOMO, JIMO), WADI (WA'I), MALABU, KOBOTACHI, RIBAW, DEMSA, GAROUA, JIRAI. Closely related languages: Bacama, Gude, Njanyi, Vimtin, Ziziliveken. They have joined with the Bacama in the Bwatiye Association. Kofa may be a related language. Agriculturalists, fishermen, animal husbandry: pigs, goats. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

BATU [BTU] 25,000. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Batu town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Survey needed.

BAUSHI (BAUCI, KUSHI, BUSHI, BAUCHI) [BSF] 20,000 or fewer (1992 Crozier and Blench). Niger State, Rafi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana. Survey needed.

BEGBERE-EJAR (KORO AGWE, AGERE, KORO MAKAMA, KORON ACHE, KORO MYAMYA, MIAMIA, MIAMIYA) [KOR] 35.000 including Ashe (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA, Plateau State, Keffi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Dialects: KORON ACHE (ASHE, ALA), KORON PANDA, EJAR. Ejar may be a separate language. Koron Ache and Koron Panda are subdialects of Begbere. The alternate names listed refer to the people. 'Koro' is used as a cover term for several groups. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

BEKWARRA (EBEKWARA, BEKWORRA, YAKORO) [BKV] 100,000 (1989 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Used in radio and TV news. NT 1983. Bible portions 1970.

BELE [BXQ] Bauchi State, near the Bole. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. A separate language from Bole. Muslim. Survey needed.

BEROM (BIROM, BERUM, GBANG, KIBO, KIBBO, KIBBUN, KIBYEN, "SHOSHO", ABORO, BORO-ABORO, AFANGO, CHENBEROM) [BOM] 300,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau State, Berakin Ladi and Jos LGA's; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Bauchi State. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southern. Dialects: GYELL-KURU-VWANG (NGELL-KURU-VWANG), FAN-FORON-HEIKPANG, BACHIT-GASHISH, DU-ROPP-RIM, HOSS. The language is Chenberom, a speaker Worom, the people Berom. "Shosho" is an offensive name. 25% to 50% literate. NT 1984. Bible portions 1916-1936.

BETE [BYF] Few speakers out of 3,000 population (1992). Taraba State, Takum LGA, Bete town, at the foot of Bete mountain. Unclassified. The language is dying out. Reported to have been close to Lufu and Bibi. The people now speak Jukun. 6 subgroups: Aphan (Afan), Ruke, Osu, Agu, Botsu, Humiyan. Formerly had land disputes with the Tiv. Christian, traditional religion. Nearly extinct.

BETE-BENDE (BETE, BETTE, BETTE-BENDI, MBETE, DAMA, BENDI) [BTT] 36,800 (1963). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Not the same as Bete of Nigeria in Gongola State, Bete of Cameroon, or Bete of Côte d'Ivoire. NT 1982. Bible portions 1977.

BILE (BILLE, BILLANCHI, KUNBILLE, BILI) [BIL] 30,000 (1992). East of Numan, along Benue River, Adamawa State, Numan LGA's, southwest of Numan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Related to Mbula-Bwazza. Speakers use Hausa and Fulfulde as second languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

BILIRI [BIA] Bauchi State, Billiri-Kaltungo and Akko LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Close to Tangale. Conflicting reports about whether it is a dialect of Tangale or a separate language.

BINA (BOGANA, BINAWA) [BYJ] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

BISENI (BUSENI, AMEGI, NORTHEAST CENTRAL IJO) [IJE] 4,800 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Rivers State, Yenagoa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Central, Oruma-Northeast Central, Northeast Central. Not intelligible with other languages in the Ijo language cluster. Survey needed.

BITARE (NJWANDE, YUKUTARE) [BRE] 50,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers), 3,700 in Cameroon (1983 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Closely related to Abong. Survey needed.

BOGA (BOKA) [BOD] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. Survey needed.

BOGHOM (BOGGHOM, BOHOM, BUROM, BURUM, BURRUM, BURMA, BORROM, BOGHOROM, BOKIYIM) [BUX] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Shendam LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom. Related to Mangas. Bible portions 1955.

BOKO (BOKO, BOKONYA, BOKKO) [BQC] 40,000 in Nigeria (1995); 70,000 in Benin (1995); 110,000 in all countries (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Niger State, Borgu LGA; Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA, from Senji in the north to Kenugbe and Kaoje, 150 km. to the south and Demmo, 50 km. to the east, 35 villages. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Busa. Other Busa languages in Nigeria require separate literature. Traditional religion, Muslim. Bible 1992. NT 1984.

BOKOBARU (BUSA-BOKOBARU, ZONGBEN) [BUS] 45,000 (1995 Ross Jones SIM), including 10,000 in Kaama, 35,000 in Lakatu. Kwara State, primarily Kiama LGA, some in Baruten LGA. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Busa. Dialects: KAAMA (KAIAMA), LAKATU. Kaama and Lakatu have good inherent intelligibility of each other's dialects. The people are Bussawa. They call their language 'Bussagwe'. The Hausa call their language 'Busanchi'. The Bokobaru variety is distinct enough to require separate literature from Busa-Boko of Benin. The Bisa variety of Nigeria may also require separate literature. Not the same language as Bissa of Burkina Faso and Ghana. Speakers use Hausa, Yoruba, English, Bariba, Fulfulde as second languages to speakers from those groups. 4% literate. Speakers have high motivation for literacy. Typology: SOV; gentives before noun heads; articles, adjective, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial or final; 4 suffixes; word order distinguishes subject, object, indirect object; postpositions; person, number, aspect included in subject pronouns; tone changes some verb aspect; passives; CV, CVV, CCV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in English are 0:80%, 1:10%, 2:4%, 3:3%, 4:2%, 5:1%. Interfluvial. Peasant agriculturalists. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1972-1994. Work in progress.

BOKYI (BOKI, NKI, OKII, UKI, NFUA, OSIKOM, OSUKAM, VAANEROKI) [BKY] 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL); 3,700 in Cameroon; 144,000 in all countries. Cross River State, Ikom, Obudu, and Ogoja LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Dialects: BASUA, BOKI, IRRUAN (ERWAN, EERWEE), BOJE (BOJIE), KWAKWAGOM, NSADOP, OSOKOM, WULA, BASUA, OKU, BOORIM, OYOKOM, ABU, EASTERN BOKYI. Ethnic groups: Ndir, Ukwese, Utang, Yon. Important district language. Bible 1987. NT 1978.

BOLE (BOLANCHI, AMPIKA, BORPIKA, BOLEWA, BOLAWA) [BOL] 100,000 (1990). Bauchi State, Dukku, Alakaleri, and Darazo LGA's; Borno State, Fika LGA; Plateau State, Wase LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Dialects: BARA, FIKA (FIKANKAYEN, ANPIKA). Speakers are called 'Bolewa' or 'Bolawa'. Bele is a separate language. The Ngara (2,000 in 1993) claim to be part of Bole, but the Bolewa disagree. Muslim. Survey needed.

BOSO, SOROGAMA (SOROGAMA, COROGAMA, SORKO, SARKANCI, SARKAWA, JENAMA, NONONKE, "BOZO") [BZE] (100,000 in Mali; 1991 Vanderaa). Niger, Kwara, and Kebbi states, Lake Kainji. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Soninke-Bozo. In Nigeria, 'Sorko' is preferred. Those in Nigeria mainly speak Hausa as mother tongue. Fishermen. Muslim. Work in progress.

BUDUMA (BOUDOUMA, YEDINA, YEDIMA, YIDANA) [BDM] 3,000 in Nigeria; 51,600 in Chad (1993); 4,000 in Niger; 200 in Cameroon; 58,800 in all countries. Borno State, on islands in Lake Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma. Dialects: BUDUMA, KURI (KOURI, KAKAA). Semi-nomadic. Pastoralists, fishermen. Muslim, traditional religion. Work in progress.

BUMAJI [BYP] Cross River State, Obudu LGA, Bumaji town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Survey needed.

BURAK (BUURAK) [BYS] 4,000 (1992 Crozier & Blench). Bauchi State, Billiri-Kaltungo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Survey needed.

BURA-PABIR (BURA, BURRA, PABIR, BABIR, BABUR, BARBURR, KWOJEFFA, HUVE, HUVIYA) [BUR] 250,000 (1990 UBS), including 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa State (1992). Borno State, Biu and Askira-Uba LGA's; Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1. Dialects: PELA (HILL BURA), HYILHAWUL (HILHAWU, PLAIN BURA). 3% literate. Ngohi is a small subgroup. Kofa or Kota may be a related language. Agriculturalists, weavers, hunters, fishermen, wood carbers. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1937-1987. Bible portions 1925-1937.

BURU [BQW] Baissa region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified. Survey needed.

BUSA-BISÃ (BISÃ, BISAYÃ, BUSA-BISA, BUSANO, BUSSANCHI) [BQP] 40,000 first language speakers, 13,000 second language users (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Niger State, Borgu LGA. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Busa. Dialects: NEW BUSA, WAWA, ILLO. The two dialects are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Busa has more prestige, but Wawa recognized as purer. Other Busa languages (Busa-Boko, Busa-Bokobaru) require separate literature. Different from Bissa of Burkina Faso. Speakers use Hausa and Kambari as second languages when speaking to non-Bisã people. Hausa is used in school. 5% literate. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial or final; 4 suffixes; word order distinguishes subject, object, direct object; person, number, aspect included in subject pronouns; tone indicates some verb aspect; passive; CV, CVV, CCV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Hausa, Kambari, English are 0:30%, 1:40%, 2:13%, 3:10%, 4:5%, 5:2%. Riverine. Peasant agriculturalists. Muslim. Work in progress.

CARA (CHARA, FACHARA, NFACHARA, FAKARA, PAKARA, TERA, TERIA, TERRI, TARIYA) [CFD] 735 (1936; 1953 H.D. Gunn). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, North-Central. Survey needed.

CHE (RUKUBA, KUCHE, BACHE, INCHAZI) [RUK] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. The language is Kuche, a speaker Ache, the people Bache. Bible portions 1924-1931.

CIBAK (CHIBUK, CHIBOK, CHIBBAK, CHIBBUK, KYIBAKU, KIBBAKU, KIKUK) [CKL] 100,000 (1993 CAPRO)). Borno State, Damboa LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1.

CISHINGINI (ASHAGANNA, ASHINGINI, ASCHINGINI, CHISINGINI, "MAUNCHI", "MAWANCHI", KAMBARI, KAMBERRI, KAMBERCHI, YAURI, AGWARA KAMBARI) [ASG] 80,000 (1996). Niger State, Borgu and Agwara LGA's, just west of the Niger River and north of the Kainji game park; and Kebbi State, east of the Niger River from the Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Dialect: ROFIA. Close to Tsishingini and Tsikimba, but a separate language. Speakers are called 'Ashingini'. Speakers can use Hausa, and some can use English or other Kambari languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

COMO KARIM (CHOMO, SHOMONG, SHOMOH, NUADHU, SHOMO KARIM, KINZIMBA, ASOM) [CFG] Taraba State, Jalingo, Karim Lamido LGA's, near Lau. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified. Dialect: KARIM (KIRIM, KIYU). Called 'Bakula' together with Shoo-Minda-Nyem, Jiru, and Jessi. Hunters, fishermen. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

DADIYA (DADIANCI, NDA DIA, DADIA, BOLERI, DAADIYA, LOODIYA) [DBD] 2,300 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Balanga LGA; Gongola State, Numan LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya. Dialect: TUNGA. Survey needed.

DAFFO-BATURA (RON-DAFFO, CHALLA) [DAM] Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Dialects: DAFFO, BATURA, MANGAR, MONGUNA. Survey needed.

DASS [DOT] 8,830; including 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census). Bauchi State, Toro and Dass LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3. Dialects: LUKSHI (DUKSHI), DURR-BARAZA (BANDAS), ZUMBUL (BOODLA), WANDI (WANGDAY), DOT (DWAT, ZODI DAT, DOTT). A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

DAZA (DAZAWA) [DZD] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, a few villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, Unclassified. Apparently different from Daza in Chad and Niger, which is Saharan. Survey needed.

DEFAKA (AFAKANI) [AFN] 1,000 or fewer (1992 Crozier and Blench). Rivers State, Bonny LGA, in the Niger Delta, town of Nkoro. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Defaka. Related to, but a separate language from the Ijo group. Survey needed.

DEGEMA (ATALA, UDEKAMA) [DEG] 10,000 (SIL). Rivers State, Degema LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta. Dialects: ATALA, USOKUN (KALA DEGEMA). Survey needed.

DENDI (DANDAWA) [DEN] A few in Nigeria; 42,300 in Niger (1991); 30,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones SIM); 72,000 in all countries, or more. Kebbi State, Argungu and Bagudo LGA's, on upper Niger River. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai. A closely related language to Dyerma and Songhai. NT in press (1994).

DENO (DENAWA, DENWA, BE) [DBB] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

DERA (KANAKURU, DERU) [KNA] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Gongola State, Guyuk LGA; Borno State, Biu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera. Dialects: KIRI, DERA. Some speakers use Hausa, Bura, Lala, Fulfulde, Longuda, or English as second language. Many are educated. Most villages have primary schools. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, peanuts, cotton; hunters, fishermen. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1937. Survey needed.

DGHWEDE (HUDE, JOHODE, TRAUDE, DEHOXDE, TGHUADE, TOGHWEDE, WA'A, AZAGHVANA, ZAGHVANA) [DGH] 30,000 (1980 UBS). Borno State, Gwoza LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. NT 1980.

DIJIM [CFA] 7,539, including 3,257 Cham, 4,282 Mwana (1968 Jungraithmayr). Bauchi State, Balanga LGA; Gongola State, Numan LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona. Dialects: CAM (CHAM), MWANA (MWANO, MWONA, MWOMO, MONA, BWILIM). Cham and Mwana may be separate languages. Related to Lotsu-Piri. Survey needed.

DIRI (DIRYA, DIRIYA, DIRYAWA) [DWA] 3,750 (1971). Bauchi State, Ningi and Darazo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. A separate language from Tsagu. Survey needed.

DIRIM (DIRIN, DIRRIM, DAKA, DAKKA) [DIR] 9,000 (1992). Taraba State, Bali LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Closely related to Chamba Daka. Many blind people, caused by filaria. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

DOKA [DBI] Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Distinct from Duka. Survey needed.

DOKO-UYANGA (UYANGA, DOSANGA, BASANGA, IKO) [UYA] A few. Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, several towns. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong. Survey needed.

DONG (DONGA) [DOH] 5,000 to 10,000 (1995). Taraba State, Zing and Mayo Belwa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Distinct from Dongo (Donga) of Zaïre, which is in the Amadi group of Ubangi (Adamawa-Ubangi). Survey needed.

DUGURI (DUGURAWA, DUGARWA, DUGURANCHI, DUKURI) [DBM] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State; Plateau State, Langtang LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: GAR DUGURI, BADARA DUGURI, NORTHEAST DUGURI, SOUTHWEST DUGURI. A member of the Jarawa dialect cluster. Traditional religion, Christian.

DUGUZA (DUGUSA) [DZA] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Survey needed.

DUKANCI (DUKA, DUKAWA, DUKWA, DUKANCHI, HUN-SAARE) [DUD] 73,000 including 10,000 outside the traditional area (1985 Patience Ahmed). Kebbi State, Wasagu and Yauri LGA's; Niger State, Rijau LGA, and migrants farther south. Dialect centers are Rijau-Senjir, Dukku-Iri, Zente-Dogo, and Darengi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Dialects: EASTERN DUKA (HUN, ET-HUN, HUNE), WESTERN DUKA (ES-SAARE). Dukawa from the west refer to the speech of the east as 'Es-Saare', just as they refer to their own. 85% lexical similarity between Rijau and Dukku dialects; 63% Duka with Puku-Geeri-Keri-Wipsi, 50% with Lela, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri. 2% literate. Savannah. Plains, hills. Peasant agriculturalists, hunters. Altitude: 200 to 500 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1974-1979. Work in progress.

DULBU [DBO] 100 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Survey needed.

DUNGU (DUNGI, DINGI, DWINGI, DUNJAWA) [DBV] 310 (1949). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Dungi town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Possibly a dialect of Gure. Survey needed.

DUWAI [DBP] Yobe State, Bade LGA; Kano State, Hadejia LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai. In Bade language cluster. Survey needed.

DZA (JANJO, JENJO, JEN, NJENG, JA, ZAH, KARENJO) [JEN] 6,100 (1952). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, and Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Jen town, east of Karim-Lamido town, south of Bambuka town, by the Benue River bank. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Agriculturalists, hunters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

EBIRA (IGBIRRA, IGBARRA, IBARA, KOTOKORI, KATAWA, KWOTTO, IGBIRA, EGBIRA, EGBURA) [IGB] 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). Kwara State, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGA's; Plateau State, Nassarawa LGA; Bendel State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade. Dialects: PANDA, HIMA (IHIMA, OKENE), IGARA (ETUNO), IGU (EGU, IKA, BIRA, BIRI). Ebira is used in schools. 25% literate. Agriculturalists. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. NT 1981. Bible portions 1891-1960.

EBUGHU (ORON) [EBG] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo and Oron LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

EDO (BINI, BENIN, ADDO, OVIEDO, OVIOBA) [EDO] 1,000,000 (1997 UBS). Bendel State, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora. Used in radio, television, adult, primary, and secondary education, dictionary, history text, mother tongue authored literature. Roman script used. National language. Bible in press (1995). NT 1981. Bible portions 1914-1935.

EFAI (EFFIAT) [EFA] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA, and in Cameroon, Isangele Subdivision. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. May be a dialect of Efik. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

EFIK (CALABAR) [EFK] 360,000 total first language speakers (1989); 10,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 2,000,000 total second language speakers (1989). Cross River State, Calabar Municipality, Odukpani and Akamkpa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. The major dialect and literary language of the Ibibio-Efik group. Used in radio, television, adult, primary, and secondary education, university courses, mother tongue-authored literature, dictionary, grammar. Roman script. National language. Typology: SVO. Bible 1868, in press (1995). NT 1862-1947. Bible portions 1850-1866.

EFUTOP (OFUTOP, AGBARAGBA) [OFU] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Survey needed.

EGGON (EGON, MEGONG, MADA EGGON) [EGO] 140,368 (1990). Plateau State, Akwanga and Lafia LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Dialects: MATATARWA, MATENGALA, HILL MADA. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1974. Bible portions 1935.

EJAGHAM (EKOI) [ETU] 45,000 in Nigeria; 35,000 in Cameroon; 80,000 in all countries (1982 J. Watters SIL). Cross River State, Akampka, Idom, Odukpani, Calabar LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Dialects: SOUTHERN EJAGHAM (EKIN, QUA, KWA, AQUA, ABAKPA), WESTERN EJAGHAM, EASTERN EJAGHAM. Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng). Used in radio and TV news. Bible portions 1985. Work in progress.

EKAJUK (AKAJO, AKAJUK) [EKA] 30,000 (1986 Asinya). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. NT 1971.

EKIT (EKET) [EKE] 200,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo Ibeno and Eket LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. Related to Efik. Survey needed.

EKPARI (YACE, YACHE, YATYE, IYACE) [EKR] 10,000 (1982 UBS). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa. 84% lexical similarity with Akpa. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

EKPEYE [EKP] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Ahoada and Yenagoa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Ekpeye. Dialects: AKO, UPATA, UBYE, IGBUDUYA. Related to Igbo but not inherently intelligible with it. Survey needed.

ELEME [ELM] 58,000 (1990 UBS). Rivers State, Otelga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

ELOYI (AFO, AFU, AHO, AFAO, EPE, KEFFI) [AFO] 25,000 (SIL). Plateau State, Awe and Nassarawa LGA's; Benue State, Otukpo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi. Dialects: MBECI, MBAMU. People use Hausa as second language. They are 5% literate in Hausa. Traditional religion, Muslim Christian. Work in progress.

EMAI-IULEHA-ORA (KUNIBUM, IVBIOSAKON) [EMA] 100,000 (1987 Schaefer). Edo State, Owan LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora. Dialects: IVHIMION, EMAI, IULEHA, ORA. Dialect cluster. Ora is used in initial primary education. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1908-1910. Survey needed.

ENGENNI (NGENE, EGENE) [ENN] 20,000 (1980 UBS). Rivers State, Ahoada and Yenagoa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta. Dialects: EDIRO, INEDUA, OGUA. NT 1977. Bible portions 1968.

ENGLISH [ENG] Second language speakers: 1,000,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Used in government, education. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

EPIE (EPIE-ATISSA) [EPI] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Yenagoa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta. Dialect: ATISA (ATISSA). Most speakers are bilingual in Ijo. Survey needed.

ERUWA (EROHWA, ERAKWA, AROKWA) [ERH] Bendel State, Isoko LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Related to Urhobo. Most speakers are bilingual in Central Isoko, which is replacing Eruwa. Not intelligible with any Isoko dialect. Survey needed.

ESAN (ISHAN, ISA, ESA, ANWAIN) [ISH] 200,000 (1973 SIL). Bendel State, Agbazko, Okpebho, Owan, and Etsako LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora. Dialects: EKPON, IGUEBEN. Many dialects, apparently inherently intelligible. A regionally important language. Used in initial primary education, TV. 99% speak or understand Nigerian Pidgin English. Tropical forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists: yams, bananas, oranges, plantains, cassava; hunters. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Bible portions 1974. Work in progress.

ETEBI [ETB] 15,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo Ibeno LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. 'Oron' and 'Ekit' are incorrect names. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

ETULO (ETURO, UTUR, TURUMAWA) [UTR] 10,000 (1988 Shain). Benue State, Gboko LGA; Taraba State, Wukari LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo. Traditional religion, Christian (small).

EVAND (EVANT, AVAND, AVANDE, OVAND, OVANDE, OVANDO, BALEGETE, BELEGETE) [BZZ] 10,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1996 R. Hedinger); 1,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1996 R. Hedinger); 11,000 or fewer in all countries. Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 50% lexical similarity with Icheve, Tiv, and Otanga. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

FALI OF BAISSA [FAH] Some speakers left (1992 Crozier & Blench). Southern Taraba State, Falinga Plateau region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified. Nearly extinct.

FAM [FAM] 1,000 or fewer (1984). Southeast, north of the Mambila Plateau, west of Serti, east of Bibinu, Taraba State, Bali LGA, 17 km. east of Kungana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Fam. Not closely related to other languages. Survey needed.

FIRAN [FIR] 1,500 or fewer (1991 C. Regnier). Plateau State, Barkin Ladi LGA, Kwakwi Station south of Jos. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, South-Central. A separate, but related language to Izere. Survey needed.

FULFULDE, ADAMAWA (EASTERN FULANI, FULFULDE, FULATANCHI, FILLANCI, FULA, FULBE, FULANI) [FUB] 760,000 or more in all countries; 7,611,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria, or 8.6% of the population (1991 SIL). East central Nigeria, Taraba and Adamawa States, center in Yola. Also in Cameroon, Chad, and Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, Eastern. The language is Fulatanchi, Fillanci, or Fula; a speaker is Pullo; the people are Fulbe or Fulani. National language, trade language. Muslim, traditional religion. Bible 1983. NT 1963-1964. Bible portions 1919-1966.

FULFULDE, KANO-KATSINA-BORORRO [FUV] (7,611,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria; 1991 SIL). Kano-Katsina dialect is spoken in the area of Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Gombe is the center. The Bororro dialect is in Bornu State; Maiduguri is the center. Also in Niger, Cameroon, Chad, and Central African Republic. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, East Central. Dialects: KANO-KATSINA, BORORRO (BORORO, MBORORO, AKO, NOMADIC FULFULDE). Muslim. Work in progress.

FULFULDE, SOKOTO [FUQ] (7,611,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria; 1991 SIL). Sokoto State. Also in Niger. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, East Central. One of the major Fulbe geo-political units. Sokoto dialect is distinct from the other dialects in Nigeria (Arnott 1970). Muslim.

FUNGWA (URA, ULA) [ULA] 1,000 (1992 Blench). Niger State, Rafi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Survey needed.

FYAM (PYAM, PYEM, PAIEM, GYEM, FEM, PEM) [PYM] 36,440 (1990). Plateau State, Jos, Barkin Ladi, and Mangu LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southeastern. Closest to Horom.

FYER (FIER) [FIE] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer. Survey needed.

GA'ANDA (GA'ANDU, GANDA, MOKAR, MAKWAR) [GAA] 43,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Some also in Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGA's, and Borno State, Biu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. Dialects: GA'ANDA, GABIN. 14 villages have primary schools, and Gaanda has a secondary school. Speakers are becoming more interested in education. Hausa and Fulfulde are used as second languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

GADE (GEDE, GODE) [GED] 60,000 (1977 Sterk). Federal Capital Territory and Plateau State, Nassarawa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade. Considered to be conservative by neighbors. Important district language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

GALAMBU (GALAMBI, GALAMBE, GALEMBI) [GLO] 20,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Survey needed.

GAMO-NINGI [BTE] Ethnic group of 15,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Dialects: GAMO (BUTA, MBUTA, MBOTU, BA-BUCHE, BA-MBUTU), NINGI. The people now speak Hausa. Formerly a dialect cluster. Muslim, traditional religion. Extinct.

GANA (GANAWA, SI-GANA) [GNH] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Nearly extinct.

GBAGYI (GWARI MATAYI, GWARI MATAI, GBARI MATTAI, GENGE) [GBR] 700,000 (1991 SIL). Niger State, Rafi, Chanchaga, Shiroro, Suleija LGA's; Kaduna State, Kachi LGA; Plateau State, Keffi, Nassarawa LGA's; Federal Capital Territory. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari. Dialects: TAWARI, KUTA, DIKO, KARU, KADUNA, LOUOME, VWEZHI, NGENGE (GENGE, GYANGE, GYENGYEN). Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1956, in press (1995). Bible portions 1913-1938.

GBARI (GBARI YAMMA, GWARI YAMMA, WEST GWARI, NKWA) [GBY] 300,000 (1991 SIL). From Zungeru in Niger State to the Kaduna River in the north, southeast through Minna and Paiko to a little past Kwali in the Federal Capital Territory. Niger State, Chanchaga, Suleija, Agaie, and Lapai LGA's; Plateau State, Nassarawa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari. Dialects: KWALI, IZEM, GAYEGI, PAIKO, BOTAI, JEZHU, KONG, KWANGE (KANGYE, AGBAWI, WAKE, WI), WAHE. Dialects share 89% to 98% lexical similarity; 66% to 78% with Gbagyi dialects. Speakers do not want to be considered Gbagyi. 5% to 15% literate. Mountains. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, some Muslim. Bible portions 1925-1926. Work in progress.

GBAYA, NORTHWEST (BAYA) [GYA] Very few in Nigeria; 334,000 or more in all countries. Taraba State, Bali LGA. Mainly in Central African Republic. Also in Cameroon and Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya, Gbaya. Dialect: GBEYA (GBEA). Bible 1994. NT 1951-1982. Bible portions 1933-1975.

GBIRI-NIRAGU (GURE-KAHUGU) [GRH] 5,000 (1952 Westermann and Bryan). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Dialects: GBIRI (IGBIRI, AGARI, AGBIRI, GURA, GURE), NIRAGU (KAHUGU, KAPUGU, KAFUGU, KAGU, ANIRAGO). Survey needed.

GEJI (GEZAWA, GEJAWA) [GEZ] 2,650 (1971); 1,250 Bolu, 650 Geji, 750 Zaranda. Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Dialects: BOLU (MAGANG, PELU), GEJI (GYAAZI, GEZAWA, GAEJAWA), ZARANDA (BUU). Geji dialect cluster, in Barawa language cluster. Survey needed.

GENGLE (WEGELE, MOMU, YAGELE) [GEG] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Hausa is used as second language. Not the same as Gongla. Traditional religion, Christian, Mulsim. Survey needed.

GERA (GERAWA) [GEW] 13,300 (1971). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Darazo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Survey needed.

GERUMA (GEREMA, GERMA) [GEA] 4,700 (1971). Bauchi State, Toro and Darazo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Survey needed.

GEVOKO (GVOKO, GHBOKO, GAVOKO, KUVOKO, NGOSSI, NGOSHI, NGOSHE-NDHANG, NGWESHE-NDAGHAN, NGOSHE SAMA, NGGWESHE) [NGS] 20,000 or more in Nigeria (1990). Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. Also in Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. A separate but related language to Glavda and Guduf. Survey needed.

GHOTUO (OTWA, OTUO) [AAA] 9,000 (1952). Edo State, Owan and Akoko-Edo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee. Survey needed.

GIBANAWA (GEMBANAWA, GIMBANAWA, JEGA) [GIB] Sokoto State, Jega LGA, near the Dukawa. Unclassified. May be related to Duka, or be Hausa-speaking Fulani. The largest group in Jega LGA. Survey needed.

GIIWO (KIRFI, KIRIFI, KIRIFAWA) [KKS] 14,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Survey needed.

GLAVDA (GALAVDA, GELEBDA, GLANDA, GUELEBDA, VALE, GALVAXDAXA) [GLV] 20,000 in Nigeria (1963); 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 22,800 in all countries. Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly in Nggoshe village (different from Ngoshi), and in Agapalawa, Amuda, Vale, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, Pelekwa villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Dialects: BOKWA, NGOSHIE (NGWESHE), GLAVDA, CINENI. Cineni may be a dialect or separate ethnic group. Closely related to Guduf. Distinct from Vale of Chad and Central African Republic, which is Chari-Nile. 5% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1967.

GOEMAI (ANKWAI, ANKWEI, ANKWE, KEMAI) [ANK] 200,000 or more (1995). Plateau State, Shendam, Lafia, and Awe LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Hausa is used as lingua franca. Traditional religion, Muslim.

GOKANA [GKN] 100,000 (1989). Rivers State, Gokana, Tai-Eleme LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1993.

GUDE (CHEKE, TCHADE, SHEDE, MUBI, MAPODI, MAPUDA, NGUF, NDAN-DAN KWA, ZIRTALI, DAMANUNUKWA) [GDE] 68,000 in Nigeria (1987); 28,000 in Cameroon; 96,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Mubi LGA; Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria but they are inherently intelligible. Speakers use Hausa, Fulfulde, Nzzanyi, or English as second languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1974-1995. Work in progress.

GUDU (GUDO, GUTU, KUDOMOHADA) [GDU] 5,000 (1993). Adamawa State, Song LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialect: KUMBI. Formerly the culture and religion were similar to the Ngwaba. Muslim. Survey needed.

GUDUF (GUDUPE, AFKABIYE) [GDF] 21,300 in all countries (1963). Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly in Gava, 11'6" N, 13'46" E; Cikide and Guduf. Also in Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Dialects: CIKIDE (CHIKIDE), GUDUF, GAVA (YAGHWATADAXA, YAWOTATAXA), CINENI. 56% lexical similarity with Hedi, 50% with Lamang and Mabas. Closely related to Glavda. Hedi speakers have 35% intelligibility of Guduf. Wolff (1971) separates Guduf from Gevoko and Glavda. Cineni may be a separate language. Bible portions 1966. Survey needed.

GUN-GBE (GBE, GOUN, GUN, GU, EGUN, GUGBE, ALADA, ALADA-GBE, GUN-ALADA) [GUW] 500,000 in all countries (1991 UBS); 320,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Lagos State, Badagry LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Bible 1923-1972. NT 1892-1919. Bible portions 1886-1910. Work in progress.

GURMANA [GRC] 3,000 (1989). Niger State, Shiroro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana. Basa-Gurmana (Koromba) may be a dialect. Survey needed.

GURUNTUM-MBAARU (GURUNTUM, MBAARU) [GRD] 15,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Survey needed.

GWA [GWB] 1,000 or fewer (1971). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Related to Lame. Survey needed.

GWAMHI-WURI (LYASE, LYASE-NE) [BGA] 8,000 (1973 SIL). Kebbi State, Wasagu LGA, Danko-Maga area, and Niger State, Magama LGA, Dusai and Kwimu. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Dialects: GWAMHI (GWAMFANCI, GWAMFI, ABAANGI, BANGA, BANGANCI, BANGAWA), WURI (WURANCI, WURAWA). 57% lexical similarity with Puku-Geeri-Keri-Wipsi, 47% with Duka, 43% with Lela. 'Bangawa' is the Hausa name for the people, 'Banganci' for the language; 'Lyase' means 'mother tongue'. The two dialects have slight lexical and tonal differences. Many Gwamfawa are assimilating to Lela culture and language, while the Wurawa are assimilating to Hausa. The Gwamfawa are around Danko and the Wurawa around Maga. Migrants are in Niger State. Survey needed.

GWANDARA (KWANDARA) [GWN] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Niger State, Suleija LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Kaduna State, Kachia; Plateau State, Keffi, Lafia, Nassarawa, and Akwanga LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Dialects: KARASHI, GWANDARA CENTRAL, GWANDARA WESTERN (KORO), GWANDARA SOUTHERN (KYAN KYAR), GWANDARA EASTERN (TONI), GWANDARA GITATA. Traditional religion, Muslim.

GWOMU (GWOMO, GOMU, MOO) [GWG] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road, close to Gomu Mountain. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. In the Bikwin ethnic cluster. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry, fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

GYEM (GYEMAWA, GEMA, GEMAWA) [GYE] 100 (1971). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Different from Fyam (Gyem). Survey needed.

HAM (HYAM, HUM, JABA, JABBA, JEBA) [JAB] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGA's; Plateau State, Keffi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Jaba. Dialects: HAM (HYAM, JABA), CORI (CHORI), SHAMANG (SAMBAN), ZHIRE (KENYI). Hyam, Cori, Shamang, and Zhire may be separate languages. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1921-1923. Work in progress.

HAUSA (HAUSAWA, HAOUSSA, ABAKWARIGA, MGBAKPA, HABE, KADO) [HUA] 18,525,000 in Nigeria, 20.9% of the population (1991 SIL); 3,250,000 in Niger; 23,500 in Cameroon; 9,600 in Togo (1991); 500 in Burkina Faso (1991); 418,000 in Sudan (1993); 4,000 in Congo (1993); 22,000,000 in all countries, first language speakers (1991); 38,000,000 first and second lang uage speakers (1995 WA). Spoken as a first language in large areas of Sokoto, Kaduna, Katsina, Kano and Bauchi states, and in Niger. Spoken as a second language in the northern half of Nigeria. Also in Chad, Benin, Ghana. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Dialects: EASTERN HAUSA, WESTERN HAUSA, NORTH HAUSA. Both Roman and Ajami scripts are used. Official language in the north. Barikanchi is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is a pidgin or market Hausa. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup. Grammar. Dictionary. National language. Typology: SVO. Muslim, traditional religion (Maguzawa), Christian. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1932-1980. NT 1880, in press (1993). Bible portions 1857-1988.

HEDI (HIDE, HYIDE, XADI, XEDI, GRA) [TUR] 9,000 in Nigeria (1992); 10,000 in all countries (1982 SIL). Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; along the Cameroon border, across from Tourou; part of one village. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Dialect: TUR (TURU, TOUROU, FTOUR). Little education. 1 primary school. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, beans, millet. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Work in progress.

HOROM ("KALERI") [HOE] 500 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southeastern. "Kaleri" is a derogatory name. Survey needed.

HUBA (KILBA, CHOBBA, HOBBE, NYA-HOBBE, XIBBA, NDIRMA, WUDING, PELLA) [KIR] 175,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Hong, Gombi, and Mubi LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2. Dialect: LUWA. Speakers use Hausa or Fulfulde as second language. Nearly all villages have primary schools; some have secondary schools. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry: cattle, weavers, cloth dyers. Bible portions 1976.

HUNGWORO (NGWOI, NKWOI, NGWE, INGWO, INGWE, UNGWE) [NAT] 1,000 (1949; 1956 H.D. Gunn). Niger State, Rafi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. 50% to 52% lexical similarity with Kamuku dialects. Survey needed.

HWANA (HWONA, HONA, HUNA, WHANA, TUFTERA, FITERYA, KURTIGA) [HWO] 32,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, and some in Song and Hong LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. The neighboring Bura consider them to be conservative. 'Tuftera' is their name for their language, 'Fiterya' for themselves. Four divisions: Hwana Guyaku, Hwana Tawa, Ngithambara, and Hwana Barni. Speakers use Fulfulde, Hausa, Kilba, and Gaanda as second languages. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry: cattle, goats; hunters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

IBANI (BONNY, UBANI) [IBY] 60,000 (1989 UBS). Rivers State, Bonny and Degema LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari. Bible portions 1892-1986.

IBIBIO [IBB] 3,186,000 or 3.6% of the population (1991 SIL). Akwa Ibom State, Itu, Uyo, Etinan, Ikot Abasi, Ikono, Ekpe-Atai, Uruan, Onna, Nsit-Ubium, and Mkpat Enin LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. Dialects: ENYONG, NKARI. Closely related to Efik. Efik is decreasing in use as literary language. It is the main trade language of Akwa Ibom State. Trade language. Christian. Work in progress.

IBINO (IBENO, IBUNO) [IBN] 10,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo-Ibeno LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, West. Survey needed.

IBUORO [IBR] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Itu and Ikono LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

ICEN (ICHEN, ITCHEN, ETKYWAN, ETEKWE~, KYATO, KENTU, NYIDU) [ICH] 40,000 to 50,000 (1992). Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, Bali, and part of Wukari LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen, Icen. Related to Kpan. Some speak Hausa as second language. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

ICEVE-MACI (ICHEVE, OCHEBE, OCHEVE, OCEVE, UTSE, UTSER, UTSEU) [BEC] 5,000 in all countries (SIL). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Dialects: MACI (MATCHI, OLITI, OLITHI, OLIT, KWAYA, OLITI-AKWAYA, MOTOM, MOTOMO), BACHEVE (BECHEVE, BECHERE, BEHEVE, BACEVE). Maci and Bacheve have 80% lexical similarity. Work in progress.

IDERE [IDE] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Itu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

IDOMA [IDO] 600,000 (1991 UBS). Benue State, Otukpo and Okpokwu LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Dialects: IDOMA CENTRAL (OTURKPO, AKPOTO), IDOMA WEST, IDOMA SOUTH (IGUMALE, IGWAALE, IJIGBAM). Dialect cluster. Used in radio, television, adult and primary education. National language. Bible in press (1995). NT 1970. Bible portions 1927-1957.

IDON (IDONG) [IDC] Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Survey needed.

IDUN (LUNGU, UNGU, ADONG) [LDB] 10,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Different from Idon. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

IGALA (IGARA) [IGL] 800,000 (1989 UBS). Benue State, Ankpa, Idah, Dekina, and Bassa LGA's; Edo State, Agbazko and Oshimili LGA's; Anambra State, Anambra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala. Dialects: EBU, IDAH, ANKPA, IBAJI. Used in initial primary education. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1970. NT 1935-1948. Bible portions 1924-1958.

IGBO (IBO) [IGR] 17,000,000 or 16.6% of the population (1995 WA). Abia State, Anambra State, Igbo-Eze, Nsukka, Isi Uzo, Igbo Etiti, Uzo Uwani, Anambra, Udi, Enugu, Nkanu, Eze Agu, Awka, Njikoko, Awgu, Onitsha, Aguatu, Idemili, Nnewi, Ihala LGA's; Imo State; Rivers State, Ikwerre-Etche, Bonny, and Ahoada LGA's; and Edo State, Oshimili, Anoicha, Ika, and Ndokwa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Dialects: OWERRI (ISUAMA), ONITSHA, UMUAHIA (OHUHU), ORLU, NGWA, AFIKPO, NSA, OGUTA, ANIOCHA, ECHE, EGBEMA. 30 dialects vary in inherent intelligibility. A standard literary form is developing from the dialect of Owerri and Umuahia. The main trade language of Anambra and Imo States; the official language in the southeast. Used for government notices, radio, television, mother tongue authored literature. Roman script is used. National language. Christian, traditional religion. Braille code available. Bible 1906-1988. NT 1900-1981. Bible portions 1860-1950.

IGEDE (IGEDDE, EGEDE) [IGE] 250,000 (1991 UBS). Benue State, Oju, Otukpo, and Okpokwu LGA's; Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Dialects: ITO, OJU (CENTRAL IGEDE), WORKU, GABU. NT 1981. Bible portions 1937.

IGUTA (NARAGUTA, ANAGUTA) [NAR] 6,123 (1990). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Iguta is the language, Unaguta a speaker, Anaguta or Naragutawa the people. Survey needed.

IJO, CENTRAL-WESTERN (IZON, IZO, UZO) [IJC] 338,700 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 100,000 in Kolokuma (1991 UBS); 1,770,000 all Ijo languages, 2% of the population (1991 SIL). Rivers State, Yenagoa and Sagbama LGA's; Delta State, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGA's; Ondo State, Ikale, Ilaje Ese-Odo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Central, Central Western. Dialects: IDUWINI, OGULAGHA, OPOROZA (GBARANMATU), AROGBO, EGBEMA, OLODIAMA EAST, OLODIAMA WEST, FURUPAGHA, KABO (PATANI), KUMBO, TARAKIRI EAST, TARAKIRI WEST, MEIN (NORTHWEST IZON), TUOMO, OPEREMOR, SEIMBRI, OGBOIN, OIAKIRI, OPOROMA, APOI, GBANRAIN, KOLUKUMA (KOLOKUMA, NORTH IZON), BUMO (SOUTH CENTRAL IZON), EKPETIAMA, IKIBIRI, BOMA, OGBE IJO. The Ijo (Ijaw) group is made up of seven separate languages. Central-Western Ijo has about 30 inherently intelligible dialects. The Kolokuma dialect is used in radio, television, and adult and primary education. Bible portions 1912-1924. Work in progress.

IJO, SOUTHEAST (IJAW, BRASS IJO) [IJO] 71,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa. Rivers State, Brass LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Southeastern. Dialects: NEMBE (NIMBE), AKASSA (AHASA). A separate language within the Ijo cluster. Bible 1956. NT 1927. Bible portions 1886-1943.

IKA [IKK] Delta State, Ika and Orhionmwon LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. A separate language in the Igbo language cluster. Survey needed.

IKO [IKI] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Abasi LGA, 3 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, West. Culturally they consider themselves Obolo, but they cannot use Obolo literature. Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992.

IKPESHI (IKPESHE, EKPESHE) [IKP] 1,826 (1957 Bradbury). Bendel State, Etsako LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Unclassified. Survey needed.

IKU-GORA-ANKWA (IKU) [IKV] Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Survey needed.

IKULU (IKOLU, ANKULU) [IKU] 6,000 (1949). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Survey needed.

IKWERE (IKWERRE, IKWERRI) [IKW] 200,000 probably (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Ikwerre, Port Harcourt, and Obio LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Dialects: OBIOPO-MGBU-TOLU, OGBAKIRI, EMOWHUA, NDELE, ELELE, OMERELU, EGBEDA, ALUU, IGWURUTA, IBAA, ISIOKPO, OMAGWA. Considerable local interest in language and literacy. Important language. A separate language in the Igbo language cluster.

ILUE [ILE] 5,000 or less (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Oron LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Diminishing in size. Survey needed.

IRIGWE (IREGWE, AREGWE, RIGWE, NNERIGWE, KWOLL, KWAL, MIANGO, NYANGO, IDAFAN, KWAN, NKARIGWE) [IRI] 40,000 (1985 UBS). Plateau State, Bassa and Birikin-Ladi LGA's; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, South-Central. The language is Nkarigwe or Rigwe, the people are Nnerigwe or Miyango. Bible portions 1923-1935.

ISEKIRI (ITSEKIRI, ISHEKIRI, SHEKIRI, JEKRI, CHEKIRI, IWERE, IRHOBO, WARRI, ISELEMA-OTU, SELEMO) [ITS] 510,000 (1991 UBS). Delta State, Warri, Bomadi, and Ethiope LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Closely related to Yoruba. Used in initial primary education. NT 1985. Bible portions 1974-1985.

ISOKO ("IGABO", "SOBO", BIOTU) [ISO] 321,000 (1993 Johnstone). Delta State, Isoko and Ndokwa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. "Sobo" and "Igabo" are offensive names. A regionally important language. Used in initial primary education. Bible 1977. NT 1970. Bible portions 1920-1932.

ITO [ITW] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Akamkpa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

ITU MBON UZO (ITU MBUZO) [ITM] 5,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Ikono LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, East. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

IVBIE NORTH-OKPELA-ARHE [ATG] 20,000 possibly (1973 SIL). Edo State, Etsako and Akoko-Edo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Unclassified. Dialects: IVBIE NORTH (IBIE NORTH), OKPELA (OKPELLA, UKPELLA, UPELLA), ARHE (ATTE, ATE). Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

IYAYU (IDOANI) [IYA] 9,979 (1963). Ondo State, one-quarter of Idoani town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse. Listed separately from Uhami in Crozier & Blench 1992. The people are sometimes called 'Idoani'. Survey needed.

IZERE (IZAREK, FIZERE, FEZERE, FESEREK, AFIZAREK, AFIZARE, AFUSARE, JARI, JARAWA, JARAWAN DUTSE, HILL JARAWA, JOS-ZARAZON) [FIZ] 50,000 (1993 SIL). Southern dialects: Plateau State, Birikin Ladi LGA; Northern dialects: Plateau State, Jos LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA; and Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, South-Central. Dialects: NORTHWEST IZERE, NORTHEAST IZERE, SOUTH IZERE, GANANG-FAISHANG. The language is called 'Izarek', 'Izere', or 'Izer'; a speaker 'Bajari', the people 'Jarawa', 'Afizarek', 'Afizere', 'Afudelek', 'Fizere', 'Feserek', 'Fezere', 'Hill Jarawa', 'Jarawan Dutse'. 'Jos-Zarazon' is the name of indigenous speakers in Jos. The Fobor dialect is prestigious, and is used on the radio. Northwest Izere subdialects: Fobor (Fobur) and Shere; Northeast Izere: Fedare (Zandi, Zendi), Jarawan Kogi (Maigemu), and Fursom (Fursum); South Izere: Forom (Ichen); Ganang and Faishang. Firan is a separate language. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1940. Work in progress.

IZI-EZAA-IKWO-MGBO [IZI] 593,000 (1973 SIL) including 200,000 Izi, 180,000 Ezaa, 150,000 Ikwo, 63,000 Mgbo. Anambra State, Abakaliki, Ezza, and Ishielu LGA's; Benue State, Okpokwu LGA; Abia State, Ohaozara LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Dialects: IZI (IZZI), EZAA (EZA), IKWO, MGBO (NGBO). Dialect cluster within the Igbo language cluster. Braille NT. NT 1980.

IZORA (CHOKOBO, COKOBO, CIKOBU, CHIKOBO, COKOBANCI, AZORA) [CBO] 425 (1936; 1953 H.D. Gunn). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. The language is Izora or Cokobanci; a speaker is Bacokobi; the speakers are Cokobawa or Ndazora. Survey needed.

JANJI (ANAFEJANZI, JENJI, TIJANJI, AJANJI) [JNI] 360 (1950). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Tijanji is the language, Ujanji a speaker, Ajanji the people. Survey needed.

JARA (JERA) [JAF] 40,000 (1973). Borno State, Biu LGA; Bauchi State, Akko LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western. Different from Jera, which is Benue-Congo. Survey needed.

JARAWA (JARANCHI, JAR, JARA, JARAWAN KOGI) [JAR] 150,000 (1978 MARC), including 20,000 Bankal, 19,000 Gingwak. Bauchi, Adamawa, and Plateau States. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: BANKAL (BANKALA, BARANCI), LIGRI, KANAM, BOBAR, GINGWAK (GWAK, JARAWAN BUNUNU, JARACIN KASA). Dialect cluster. Most men speak Hausa but most women understand little Hausa. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1940. Survey needed.

JERA (JEERE) [JER] 23,000 (1973 SIL); including 2,350 Buji (1963), 2,350 Gusu (1936), 4,500 Jere (1936), 2,000 Ribina (1971), 850 Gurrum (1936). Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Dialects: BUJI (EBOZE, ANABEZE), GUSU (GUSAWA, GUSSUM, GESAWA, GUZAWA, ISANGA, ASANGA, ANIBAU, ANOSANGOBARI), JERE (JERIYAWA, EZELLE, AZELLE, JENGRE), RIBINA (REBINA, BUNU, IBUNU, NARABUNU, ANORUBUNA, GURRUM, ANEGOROM). One dialect is Ezelle, a speaker is Ozelle or Bajere; the speakers are Azelle or Jarawa. Another dialect is Eboze, a speaker is Unabeze, speakers are Anabeze. Distinct from Jara, which is Chadic. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

JIBU (JIBAWA, JIBANCI, JIBANCHI, JUBAWA) [JIB] 25,000 (1987 SIL). Taraba State, Gashaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Dialects: GAYAM, GARBABI, JIBU KOINE. Speakers use Jukun as second language. Some living near the main roads can also speak Fulfulde and Hausa. Few have finished secondary school. The Jibu living in the Gashaka Mts. are called 'Gumka'. 5% to 15% literate. Mountain slope, plains. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1973. Work in progress.

JIDA-ABU (JIDDA-ABU, JIDDA, JIDA, IBUT, NAKARE) [JID] Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Survey needed.

JILBE (ZOULBOU) [JIE] 2,000 or fewer (1995). Borno State, Jilbe town, on the border of Cameroon across from the town of Dabanga. 1 village only. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1. Speakers of other Kotoko languages (in Cameroon and Chad) consistently report low intelligibility with Jilbe. May be the same as Ziziliveken. Muslim. Survey needed.

JIMBIN (JIMBINAWA, ZUMBUN) [JMB] 1,500 (1971). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Survey needed.

JIMI [JMI] 400 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, Jimi village; Adamawa State, Song LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern. Dialect: ZUMO. Different from Jimi in Cameroon in the Biu-Mandara group. Survey needed.

JIRU (WIYAP, KIR, ATAK, ZHIRU) [JRR] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

JJU (KAJE, KAJJI, KACHE) [KAJ] 300,000 (1988 C. McKinney SIL). Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, South-Central. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1982.

JORTO [JRT] 4,876 (1934 Ames). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Survey needed.

JU [JUU] 900 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

JUKUN TAKUM (DIYI, NJIKUM, JUKUN) [JBU] Second language speakers in Nigeria are 40,000 (1979 UBS); no first language speakers in Nigeria. 1,700 first language speakers, and 6,000 second language speakers in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, and Bali LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen, Kpan. Dialects: TAKUM, DONGA (AKPANZHI). The name 'Njikum' is preferred in Cameroon. Formerly founders of the Kwararafa Kingdom, which existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Trade language. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. NT 1980. Bible portions 1918.

JUKUN WURKUM (WURKUM, KUKULIM, KONA JUKUN) [JUI] Taraba State, Bali, Jalingo, Karim Lamido LGA's; Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified. In the Jukun language cluster. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1927-1950. Survey needed.

KADARA (ADARA) [KAD] 40,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA; Niger State, Chanchaga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Dialects: KAJURU (JAJURU, AJURE), MINNA, KACHIA, IRI. 20% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

KAGOMA (GWONG, GYONG, KWONG, AGOMA) [KDM] 6,250 (1934; 1956 H.D. Gunn). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Jaba. Survey needed.

KAIVI (KAIBI) [KCE] 650 (1949). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KAKIHUM [KXE] 15,000 estimate (1996). Northern Niger State. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Survey needed.

KALABARI [IJN] 257,764 (1989 Jenewari). Rivers State, Degema and Bonny LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari. A dialect cluster within the Ijo language cluster. Okrika and Ibani are closely related. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1980-1991. Work in progress.

KAM (YIMWOM, NYIWOM, NYINGWOM) [KDX] 5,000 (1993). Taraba State, Bali LGA, 18 villages between Mayo Kam and Garba Chede. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kam. Speakers use Hausa or Fulfulde as second language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

KAMANTAN (KAMANTON, ANGAN) [KCI] 10,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Jaba. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

KAMKAM (BUNGNU, BUNU, BUNGUN, GBUNHU, KAKABA, KABBA) [BGU] 1,300 in all countries (1982 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kamkam town, and into Cameroon, on the Mambila Plateau. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Several minor dialects. Speakers use Fulfulde, Hausa, and Mambila as second languages. Agriculturalists. Muslim (mainly), traditional religion. Survey needed.

KAMO (KAMU) [KCQ] 3,000 (SIL). Bauchi State, Biliri-Kaltungo and Akko LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak. Typologically closer to Awak (no singular/plural noun suffixes). Survey needed.

KAMUKU [KAU] 30,000 or more (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGA's; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Dialects: CINDA (UCINDA, JINDA, MAJINDA, TEGINA, MAKANGARA), REGI, KUKI. 90% to 95% lexical similarity among the three dialects, and most speakers say they can easily understand the other dialects. Clans are Uregi, Urogo, Tiyar (Kuki), Ucinda (Jinda), and Ushana. Hausa is the second language. 'Laka', or 'Kamuku Laka', are Hausa-speaking ethnic Kamuku. 10% literate. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

KAMWE (HIGI, HIJI, HIGGI, VACAMWE) [HIG] 300,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Michika LGA, in the Mandara Mts. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Dialects: NKAFA, BAZZA (DAKWA), SINA, FUTU, TILI PTE. Fali of Kiria may be a dialect. Closely related to Psikye and Hya of Cameroon. Wula may be a dialect of Kamwe or Psikye. Primary schools. People in lowland towns have more education. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, peanuts, beans, sweet potato, millet; animal husbandry; hunters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1975. Bible portions 1972.

KANTANA (MAMA, KWARRA) [MMA] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian.

KANUFI-KANINGDON-NINDEM [KDP] 2,291 in Kaningdom (1934). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Dialects: KANUFI (KARSHI), KANINGDOM (KANINKON, KANINGKWOM, KANINGKON), NINDEM (INIDEM, NIDEM). Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

KANURI, MANGA (MANGA, KANOURI, KANOURY) [KBY] 200,000 in Nigeria (1993); 350,000 in Niger (1995); 550,000 in both countries. 3,700,000 all Kanuri in Nigeria (1993). Mainly Yobe State, some in Jigawa and Bauchi states. The main center in Niger is at Yerwa. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Trade language. Muslim. Work in progress.

KANURI, YERWA (KANOURI, BERIBERI, BORNU, KANOURY) [KPH] 3,000,000 or more in Nigeria (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick); 100,000 or more in Chad (1985); 56,500 in Cameroon (1982); 50,000 in Niger (1991); 195,000 in Nigeria (1993 Johnstone); 3,500,000 in all countries (1987 UBS); 3,628,000 all Kanuri in Nigeria, 4.1% of the population (1991 SIL). Borno State, Borno, Nguru, Geidam, Kukawa, Damaturu, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Mongumo, Fune, Gujba, Ngala, Bama, Fika, Gwoza LGA's; Kano State, Hadejia LGA. Also in Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Dialects: DAGARA, KAGA (KAGAMA), SUGURTI, LARE (LERE), KWAYAM, NJESKO, KABARI (KUVURI), NGAZAR, GUVJA, MAO, TEMAGERI, FADAWA, MOVAR (MOBBER, MOBER, MAVAR). Lukas says Kwayam and Movar are not understood by other Kanuri. All can understand the Maiduguri dialect. Closest to Manga Kanuri and Kanembu. Ajami script. Used in radio, television, adult education. The people of Ngala no longer speak a Kotoko language. National language. Typology: SOV. Muslim. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1949.

KAPYA [KLO] Taraba State, Takum LGA, at Kapya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Close to Kutep, but listed separately in Crozier and Blench. Survey needed.

KAREKARE (KARAIKARAI, KARAI KARAI, KEREKERE, KERRIKERRI) [KAI] 80,000 to 100,000 (1995 NBTT). Bauchi State, Gamawa and Misau LGA's; Borno State, Fika LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare. Dialects: JALALUM (WEST KAREKARE), PAKARO (NORTH KAREKARE), NGWAJUM (EAST KAREKARE). Survey needed.

KARFA (KERIFA) [KBZ] 800 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Survey needed.

KARIYA (KARIYU, KAUYAWA, LIPKAWA) [KIL] 3,000 (1977 Skinner). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Survey needed.

KATAB [KCG] 130,000 (1993 SIL). Kaduna State, Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema'a LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, South-Central. Dialects: KAFANCHAN (FANTUAN, KPASHAN), KACHICHERE (ATICHERAK, DARORO), KATAB (ATYAP, TYAP), KAGORO (AGWOLOK, AGOLOK, AGWOT, AGURO), ATAKAT (ATAKAR, ATTAKA, ATTAKAR, TAKAT), SHOLIO (ASHOLIO, ASOLIO, OSHOLIO, AHOLIO, MARWA, MORWA, MOROA, MARUWA, MAROA). An important district language. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1940. Work in progress.

KIBALLO (VONO, KIWOLLO) [KCH] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KINUKU (KINUKA, KINUGU) [KKD] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KIONG (AKAYON, AKOIYANG, OKONYONG, OKOYONG, IYONIYONG) [KKM] Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop. Spoken only by elderly people; the younger generation speaks Efik. For several generations before now the people were bilingual in Kiong and Efik. Nearly extinct.

KIR-BALAR (KIR, KIRR) [KKR] 3,050 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom. Dialects: KIR, BALAR. May be intelligible with Boghom. Muslim. Survey needed.

KITIMI (TUMI) [KKU] 635 (1949). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KOANA (KANA, KHANA, OGONI) [KEH] 200,000 (1989). Rivers State, Khana, Gokana, and Oyigbo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East. Dialects: TAI, NORTH KHANA, SOUTH KHANA. Closely related to Gokana, Eleme. Important district language. Bible 1968. NT 1961. Bible portions 1930-1935.

KOENOEM (KANAM) [KCS] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Survey needed.

KOFYAR [KWL] 72,946 (1963 census). Plateau State, Shendam, Mangu, and Lafia LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Dialects: KOFYAR (KWONG), KWAGALLAK (KWA'ALANG, KWALLA), DIMMUK (DIMUK, DOEMAK), MIRRIAM (MERNYANG), BWOL (BWAL, MBOL), GWORAM (GIVEROM, GORAM), JIPAL (JEPEL, JEPAL, JIBYAL). Traditional religion.

KOHUMONO (BAHUMONO, HOHUMONO, EDIBA, HUMONO, EKUMURU) [BCS] 30,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono.

KOMA (KUMA, GAUNU) [KMY] 32,000 in Nigeria (1989); 3,000 in Cameroon (1984 SIL); 35,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Ganye and Fufore LGA's, Koma Vomni, Alantika Mountains. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Dialects: KOMA NDERA, KOMA DAMTI. 3 subdialects: Koma Vomni, Koma Beiya, and Koma Damti. Vomni and Beiya speakers barely understand each other, but both understand Damti. It is unclear how these 3 are related to the 2 dialects named above. 7 primary schools. Low literacy rate. Some speakers understand Hausa, especially those on the plains, but the majority speak only Koma. Different from Koma of Ethiopia and Sudan. Mountain slope, plains. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

KONA (JUKUN KONA, JIBI, JIBA) [JUO] 2,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Taraba State, Wukari and Karim Lamido LGA's; Plateau State, Langtang and Wase LGA's; Bauchi State, Alkaleri and Akko LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. In Kororofa language cluster. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1927.

KONO (KONU, KWONO) [KLK] 1,550 (1949). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Kona village. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KORO IJA (KORO AFIKI) [VKI] Federal Capital Territory, south of Abuja. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Different from Koro Zuba, Koro of Lafia, Begbere-Ejar, or Ujijili. 'Koro' is used as a cover term for several languages. Survey needed.

KORO ZUBA [VKZ] Federal Capital Territory, near Zuba. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Different from Koro Ija, Koro of Lafia, Begbere-Ejar, or Ujijili. 'Koro' is used as a cover term for several languages. Survey needed.

KOROP (ODODOP, DUROP, DYUROP, ERORUP) [KRP] 12,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGA's, and in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop. Speakers are reported to mostly be bilingual in Efik. Survey needed.

KPAN (YORDA, IBUKWO, KPWATE, HWAYE, HWASO, NYATSO, KPANZON, KPANTEN, IKPAN, AKPANZHI, ABAKAN, NYONYO) [KPK] Taraba State, Wukari, Takum, and Sardauna LGA's, Kato Bagha, Wukari, Suntai, Gayan, Gindin Dutse, Likam. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen, Kpan. Dialects: BISSAULA (KENTU, KYENTU, ETKYE), KUMBO (KPANZON), TISSA, GAYI. Related to Icen. Bissaula is extinct. Survey needed.

KPASAM (PASSAM, KPASHAM, NYISAM, 'BALO) [PBN] 15,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Kpasham town, on the Numan-Jalingo road. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Hausa, Fulfulde, and Bacama are used as second languages. There are primary schools in the villages, and speakers want to send their children to school. One junior secondary school. Agriculturalists. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

KPATI [KOC] Taraba State, Wukari, Takum LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba. Extinct.

KUBI (KUBA, KUBAWA) [KOF] 1,500 (1993). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Survey needed.

KUDU-CAMO (KUDA-CHAMO, KUDAWA) [KOV] 2,000 to 4,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Dialects: KUDU (KUDA), CAMO (CHAMO). It is related to Butu-Ningi. The language is reported to be dying out. A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

KUGAMA (KUGAMMA, WEGAM, YAMALE, YAMALO) [KOW] 5,000 or more (1995). Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Speakers use Hausa, or other nearby languages as second languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

KUGBO [KES] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Brass LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo.

KUKELE (UKELE, BAKELE) [KEZ] 95,000 (1989). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA; Anambra State, Abakaliki LGA; Benue State, Okpokwu and Oju LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele. Dialects: MTEZI, UGBALA, ITEEJI. Four dialects in the north, three in the south, besides those named. NT 1979. Bible portions 1974.

KULERE (TOF, KOROM BOYE) [KUL] 15,570 (1990). Plateau State, Bokkos LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Different from Kulere of Côte d'Ivoire, a trade dialect of Senoufo. Survey needed.

KULUNG (BAMBUR, KULUNO, BAKULUNG, BAKULU, BAKULI, KULU, KUKULUNG, WO, WURKUM) [BBU] 15,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido and Wukari LGA's, west of the Kwanchi, south of the Piya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. 4 clans: Bambur, Balassa, Banyam, Bamingun. Different from Kulung of Chad which is Chadic. Similar in culture to Piya, Kodei, Kwanchi, Pelang, and Pero. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1950. Survey needed.

KUMBA (SATE, YOFO, ISARO) [KSM] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Speakers use Fulfulde and Hausa as second language. No schools. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry: cows. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

KUPTO (KUTTO) [KPA] 3,000 or less (1995). Bauchi State, Dukku LGA; Bakpga. Borno, Gujba states, 2 villages. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Survey needed.

KURAMA (TIKURAMI, AKURUMI, BAGWAMA, AKURMI, AZUMU, BUKURUMI) [KRH] 11,300 (1949). Kaduna State, Saminaka and Ikara LGA's; Kano State, Tudun Waya LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Tukurami is the language, Bukurumi a speaker, Akurumi the people. Survey needed.

KUSHI (CHONG'E, KUSHE) [KUH] 5,000 (1990). Bauchi State, Biliri, and Kaltungo LGA's, Kushi village. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Survey needed.

KUTEP (KUTEB, KUTEV, MBARIKE, ZUMPER, "JOMPRE", ATI) [KUB] 30,000 to 50,000 in Nigeria (1992); 1,400 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton). Taraba State, Takum LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Dialects: JENUWA, LISSAM, FIKYU, KUNABE, KENTIN. Fikyu has subdialects. "Jompre" is an offensive name. Many speakers use Hausa or Jukun as second language. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1986-1995.

KUTURMI (ADA) [KHJ] 2,950 (1949). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Northern. Survey needed.

KUZAMANI (RISHUWA, SHUWA-ZAMANI, KAURU) [KSA] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toto LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

KWAAMI (KWAMI, KWAM, KWAMANCHI, KWOM) [KSQ] Bauchi State, Gombe LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Survey needed.

KWANKA [BIJ] 223,859 (1990). Plateau State, Mangu LGA; Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Dialects: BOI (TIYAYA), BIJIM, LEGERI, KWANKA (KADUN), VAGHAT. Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

KYAK (BAMBUKA, NYAKYAK) [BKA] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Dialect: KANAWA. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

LABIR (JAKU, JAKUN, JAKANCI) [JKU] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Survey needed.

LAGWAN ((KOTOKO-LOGONE, LOGONE, LAGWANE (LAGOUANE))) [KOT] 25,000 in Nigeria (1993); 38,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). Borno State, Dikwa and Ngala LGA's. Also in Cameroon and Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: LOGONE-BIRNI, LOGONE-GANA (KOTOKO-GANA). Related to Afade, Mser, Malgbe, Maslam, and Mpade. Muslim.

LAKA (LAKKA, LAU, LAO HABE, GODOGODO) [LAK] 5,000 or more (1995). Taraba State, Karim Lamido and Yola LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. Different than Laka (Kabba Laka) of Central African Republic and Chad, or from Karang (Laka) of Cameroon and Chad. Related to Karang. Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

LALA-ROBA (GWORAM) [LLA] 46,000 (1993). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, and Borno State. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba. Dialects: LALA (LALLA), ROBA (ROBBA). Speakers use Fulfulde, Hausa, and Gaanda as second languages. Hunters (January to April); agriculturalists (May to December): peanuts, guinea corn, bambara nuts, tiger nuts; animal husbandry: goats, chickens, sheep, dogs. Traditional religion, Christian.

LAMANG (LAAMANG, GBUHWE, WAHA) [HIA] 40,000 (1993). Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Dialects: NORTH LAAMANG, CENTRAL LAAMANG, SOUTH LAAMANG. 64% lexical similarity with Hedi and Mabas, 50% with Gevoko. Speakers have 37% intelligibility of Mabas, 31% of Hedi. Subdialects of North Lamang: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; of Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; of South Lamang: Ghudavan. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

LAME [BMA] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toto LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: BAMBARO (BOMBARO, BOMBERAWA, BUNBERAWA, BAMBARA, BAMBURO, MBARU), GURA (AGARI, AGBIRI). Dialect cluster. Distinct from Peve (Lame) of Cameroon and Chad. Survey needed.

LAMJA [LDH] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, around Ganglamja (Lamja Mt.), near the road between Mayo Belwa and Tola. 43 villages or more. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Dialects: DANSA, LAMJA. Related to Chamba Daka. 8 primary schools. Low literacy rate. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, peanuts, maize, rice, cassava; hunters (dry season). Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

LAMNSO' (NSO, NSO', NSAW, NSHO', LAMSO, LAMNSOK, BANSO, BANSO', BANSAW, PANSO) [NSO] In Cameroon: 125,000 (1987 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, in settlements sometimes mixed with speakers of other languages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East. Speakers use Fulfulde as second language. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1990.

LARU (LARAWA, LARANCHI, LARO) [LAN] 5,000 (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Niger State, Borgu LGA, on the banks of the Niger River, Karabonde, Monnai, Leshigbe, Luma, Sansanni, Shagunu villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake. They are reported to be assimilating to Bisã language and culture. Muslim. Survey needed.

LEELAU (LELAU, MUNGA LELAU) [LDK] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, between Bambuka and Karim-Lamido town, near Lake Mungah. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. In the Munga dialect cluster, Bikwin ethnic cluster. Clan names: Tanyam, Munzigah, Brem, Gopi. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry, fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

LEGBO (AGBO, GBO, IGBO, IMABAN, ITIGIDI) [AGB] 60,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA; Abia State, Afikpo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo.

LELA (LALAWA, CLELA, KOLELA, CALA-CALA, CHILELA, CHILALA, DAKARKARI, DAKAKARI, DAKKARKARI) [DRI] 90,000 or more (1993 Dettweiler SIL). Eastern Kebbi State, Zuru, Sakaba, and Donko-Wasagu LGA's; Niger State, Rijau LGA; and migrants farther south. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Dialects: LILA (ZURU, SENCHI, SOUTHERN LELA), DABAI (CENTRAL LELA), RIBAH, ADOMA (AROMA, ROMA-NA, ROMA, YELMO, NORTHERN LELA). Lexical similarity among dialects at Rade, Ribah, Dabai, and Senchi were between 93% and 98%. 55% lexical similarity with Duka, 54% with the Fakai cluster, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri, 20% with Acipa. The orthography needs revision. Hausa is used as second language. 'Dakarkari' is the Hausa name for the people. 'Lela' is their own name for people and language. Radio broadcasts. Savannah. Stony hills, plains. Agriculturalists:: guinea corn, millet, maize, acha, peanuits, beans, sugar cane, cotton; brewing alcohol, blacksmiths, mat makers, smelting, potters. Altitude: 800 to 1600 feet. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1931. Work in progress.

LEMORO (LIMORO, LIMORRO, EMORO, ANEMORO, ANOWURU) [LDJ] 2,950 (1936; 1953 H.D. Gunn). Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. The language is Emoro, a speaker is Limoro, the speakers are Anemoro. Survey needed.

LENYIMA (ANYIMA, INYIMA) [LDG] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo. The people are Anyima, the language Lenyima. Survey needed.

LEYIGHA (ASIGA, ASSIGA, AYIGHA, AYIGA, YIGHA) [AYI] 10,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo. The people are called 'Ayigha', the language 'Leyigha'. Survey needed.

LIBO (LIBBO, KAN, KAAN) [LDL] 10,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Guyuk, Song, and Numan LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo. Most adults use Hausa, Fulfulde, Mbula-Bwaza, Tambo, or Kanakuru as second language. No primary schools in the area. Many desire education. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

LIJILI (LIGILI, MIJILI, MIGILI, MEGILI, KORO LAFIA, KORO OF LAFIA) [MGI] 50,000 (1985 UBS). Plateau State, Awe and Lafia LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southern. 'Ligili' or 'Lijili' is the name of the language; 'Migili' of the people. NT 1986.

LIMBUM (WIMBUM) [LIM] A few in Nigeria (1992 Crozier & Blench); 73,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 73,000 or more in both countries. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mabila uplands. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Work in progress.

LO (LOO, LOH, SHUNHU) [LDO] 8,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA; Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Clan names: Fore (Kyilayo), Bene, Tamu, Bana, Talau, Tadam, Wawa. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry, fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

LOKO (YAKURR, YAKO, UGEP, LOKE, LUKO, LOKAA) [YAZ] 120,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko. Dialects: UGEP, NKPANI. Bible portions 1972-1984. Work in progress.

LONGUDA (NUNGUDA, NUNGURABA, NUNGURA, LANGUDA) [LNU] 32,000 (1973 SIL). Adamawa State, Guyuk LGA; Bauchi State, Balanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda. Dialects: NYA CERIYA (CIRIMBA), NYA GWANDA (NYUWAR), NYA GUYUWA (GUYUK, PLAIN, TURUBA), NYA DELE, NYA TARIYA (TARABA). Speakers use Hausa, Fulfulde, Kanakuru, Waja, or English as second language. 20% literate in Hausa. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1978. Bible portions 1975.

LOPA (LOPAWA, LUPA, KIRIKJIR, DJIRI) [LOP] 2,000 (1995). Niger State, Borgu LGA, Amboshidi and Tungan Bori, islands in the Niger River; Kebbi State, Yauri LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake. Those in Borgu LGA are reported to be assimilating to Bisã language and culture. Survey needed.

LOTSU-PIRI (KITTA, TSOBO) [LDP] 2,000 (1952). Adamawa State, Numan LGA; Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona. Survey needed.

LUBILA (LUBILO, KABILA, KABIRE, OJOR, OFOR) [KCC] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, at Ojo Nkomba and Ojo Akangba. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko. Survey needed.

LUFU [LDQ] Ethnic group: 2,000 to 3,000 (1992). Taraba State, Takum LGA, Lufu and Lufu Jauro. Unclassified. The people now speak Jukun. Culture and religion similar to the Jukun Kapya. Language reported to have been close to Bete and Bibi. One report says the language is mostly spoken only by elders (1992). Former speakers at Arufu near Wukari have lost the language. Christian, traditional religion. Nearly extinct.

LURI [LDD] 30 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic. Muslim. Survey needed.

MAAKA (MAHA, MAKA, MAGA, MAGHA) [MEW] 10,000 (1993). Borno State, Gujba LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Muslim, traditional religion. Survey needed.

MABAS (VEMGO) [VEM] 10,000 in Nigeria (1993); 5,000 or fewer in Cameroon (1984 ALCAM). Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Madagali district. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Dialects: VEMGO, VISIK (VIZIK), MABAS. 78% lexical similarity with Hedi, 64% with Lamang, 50% with Gevoko. 56% intelligibility of Lamang, 36% intelligibility of Hedi. Speakers use Fulfulde, Mafa, or Wula (Psikye) as second language. Some speak Hedi. Different from Maba of Chad. 'Maya' may be an alternate name. Pastoralists, agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

MABO-BARKUL (BARKUL, "KALERI") [MAE] Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southeastern. "Kaleri" is a derogatory name. Survey needed.

MADA (MADDA, YIDDA) [MDA] 100,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Different from Mada of Cameroon. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

MAFA (MATAKAM, NATAKAN, BULAHAI, BULA) [MAF] 2,000 in Nigeria (1963); 136,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 138,000 in all countries. Borno State, Gwoza LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5. Dialect: MOFA. Bible 1978, in press (1989). NT 1965. Bible portions 1958-1961.

MÁGHDÌ (WIDALA) [GMD] 2,000 or fewer (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, a section of the Widala. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. 'Widala' applies to the people. Kholok is also called 'Widala'. Survey needed.

MAK (PANYAM, PANYA, LEEMAK, LEMAK) [PBL] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Banbuka to Karim-Lamido road. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. In the Bikwin ethnic cluster. Clan names: Guma, Zidah, Togon, Mungok, Tawok, Tagwam. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

MALA (RUMAYA, RUMAIYA, AMALA) [RUY] 1,800 (1948). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

MAMBILA, NIGERIA (MAMBILLA, MABILA, MAMBERE, NOR, NOR TAGBO, LAGUBI, TONGBO, BANG) [MZK] 99,000 (1993). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mambila Plateau. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila. Dialect: TEP. Speakers use Fulfulde or English as second language. Close to Mambila of Cameroon, but distinct. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1977. Bible portions 1973.

MANGAS [MAH] 180 (1971). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom. Survey needed.

MARGHI CENTRAL (MARGHI, MARGI) [MAR] 200,000 all Marghi languages (1989 UBS). Borno State, Askira-Uba and Damboa LGA's; Aamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2. Dialects: LASSA (BABUL), GULAK (DZER). In the Marghi language cluster. Typology: SVO. NT 1987. Bible portions 1940-1961.

MARGHI SOUTH [MFM] Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2. Dialects: WAMDIU, HILDI. Survey needed.

MASHI [JMS] Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified.

MAWA [WMA] Ethnic population is small (Shimizu). Bauchi State, Toro LGA, possibly Mara village. Unclassified. Apparently different from the Mawa language of Chad, which is Chadic. Extinct.

MBAI (SARA MBAI) [MYB] A few in Nigeria (1995); 8,300 in CAR (1996); 100,000 in all countries (1978 UBS). Borno State. Mainly in Chad. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara. Bible 1980. NT 1943. Bible portions 1932.

MBE (WESTERN MBUBE, KETUEN, EKUMTAK) [MFO] 14,300 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbe. Distinct from Mbe' of Cameroon, a Grassfields language. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

MBEMBE, CROSS RIVER (OKAM, ODERIGA, WAKANDE, IFUNUBWA, EKOKOMA, OFUNOBWAM) [MFN] 100,000 (1982 UBS). Cross River State, Obubra and Ikom LGA's; Anambra State, Abakaliki LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe. Dialects: OKOM (EGHOM, OHANA-ONYEN), APIAPUM, ADUN, OSOPONG (OSOPHONG, EZOPONG), OFOMBONGA (EWUMBONGA), OFONOKPAN, EKAMA (EKAMU), OFERIKPE. Different than Tigon Mbembe. NT 1985. Bible portions 1975.

MBEMBE, TIGON (AKONTO, AKWANTO, TIGON, TIGONG, TUGUN, TUKUN, NOALE) [NZA] 20,000 in Nigeria (1987); 36,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 56,000 in all countries. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kurmi district. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe. Dialects: ASHUKU (KITSIPKI), NAMA (DAMA, NAMU, NZARE, KPORO, ENEEME). Entirely different from Mbembe of Nigeria in the Cross River group. A dialect cluster. Speakers use Hausa as second language. Every village has a primary school. Forest. Hills. Agriculturalists: palm nuts, palm oil. Traditional religion, Christian.

MBOI (MBOIRE, MBOYI) [MOI] 19,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi. Dialects: BANGA, MBOI (MBOIRE, MBOYI), HANDA, GANA. Dialect cluster. Speakers use Hausa, Fulfulde, Bwatiye, Yungur, Gudu, or Gaanda as second language. Primary schools are in all the major villages. They desire education. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

MBULA-BWAZZA [MBU] 35,000 to 40,000, including 10,000 Bwazza, 20,000 Tambo, 5,000 to 10,000 Mbula (1993). Adamawa State, Numan, Guyuk, Song, Demsa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: BWAZZA (BWAZA, BWA'ZA, BARE, BERE, TAMBO), MBULA. Many also speak Kanakuru, Longuda, Bacama, or Bata. In some areas they live with the Libo and also speak Libo. Some older ones also speak Hausa or Fulfulde. Primary schools in the major villages, and a few secondary schools. Agriculturalists: maize, millet, guinea corn, peanuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, cocoyam, bananas, sugar cane; fishermen, animal husbandry: horses, goats, sheep, pigs. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

MBURKU (BARKE, BARKO, BURKANAWA, LIPKAWA, WUDUFU, KARIYA WUUFU) [BBT] 4,000 (1977 Skinner). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Speakers are known as 'Lipkawa' or 'Burkunawa'. Survey needed.

MINI [MGJ] Rivers State, Brass LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo. Survey needed.

MISHIP (CHIP, CIP, SHIP) [CHP] 6,000 (1976 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin, Mangu, Shendam LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Dialect: DOKA. Survey needed.

MIYA (MIYAWA, MUYA) [MKF] 5,200 (1971). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Dialects: GALA, FAISHANG, FURSUM, DEMSHIN, FEDERE. Second language is Hausa. Gala may be a dialect of Warji. Faishang, Fursum, and Federe may be dialects of Izere. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

MOM JANGO (VERE, VERRE, WERE, KOBO) [VER] 88,000 in all countries; 4,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Adamawa State, Yola and Fufore LGA's, Verre hills. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Dialects: MOM JANGO, MOMI (ZIRI). Mom Jango and Momi are probably separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

MONTOL (MONTAL, BALTAP, TEEL) [MTL] 21,858 (1990). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Dialects: MONTOL, BALTAP-LALIN. Related to Tal. Survey needed.

MPADE (MAKARI, MENDAGE, MANDAGE, MANDAGUÉ) [MPI] 12,000 in all countries (1992 SIL). Borno State. Also in Cameroon and Chad. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper. Dialects: SHOE (SHAWE, CHAOUE, SCHOE, MANI), MPADE (MAKARI), BODO, WOULKI, DIGAM. Shoe dialect is only in Cameroon. Close to Lagwan. Related to Afade, Mser, Malgbe, and Maslam.

MUMUYE (YORO) [MUL] 400,000 in Nigeria (1993 SIL); 500,000 to 600,000 in all countries (1992). Taraba State, Jalingo, Zing, Karim Lamido, Yoro, Bali, Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGA's. Also possibly in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Dialects: ZINNA, DONG, YORO, LANKAVIRI, GOLA (BAJAMA), GONGLA, KASAA, SAAWA, PANGSENG, JALINGO, NYAAJA, JENG, GNOORE, YAA, RANG, SAGBEE, SHAARI, KUGONG, MANG, KWAJI, MEEKA, YAKOKO. Lankaviri and Zing dialects are sufficiently different to need separate literature. Pangseng and Rang may be separate languages. 25% to 50% literate. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1995. Bible portions 1938.

MUNDAT [MMF] Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Survey needed.

MUNGA (KARIMJO, ETEYE, YATOI, BIBINO, MINGANG DOSO, NGWAI MUNGÀN, DOSO) [MKO] 3,000 or fewer (1995 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, 15 km. east of Karim Lamido town. 1 village and associated hamlets. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

MVANON (MAGU, MVANLIP, MVANIP) [MCJ] 10,000 or fewer (1990). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Survey needed.

MWAGHAVUL (SURA) [SUR] 300,000 (1993 SIL); including 5,000 Chakfem (1990). Plateau State, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Dialects: MAPUN (MAPAN, MUPUN), PANYAM, CAKFEM (CHOKFEM, CHAKFEM, KADIM-KABAN), MUSHERE. Several smaller language groups nearby use Mwaghavul as second language. 50% to 75% literate. Trade language. NT 1991-1995. Bible portions 1915-1966.

NANDU-TARI (NANDU) [NAA] 4,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Central, West-Central. Survey needed.

NDE-NSELE-NTA [NDD] 19,500 (1987); including 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nta. Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Dialects: NDE (EKAMTULUFU, MBENKPE, UDOM, MBOFON, BEFON), NSELE, NTA (ATAM, AFUNATA). Survey needed.

NDOE (ANEP, ANYEP) [NBB] 3,000 (1953). Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Dialects: EKPARAGONG (AKPARABONG), BALEP. Survey needed.

NDOOLA (NDORO, NUNDORO, NJOYAME, NDOLA) [NDR] 50,000 in all countries (1992); 1,300 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Taraba State, Bali, Gashaka, Sardauna LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro. Some speakers use Fulfulde or Hausa as second language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

NGAMO (NGAMAWA, GAMO, GAMAWA) [NBH] 60,000 (1993). Yobe State, Fika LGA; Bauchi State, Darazo and Dukku LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Traditional religion 88, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

NGGWAHYI (NGWAXI, NGWOHI) [NGX] 2,000 or fewer (1995). Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2. Survey needed.

NGIZIM (NGIZMAWA, NGEZZIM) [NGI] 80,000 (1993). Borno State, Damaturu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

NGWABA (GOMBI, GOBA) [NGW] 10,000 (1993 CAPRO). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Speakers use Gudu, Nzanyi, Fulfulde, or Hausa as second languages. Agriculturalists, hunters, butchers. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

NIGERIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [NSI] Deaf sign language. Influences from American and Ghanaian sign languages. Originated in 1960. Survey needed.

NINZAM (NINZO, NUNZO, GBHU) [NIN] 35,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Speakers have a considerable degree of bilingualism in Hausa.

NJERUP (NJEREP) [NJR] 2 in Nigeria (1987 Blench and Williamson); and 5 in Cameroon (1995 Bruce Connell). Southeast, near the Mambila. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup. Not used for communicating any longer in Cameroon. Nearly extinct.

NKEM-NKUM [ISI] 34,500 (1987 Asinya); including 18,000 Nkem, 16,500 Nkum. Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Dialects: NKEM (NKIM, OGOJA, ISHIBORI, ISIBIRI, OGBOJA), NKUM. Dialect cluster. Work in progress.

NKOROO (NKORO) [NKX] 4,550 (1989 UBS). Rivers State, Bonny LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Nkoroo. A separate language within the Ijo cluster. Survey needed.

NKUKOLI (LOKOLI, LOKUKOLI, NKOKOLLE, EKURI) [NBO] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, at the juncture of Ikom, Obubra and Akamkpa LGA's, Iko Ekperem Development Area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko. Survey needed.

NKWAK [NKQ] Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA, further locatation data imprecise. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Unclassified. All the alternate names listed except 'Tanjijili' are names of the people. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

NNAM (NDEM) [NBP] 3,000 (1987 Asinya). Cross River State, Ikom and Ogoja LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Survey needed.

NUMANA-NUNKU-GWANTU-NUMBU (SANGA) [NBR] 15,000 (SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Dialects: NUNKU, NUMANA (NIMANA), GWANTU (GWANTO), NUMBU. Dialect cluster. Distinct from Sanga in Bauchi State. Survey needed.

NUNGU (RINDRE, RENDRE, RINDIRI, LINDIRI, WAMBA) [RIN] 25,000 (SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Dialects: RINDRE, GUDI. Survey needed.

NUPE (NUFAWA, NUPECI, NUPENCHI, NUPECIDJI, NUPENCIZI) [NUP] 1,062,000 (1993 Johnstone); including 283,000 Nupe Central (1931), 18,200 Ganagana (1931), 4,500 Kakanda (1931), 19,100 Bassa Nge (1931), 1,560 Eggan (1963). Niger State, Lavun, Mariga, Gbako, Bida, Agaie, and Lapai LGA's; Kwara State, Edu LGA; Kofi State, Kogi and Bassa LGA's; Federal Capital Territory. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi. Dialects: NUPE CENTRAL (NIFE, ANUPE, NUPECIZI, NUPENCIZI, AMPEYI, ANUPECWAYI, ANUPERI, TAPA, TAPPAH, TAKPA), GANAGANA (GANAGAWA, DIBO, SHITAKO, ZITAKO), KAKANDA (AKANDA, HYABE, ADYAKTYE, BUDON), BASSA NGE (IBARA), EGGAN, NUPE TAKO, EDZU, AGBI, GUPA, KAMI, GBANMI-SOKUN, KUPA, ASU. Dialect cluster. Nupe Central has become literary norm. Subdialects of Nupe Central: Ebe (Abewa, Asu), Kupa, Kede (Kyedye). Asu, Ganagana, Gupa, Kakanda, Kami, Kupa, and Nupe Tako may be separate languages. A regionally important language. 60% literate. Trade language. Fishermen. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1953-1989. NT 1915-1982. Bible portions 1877-1950.

NYONG (MUMBAKE, MUBAKO, NYONGNEPA, NYOKING, DAGANYONGA, TETEKA, CHUKKOL, YAPELI, PETI) [MUO] (17,000 in Cameroon; 1987). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, 6 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Speakers use Hausa, Fulfulde, Samba Leko, Yendang, Kumba, or Mumuye as second languages. Growing interest in education. Agriculturalists, traders, hunters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

NZANYI (NJANYI, NZANGI, NJAI, NJENY, ZANI, ZANY, JENG, JENGE, NJEI, NJEING, KOBOTSHI, PAKA) [NJA] 77,000 in Nigeria (1993); 9,000 in Cameroon; 86,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Maiha LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Dialect: HOLMA. Speakers use Fulfulde as second language. Holma is being replaced by Fulfulde (Blench). Schools in nearly every village, but enrollment is usually low. Agriculturalists. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

OBANLIKU (ABANLIKU) [BZY] 65,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Dialects: BEBI, BUSI, BASANG, BISU (GAYI), BISHIRI. Dialect cluster. Related to Alege.

OBOLO (ANDONI, ANDONE, ANDONNI) [ANN] 100,000 (1990 Uche E. Aaron). Rivers State, Bonny LGA; Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Abasi LGA, islands off southern coast. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, West. Dialects: NGO, ATABA, UNYEADA, OKOROETE, IBOT OBOLO. 'Obolo' is their own name, 'Andoni' is the government's name. Obolo is taught in all primary and junior secondary schools. There are church adult literacy classes all over the area. There is a quarterly magazine in Obolo. Primers are in use. Ngo is the prestige dialect. Ibibio and Ibo are the trade languages. English is learned in school. In the east there is a movement toward establishing a stronger Obolo ethnic identity and getting rid of borrowed words from Ibibio. Bounded on the east and northeast by the Ibibio, on the northwest by the Ogoni, on the west by the Kalabari, on the south by the Atlantic Ocean. 25% to 50% literate. Riverine. Fishermen, agriculturalists. NT 1991. Bible portions 1987-1988.

OBULOM (ABULOMA) [OBU] Rivers State, Okrikaa LGA, Abuloma town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo. Survey needed.

ODUAL (SAKA) [ODU] 18,000 (1989). Rivers State, Ahoada LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual. Most closely related to Abua; about 70% lexical similarity. NT 1981.

ODUT [ODA] 700 (1940; 1950 Forde and Jones). Cross River State, Odukpani LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop. It may be extinct. Survey needed.

OGBAH (OGBA) [OGC] 170,000 (1993 A. Ahiamadu). Rivers State, Ogbah-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, northern Niger Delta. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Dialects: EGNIH, IGBURU-USOMINI. A separate language in the Igbo language cluster. The dialects have 81% to 94% lexical similarity with each other. Ogbah has 45% lexical similarity with Ndoni, 41% with Egbema, 32% with Ikwere, 23% with Ekpeye. About 64 primary schools, 8 post-primary schools, technical college in the area. Low literacy in Ogbah. Igbo, Nigerian Pidgin, and English are used as second languages. Agriculturalists, fishermen, traders. Christian, traditional religion. Work in progress.

OGBIA (OGBINYA) [OGB] 200,000 (1989). Rivers State, Brass LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo. Dialects: KOLO, OLOIBIRI, ANYAMA. Dialect cluster but all inherently intelligible. English making little impact. Work in progress.

OGBOGOLO (OBOGOLO) [OGG] 10,000 or fewer (1995). Rivers State, Ahoada LGA, 1 town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo. Survey needed.

OGBRONUAGUM (BUKUMA) [OGU] Rivers State, Degema LGA, Bukuma village near Buguma. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo. Survey needed.

OKOBO [OKB] 50,000 (1991). Akwa Ibom State, Okobo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, West. Survey needed.

OKODIA (OKORDIA) [OKD] 3,600 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Rivers State, Yenagoa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Central, Oruma-Northeast Central, Northeast Central. Not intelligible with Biseni or other Ijo languages. Survey needed.

OKO-ENI-OSAYEN (OKO, OGORI-MAGONGO) [OKS] 10,000 including 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni (1989 Williamson). Kogi State, Okene LGA, Ogori and Magongo towns, ten miles south southwest of Okene. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Oko. Dialects: OKO (OGORI, UKU), OSAYEN (MAGONGO, OSANYIN), ENI. A dialect cluster. It seems to be equally distantly related to Yoruba, Ebira, Edo, Igbo, and Idoma. Survey needed.

OKPAMHERI (OPAMERI) [OPA] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern. Dialects: OKULOSHO (OKUROSHO), WESTERN OKPAMHERI, EMHALHE (EMARLE, SOMORIKA, SEMOLIKA). Subdialects of Okulosho: Ojirami (Eekunu), Dagbala (Dangbala), Oja (Oza), Makeke (Uuma), Oma. Subdialects of Western Okpamheri: Ekpe, Bekuma, Lankpese (Lampese, Lankpeshi), Ibillo (Ibilo), Imoga (Imorga, Uma), Eko (Ekon, Ekor), Ikaran-Oke (Ikeram-Oke), Ebunn-Oke, Ikaran-Ele (Ikeran-Ile, Ebunn-Ugbo, Ikpesa, Igbo-Ola-Sale (Ugboshi-Sale), Aiyegunle (Oshi), Igbo-Ola-Oke (Ugboshi-Oke), Onumo (Onumu), Ogugu, Ogbe-Sale, Ogbe-Oke. Emhalhe may be a separate language. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

OKPE [OKE] 8,722 (1957 Bradbury). Edo State, Okpe LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Distinct from Okpe-Idesa-Oloma-Akuku, which is Northwestern Edoid. Survey needed.

OKPE-IDESA-OLOMA-AKUKU [OKP] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern. Dialects: OKPE, IDESA, OLOMA, AKUKU. Oloma may be a separate language. Different from Okpe which is Southwestern Edoid. Survey needed.

OKRIKA (KIRIKE) [OKR] 248,000 (1995 UBS). Rivers State, Okrika, Opobo, Bonny, and Degema LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari. Bible portions 1979-1991. Work in progress.

OLULUMO-IKOM (LULUMO) [IKO] 30,000 (1989), including 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom. Cross River State, Ikom LGA. May also be in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom. Dialects: OKUNI, OLULUMO, IKOM. Survey needed.

ORING (ORRI, ORRIN, ORRINGORRIN, KORING) [ORI] 75,000 (1989), including 12,300 Ufia, 3,000 Effium, 6,350 Okpoto (1955 R.G. Armstrong). Benue State, Okpokwu LGA; Anambra State, Ishielu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring. Dialects: OKPOTO, UFIA (UTONKON), UFIOM (EFFIUM).

ORON (ORO) [ORX] 75,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Oron LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, West. Survey needed.

ORUMA [ORR] 5,000 or fewer (1995). Rivers State, Brass LGA, 1 town. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Central, Oruma-Northeast Central, Oruma. A separate language within the Ijo cluster. Survey needed.

OSOSO [OSS] 6,532 (1957 Bradbury). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Unclassified. Survey needed.

OTANK (OTANGA, UTANGA, UTANGE, OTANG, UTANK) [UTA] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu LGA; Benue State, Kwande LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. 70% lexical similarity with Tiv, 60% with Icheve, 50% with Evand, 40% with Mesaka and Eman. Mountains. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

PA'A (AFAWA, AFANCI, PALA, PA'AWA, FA'AWA, FONI, AFA) [AFA] 10,000 (1978 MARC). Bauchi State, Ningi and Darazo LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Hausa is used as second language. 1% literate in Hausa. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

PAI (DALONG) [PAI] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Survey needed.

PANA (PANI) [PNZ] (82,000 in CAR; 1996). Urban areas of Nigeria and Cameroon. Mainly in Central African Republic. Also in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Bible portions 1953.

PEERE (PERE, PEER, PARE, KUTIN, KOUTIN, KUTINE, KUTINN, KOTOPO, KOTOFO, KOTPOJO, POTOPO, POTOPORE, PATAPORI) [KUT] 5,000 in Nigeria (1993); 15,000 in Cameroon (1993); 20,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Ganye LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin. Speakers use Fulfulde as second language. Hunters. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. NT 1986.

PERO (PIPERO, FILIYA) [PIP] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Alkaleri LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Bible portions 1936-1938. Survey needed.

PIDGIN, NIGERIAN (NIGERIAN CREOLE ENGLISH, NIGERIAN PIDGIN ENGLISH) [PCM] Southern states and in Sabon Garis of the northern states, coastal and urban areas. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. It is a creole with native speakers, as well as used as a pidgin between Africans and Europeans, and Africans from different languages. No unified standard or orthography. Used in novels, plays, radio, poetry, advertising. Increasing in importance and use. Partially intelligible with Krio of Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin. Trade language. Bible portions 1957.

PITI (PITTI, ABISI, BISI) [PCN] 1,600 (1950). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam. Dialect: RIBAN (RIBAM). Survey needed.

PIYA (WURKUM, PIA, AMBANDI, KHOLOK) [PIY] 5,000 or more (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, some in Bauchi State. 21 villages or more. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Speakers use Hausa, Kulung, Pelang, Tangale or some English as second language. Similar in culture to the Kulung, Kodei, Kwanchi, Pelang, and Pero. 'Ambandi' is their name for themselves. Agriculturalists. Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1950. Survey needed.

POLCI (PALCI, PALCHI, POLCHI) [POL] 10,800 or more (1993); 2,400 Zul, 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 2,950 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Toro LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Dialects: ZUL (MBARMI, BARMA), BARAM (MBARAM, BARANG), DIR (DIIR, DRA, BARAM DUTSE), BULI, LANGAS (NYAMZAX, LUNDUR), POLCI (POSA, POLSHI, PALCI). Polci dialect cluster in Barawa language cluster. Survey needed.

PONGU (PONGO, PANGU, ARRINGEU, TARYA) [PON] 20,000 or more speakers (1988 Roger Blench). Niger State, Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, widespread small villages between Kusheriki in the north, Zungeru in the south, and along the new road to the southwest, with center in Sabon Gari Pangu. Bordered by the Kamuku, Ngwoi, Ura, Basa-Kaduna, Baushi, Basa-Gurmana, Gurmana, and Gbari. Small numbers are in Kaduna, Minna, Kontagora, and Bida towns. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Dialect variation is slight, with 94% to 99% similarity. Pongu always used to other Pongu. Also used in church when only Pongu are present. Hausa is used as second language with outsiders. English is used in education and for national government purposes. Some children and adults are literate in Hausa or English. They call their language 'Tarya', themselves 'Arya'. Sister exchange pattern in marriage. Savannah. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 500 meters. Muslim, traditional religion (Mai-Giro), Christian. Survey needed.

PSIKYE (KAPSIKI, KAMSIKI, PTSAKE) [KVJ] 12,000 in Nigeria (1992); 40,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 52,500 in all countries. Adamawa State, north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in the Mandara Mts. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Dialects: PSIKYE (KAPSIKI, KAMU), ZLENGE, WULA (OULA, ULA-XANGKU, LYING). The Wula dialect is in Nigeria. Closely related to Hya and Kamwe of Nigeria. Low literacy rate. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, peanuts, rice, beans; animal husbandry. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1988.

PUKU-GEERI-KERI-WIPSI (FAKANCHI) [GEL] 36,000 or more (1992 SIL). Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, Fakai District, with migrants farther south. Kur is also in Sokoto State, Sakaba LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Dialects: KAG (PUKU, FAKANCHI, ET-KAG), JIIR (GELANCHI, ET-JIIR), KUR (KERE, KAR, KERI-NI, KELLI-NI, KELANCHI, KELINCI), ZUKSUN (ZUSSUN, WIPSI-NI, ET-ZUKSUN), ROR (ET-MAROR, TUDANCHI, FAKANCHI, ER-GWAR), FER (FERE. ET-FER, WIPSI-NI, KUKUM), US (ET-US), KOOR (KULU). 81% to 97% lexical similarity among dialects. Kag, Ker, Jiir, and Fer speakers have 79% to 92% inherent intelligibility of Ror. Ror and Kag are the largest, Koor and Us the smallest. 63% lexical similarity with Duka, 50% with Lela, 57% with Gwamhi-Wuri. Speakers are interested in literature in their language. Hausa proficiency differs regionally. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

PUTAI (MARGHI WEST) [MFL] Few speakers. Borno State, Damboa LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1. The language is dying out in favor of Kanuri, but the ethnic population is large. Nearly extinct.

PYAPUN [PCW] 4,635 (1934 Ames). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Related to Tal and Montol. Survey needed.

RESHE (TSURESHE, TSUREJA, BARESHE, GUNGA, GUNGAWA, GUNGANCHI, YAURAWA) [RES] 44,000 (1993 SIL). Kebbi State, Yauri LGA; Niger State, Borgu LGA; southern Kebbi State, western Niger State, banks of the Niger River, north of Busa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Reshe. The people are BaReshe, the language Reshe or TsuReshe. Blench says it is the most divergent of the Western Kainji languages. 43% lexical similarity with Lopa, 33% with Laru, 20% with Duka, 11% with Kamabari (Salka). Ethnic subgroups: Gungawa, Yaurawa (Yauri). There is a strong association between wrestling, the traditional religion, and ethnic identity. Agriculturalists: guinea corn, beans, rice, onions; fishermen; canoe makers; mat makers. Altitude: 180 to 300 meters. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian less than. Bible portions 1970. Survey needed.

RON ("CHALLA", "CHALA") [CLA] 115,000 (1995). Plateau State, Bokkos, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Dialects: BOKKOS (RON-BOKKOS), BUTURA (RON-BUTURA). Work in progress.

RUBASA (RUBASSA, BASSA-KWOMU, BASSA-KOMO, BASA-BENUE, ABATSA, ABACHA) [BZW] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Kogi State, Bassa and Ankpa LGA's; Plateau State, Nassarawa LGA; Federal Capital Territory, Yaba and Kwali LGA's; Benue State, Makurdi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa. North-south dialect division along the Benue River. Speakers do not like the name 'Bassa-Kwomu'. 5% literate. Hausa is the second language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1972, out of print. Bible portions 1946-1965.

RUMA (RURUMA, RURAMA, TURAMA, BAGWAMA) [RUZ] 2,200 (1948). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

SAMBA DAKA (CHAMBA DAKA, TSAMBA, TCHAMBA, SAMA, SAMBA, JAMA, DAKA, DAKKA, DEKKA, NAKANYARE, DENG, TIKK) [CCG] 60,000 (1973 SIL); 500,000 all Samba varieties (1993). Taraba State, Gashaka, Jalingo, Bali, Zing LGA's, and Adamawa State, Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Dialect: SAMBA GURUM. Different from Samba Leko or Chamba (Akaselem) of Togo. Close to Dirim. Speakers use Fulfulde or Hausa as second language. 3% literate. Much blindness from filaria. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1933.

SAMBA LEKO (CHAMBA LEKO, SAMBA LEEKO, SAMBA, NDII, LEKON, LEGO, LEKO, SUNTAI) [NDI] 50,000 in all countries (1971 Welmers). Adamawa State, Ganye LGA, Leko District, around Donga near Takum. Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Those in Donga now speak Jukun. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Work in progress.

SANGA (ISANGA, GUSU) [SGA] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Dialect: BUJIYEL. The language is Isanga, a speaker Osanga, the speakers Asanga. Distinct from Numana-Nunku-Gwantu (Sanga) of Kaduna and Plateau states. Survey needed.

SASARU-ENWAN IGWE (SASARU) [SSC] 3,775 (1952). Edu State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Unclassified. Survey needed.

SAYA (SAYAWA, SEYA, SEYAWA, SAYANCI, SEIYARA, SAYARA) [SAY] 50,000 (1973 SIL), including 775 Sigidi (1950). Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Dialects: SIGIDI (SUGUDI, SIGDI, SEGIDDI), ZAAR (VIKZAR, VIGZAR, KAL, GAMBAR LEERE, LUSA). Saya dialect cluster in Barawa language cluster.

SETO-GBE [STS] Lagos State, Badagry LGA. Also in Benin. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Survey needed.

SHA [SCW] 500 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA, Sha town. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Survey needed.

SHAGAWU (SHAGAU, NAFUNFIA, MALENI) [ROA] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Related to Bokkos, Sha, Kulere, Karfa. Hausa is used as lingua franca. Bible portions 1963.

SHALL-ZWALL [SHA] Bauchi State, Dass LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Dialects: SHALL (SHAL), ZWALL. Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

SHAMA (SHAMA-SAMBUGA) [SQA] 5,000 or fewer (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGA's; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Dialects: SHAMA, SAMBUGA. 64% to 66% lexical similarity with the three Kamuku dialects, 69% with Hungworo, 52% with Eastern Acipa, 16% to 17% with Western Acipa. Survey needed.

SHANGA (SHANGAWA, SHONGA, SHONGAWA) [SHO] 5,000 to 10,000 (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Kebbi State between Kaoje and Yauri, on both sides of the Niger River, but especially on the north bank; Gante, Lafugu, Zaria, Besse, Shanga, Dugu Raha, Dugu Tsofo, Bakin Turu villages. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Busa. It is reported that most Shanga do not speak Shanga any longer but Hausa, and those who do speak them are bilingual in Hausa. Tyenga and Shanga have 70% lexical similarity. Not intelligible with the Busa group; 38% to 40% lexical similarity. Traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

SHAU (SHO, LÌSHÁÙ) [SQH] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Shau an Mana villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Nearly extinct.

SHENI (SHANI, SHAINI) [SCV] 200 (1925). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Nearly extinct.

SHIKI (GUBI, GUBA, GUBAWA) [GUA] 1,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Dialects: GUBI, GURU. Survey needed.

SHOO-MINDA-NYEM (BANDA-MINDA-KUNINI, JINLERI) [BCV] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, villages on the banks of the Benue River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified. Dialects: SHOO (BANDA, BANDAWA), MINDA, NYEM (KUNINI). All 3 dialects are of equal status. Called 'Bakula' together with Como Karim, Munga, Jiru, and Jessi. Ethnic groups: Banda, Kunini, Lau Habe. Some bilingualism in Fulfulde, Hausa, and Jenjo. Fishermen. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

SIRI (SIRAWA) [SIR] 3,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Darazo and Ningi LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Survey needed.

SOMYEWE (KILA, SOMIYEB) [KGT] 100 speakers or fewer (1992 Crozier and Blench). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kila Yang, Njike, Kuma, Jabu, Kikau, and Mayo Daga towns. Apparently extinct in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. They live among the Mambila. Blacksmiths. Muslim. Survey needed.

SUKUR (SUGUR, ADIKIMMU SUKUR, GEMASAKUN, SAKUL) [SUK] 14,779 (1992). Northern tip of Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Mandara Mts. Perhaps in Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6. Speakers use Fulfulde, Hausa, Wula (Psikyye), Kamwe, or some English as second languages. Hausa used in most churches. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

SURUBU (SRUBU, FITI, SKRUBU, ZURUBU) [SDE] 1,950 (1948). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Survey needed.

TAL (AMTUL, KWABZAK) [TAL] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Related to Montol, Goemai, Pyapun, Koenoem. Survey needed.

TALA [TAK] 1,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. May be intelligible with Guruntum. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

TAMAJEQ, TAHOUA (TAMASHEQ, TOMACHECK, TUAREG) [TTQ] Few in Nigeria; 540,000 in all countries (1991). Also in Niger (primarily), and Mali. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Dialect: IOULLEMMEDEN. It may be the eastern rather than the western dialect in Nigeria. Muslim. Bible portions 1979-1985. Work in progress.

TAMBAS (TAMBES, TEMBIS) [TDK] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer. May be intelligible with Fyer. Survey needed.

TANGALE (TANGLE) [TAN] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Billiri, Kaltungo and Akko LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Close to Biliri. NT 1932-1963. Bible portions 1920-1929.

TAPSHIN (TAPSHINAWA, SURU, MYET) [TDL] A few. Bauchi State, Dass LGA; Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Unclassified. Survey needed.

TAROK (YERGAM, YERGUM, APPA) [YER] 150,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Langtang LGA's; Gongola State, Wukari LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Tarokoid. Dialects: HILL TAROK, PLAIN TAROK. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1988. Bible portions 1917-1966.

TAURA (TAKAYA) [TDM] Still a few speakers (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Nearly extinct.

TEDA [TUQ] 2,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1990 Blench); 40,000 in Niger (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 2,000 in Libya (1954 Lebeuf); 28,501 in Chad (1993 census); 72,500 in all countries. Borno State, northeastern LGA's, a few villages. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Central. Dialects: KECHERDA, AZA, TEDA, TUBU (TEBU, TEBOU, TIBBU, TOUBOU). Kecherda dialect is in Nigeria. Muslim. Work in progress.

TEME (TEMA) [TDO] 4,000 or fewer (1995). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, along the banks of the Mayo Belwa River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Speakers use Hausa or Fulfulde as second language. Some can speak Sate (Kumba), Yendang, or Gengle. Low literacy rate. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

TERA (PIDLIMDI) [TER] 50,000 (1970 P. Newman). Bauchi State, Gombe and Akko LGA's; Borno State, Biu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western. Dialects: NYIMATLI (NYEMATHI, YAMALTU, NIMALTO, NYIMATALI), PIDLIMDI (HINA, HINNA, GHUNA, GHENA), BURA KOKURA. Dialect cluster. Bible portions 1930. Survey needed.

TESHENAWA [TWC] Jigawa State, Keffin Hausa LGA, Teshena town. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper. Extinct.

THIR [TWI] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, north of Ga'anda. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. Reported to not be the same as Ga'anda. Survey needed.

TIBA [TTB] Adamawa State, Ganye LGA; Tiba Plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of the Shebshi Mountains. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Tiba. Survey needed.

TITA (HOAI PETEL) [TDQ] Taraba State, Jalingo LGA, at Hoai Petel. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo. Survey needed.

TIV ("MUNSHI") [TIV] 2,212,000 in Nigeria, 2.5% of the population (1991 SIL). Benue State, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGA's; Plateau State, Lafia LGA; Taraba State, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGA's. A few in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. "Munshi" is a perjorative name. Regionally important language. Used in initial primary education. Christian, traditional religion. Bible 1964. NT 1936-1942. Bible portions 1916-1959.

TSAGU (SAGO, CIWOGAI) [TGD] 3,000 (P. Newman OIEL 1992). Bauchi State, Ningi and Darazo LGA's, near the Diri. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Related to Diri, but a separate language. Survey needed.

TSIKIMBA (AGAUSHI, AUNA, KIMBA, AKIMBA, KAMBARI, KAMBERRI, KAMBERCHI) [KDL] 50,000 (1996). Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGA's, Auna and Wara areas, just west of Kainji Lake on the Niger River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Dialects: AGAUNSHE, ASHEN. Closest to Tsishingini and Cishingini, but a separate language. Spoken by all ages. Speakers are called 'Akimba'. Speakers can use Hausa, and some can use English or other Kambari languages. 20% literate in Hausa. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

TSISHINGINI (KAMBARI, KAMBERRI, KAMBERCHI, SALKA, ASHINGINI) [KAM] 80,000 (1996 SIL). Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGA's, Salka area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Dialect: IBETO. Spoken by all ages. Speakers are called 'Ashingini'. An important language in the Kambari language cluster, including Cishingini and Tsikimba, with which speakers have little or no intelligibility. 15% literate. Area opened by large dam. Primarily rural. Speakers can use some Hausa, and some can use English or other Kambari languages. 20% literate in Hausa. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Bible portions 1933. Work in progress.

TULA (TURE, KOTULE, KUTELE) [TUL] 19,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA, 30 km. east of Biliri. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Bible portions 1929. Survey needed.

TURKWAM (TURKPA) [TDV] 6,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Tarokoid. Arum and Chessu may be dialects. Survey needed.

TYENGA (TYANGA, TIENGA, KYENGA, KENGA) [TYE] 4,000 in Nigeria; 1,000 in Benin; 5,000 in both countries (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Kebbi State, Geshuru, Kaele, Saufu, and Tuni villages, all west of Illo, and in the Boko villages of Maze, Samia, Baikinrua, and Pisa. Also Tungan Bage in Benin. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Busa. It is reported that nearly all Tyenga do not speak their language any longer but Hausa or Dendi, and those who do speak them are bilingual in Hausa. Tyenga and Shanga have 70% lexical similarity with each other. Not intelligible with the Busa group; 38% to 40% lexical similarity. Traditional religion, Muslim. Survey needed.

UBAGHARA [BYC] 30,000 (1985 UBS); 24,000 Biakpan (1991 UBS). Cross River State, Akampka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara. Dialects: BIAKPAN, IKUN, ETONO, UGBEM, UTUMA (UTAMA, UTAMU). Dialect cluster. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress.

UBANG [UBA] Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Survey needed.

UDA [UDA] 10,000 or more (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

UHAMI (ISHUA) [UHA] 5,498 (1963). Ondo State, Akoko South and Owo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse. Listed separately from Iyayu by Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

UJIJILI (TANJIJILI, KORO FUNTU OF KAFIN KORO, KORO FUNTU OF MINNA, KORO OF SHAKOYI) [UJI] Niger State, Chanchaga and Suleija LGA's, on the road from Minna to Abuja at Kafin Koro. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Southern. All the alternate names listed except 'Tanjijili' are names of the people. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

UKAAN (IKAN, ANYARAN, AUGA, KAKUMO) [KCF] 18,000 (1973 SIL). Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, towns of Kakumo-Akoko, Auga, Ishe; Edo State, Akoko Edo LGA, town of Anyaran, Kakumo-Aworo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan-Akpes. Dialects: ISHE, KAKUMO. Yoruba is lingua franca. Survey needed.

UKPE-BAYOBIRI [UKP] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu and Ikom LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Dialects: UKPE, BAYOBIRI. Dialect cluster. Survey needed.

UKPET-EHOM (AKPET-EHOM) [AKD] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet. Dialects: UKPET (AKPET), EHOM (UBETENG, EBETENG). A dialect cluster. Survey needed.

UKUE-EHUEN (EKPENMI, EKPENMEN, EPINMI) [UKU] 11,468 (1963), including 5,766 Ehuen (1963), 5,702 (1963) Ukue. Ondo State, Akoko South LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse. Dialects: UKUE, EHUEN. Crozier and Blench 1992 treat Ukue and Ehuen as separate languages. Survey needed.

UKWA [UKQ] Cross River State, Akampka LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

UKWUANI-ABOH [UKW] 150,000 (1973 SIL). Delta State, Ndokwa LGA; Rivers State, Ahoada LFA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Dialects: UKWUANI (UKWANI, UKWALI, KWALE), ABOH (EBOH). A dialect cluster within the Igbo language cluster. Survey needed.

ULUKWUMI [ULB] 10,000 or fewer (1992 Crozier and Blench). Delta State, Aniocha and Oshimili LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Survey needed.

UMON (AMON) [UMM] 20,000 or fewer (1995). Cross River State, Akampka LGA, 25 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono. Bible portions 1895. Survey needed.

UNEME (ULEME, ILEME, INEME) [UNE] 6,000 (1952). Edo State, Etsako, Agbazko, and Akoko-Edo LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee. Survey needed.

URHOBO (BIOTU, "SOBO") [URH] 546,000 (1993 Johnstone). Delta State, Ethiope and Ughelli LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Dialects: AGBARHO, ISOKO (IGABO). Used in initial primary education. Formerly called "Sobo", which is offensive. Bible 1977. NT 1951. Bible portions 1927-1963.

USAKADE (USAKADET, ISANGELE) [USK] 10,000 (1990 Connell). Cross River State, Odukpani LGA. Reported to be mainly in Cameroon, Isangele Subdivision. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

UTUGWANG (PUTUKWAM, MBE AFAL, MBUBE EASTERN, OBE) [AFE] 12,000 or more (1973 SIL); 3,500 Afrike (1953). Cross River State, Obudu and Ogoja LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Dialects: UTUGWANG (OTUKWANG), OKOROGUNG, OKOROTUNG, AFRIKE (AFERIKE), OBOSO. Speakers are reported to understand Bekwarra well. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

UVBIE ("EVHRO", UVHRIA, UVWIE, EVRIE, EFFURUN) [EVH] 6,000 (1952). Delta State, Ethiope LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Related to Urhobo. The name "Evhro" is offensive. Survey needed.

UZEKWE (EZEKWE) [EZE] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele. Survey needed.

VIN (VIMTIM, YIMTIM, FALI OF MUBI, FALI OF MUCHELLA) [FLE] 5,000 or fewer (1995). Adamawa State, Mubi LGA. May be in Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Not related to North Fali or South Fali of Cameroon. Survey needed.

VUTE (MBUTE, MBUTERE, BUTE, WUTE, FUTE, BUTI, BABUTE, MFUTI, WETERE, VUTERE) [VUT] 1,000 or fewer in Nigeria (1973 SIL); 30,000 in Cameroon (1985 EELC); 31,000 in all countries. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Northeast Mambila Plateau. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

WAJA (WAGGA, WUYA) [WJA] 50,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Akko, Biliri, Kaltungo LGA's; Adamawa State, northern Michika LGA; Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Taraba State, Bali LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Dialects: MALGWAL, MADZIGA, MAHALLA (YAGGA). Only small dialect differences. Speakers use Fulfulde as second language. Agriculturalists hunters; animal husbandry: cattle, goats, sheep. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1926-1935.

WAKA [WAV] 5,000 or more (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Survey needed.

WANDALA (MANDARA, NDARA) [MFI] 20,000 in Nigeria (1993), including 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa; 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 42,800 in all countries. Borno State, Damboa , Bama, Gwoza, and Konduga LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara. Dialects: KAMBURWAMA, MASFEIMA, JAMPALAM, ZIOGBA, MAZAGWA, GWANJE, GAMARGU (GAMERGU, MALGO, MALGWA), KIRAWA. Dialect cluster. Muslim, traditional religion. NT 1988. Bible portions 1967.

WAPAN (JUKUN WUKARI, WUKARI, WAKARI, WAPÃ, JUKUN WAPAN, JUKU, JUKUM, JUKON, JUKU JUNKUN, JINKUM) [JUK] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Taraba State, Wukari LGA; Plateau State, Shendam, Lafia, Awe, and Langtang LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. Dialect: WUKAN. It is in the Kororofa language cluster. Traditional religion. NT 1994. Bible portions 1914.

WARJI (WARJA, WARJAWA, SAR) [WJI] 70,000 (1978 MARC). Bauchi State, Darazo and Ningi LGA's; Jigawa State, Birnin Kudu LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Gala may be a dialect. 10% literate. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

WASE (JUKUN WASE) [JUW] Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. In Jukun language cluster. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

WEDU [WEU] 1,000 or fewer (1971 GR). Plateau State, Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGA's, scattered among the Angas. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Related to Tal. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

WOM (PERE, PEREMA, PEREBA, ZAGAI) [WOM] 5,000 in Nigeria (1992); 13,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 18,000 in all countries. Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Closely related to Samba Leko. It is reported that they intermarry with Mom Jango speakers. May not be in Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian, 2 or 3 Muslims. Survey needed.

WUTANA [WUW] 1,075 (1922 Temple). Bauchi Emirate. Unclassified. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Survey needed.

YALA (IYALA) [YBA] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja, Obubra, and Ikom LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Dialects: NKUM (YALA IKOM), NKUM AKPAMBE (YALA OBUBRA), YALA OGOJA. NT 1979. Bible portions 1974.

YAMBA ("KAKA", MBEM) [YAM] A few in Nigeria (1990 Blench); 30,000 to 40,000 in Cameroon (1993 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna, Gashaka LGA's, Antere and other border villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. NT 1992. Bible portions 1990.

YASHI [YBJ] 400 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Survey needed.

YEKHEE (ETSAKO, ETSAKOR, AFENMAI, IYEKHEE, "KUKURUKU") [ETS] 274,000 (1995 UBS). Edo State, Etsako, Agbako, and Okpebho LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee. Dialects: AUCHI, UZAIRUE, SOUTH IBIE, UWEPA-UWANO (WEPPA WANO), AVIANWU (FUGAR), AVIELE, IVHIADAOBI. Not all speakers of the language recognize 'Yekhee' as the name of the language; some prefer 'Etsako'. However, 'Etsako' is not the only language listed as being spoken in Etsako LGA. The name "Kukuruku" is derogatory. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

YENDANG (YENDAM, YANDANG, NYANDANG, YUNDUM) [YEN] 62,640 (1987). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Numan LGA's; Taraba State, Yoro, Jalingo, Zing, and Karim Lamido LGA's. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Dialects: KUSEKI, YOFO, POLI (AKULE, YAKULE). Speakers use Hausa, Fulfulde, Mumuye, or English as second languages. Agriculturalists, animal husbandry. Survey needed.

YESKWA (YASGUA) [YES] 13,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Plateau State, Keffi LGA. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro.

YIWOM (GERKA, GERKAWA, GERKANCHI, GURKA) [GEK] 8,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom. Survey needed.

YORUBA (YOOBA, YARIBA) [YOR] 18,850,000 in Nigeria, 20.3% of the population (1993 Johnstone); 465,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone); 20,000,000 in all countries (1991 UBS). Most of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo Osun, Kwara, and Lagos states; and western LGA's of Kogi State. Also in Togo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Dialects: OYO, IJESHA, ILA, IJEBU, ONDO, WO, OWE, JUMU, IWORRO, IGBENA, YAGBA, GBEDDE, EGBA, AKONO, AWORO, BUNU (BINI), EKITI, ILAJE, IKALE, AWORI. Oyo is the standard literary usage. The literacy rate is 35%. The official language in the southwest. Used for government notices, radio, television, primary and secondary education, university courses, a thriving literature including books, newspapers, pamphlets. National language. Typology: SVO. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1884-1966. NT 1862-1993. Bible portions 1850-1960.

YUKUBEN (NYIKUBEN, NYIKOBE, AYIKIBEN, BORITSU, BALAABE, BALAABEN, OOHUM, UUHUM, UUHUM-GIGI, UHUMKHEGI) [YBL] 15,000 in Nigeria (1992); 950 in Cameroon (1986 R. Breton); 16,000 in all countries. Taraba State, Takum LGA, between the Katsina Ala and Gamana rivers. About 20 villages in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Benue, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Speakers use Jukun, Kuteb (in areas close to Kuteb), or Hausa as second languages. Many women, especially in the mountains, do not understand Hausa. Limited access. Trade language. Traditional religion, Christian.

YUNGUR (BINNA, EBINA, BENA, EBUNA, BUNA, DUMNE, "LALA") [YUN] 95,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGA's, between Shelleng and Song. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba. Speakers use Fulfulde, Kanakuru, or Hausa as second languages. The name "Lala" is offensive. 'Purra' is a cover term for the northern clans. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

ZANGWAL (ZWANGAL) [ZAH] 100 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Survey needed.

ZARI (ZARIWA) [ZAZ] 3,950 or more including 2,950 Zakshi (1950 H.D. Gunn), 1,000 Boto (1950). Bauchi State, Toro and Tafawa Balewa LGA's. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Dialects: ZAKSHI (ZAKSA), BOTO (BOOT, BIBOT), ZARI (KOPTI, KWAPM). In the Zari dialect cluster in the Barawa language cluster. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

ZARMA (DYERMA, DYARMA, DYABARMA, ZABARMA, ADZERMA, DJERMA, ZARBARMA, ZERMA) [DJE] 50,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL); 1,495,000 in Niger; 600 in Burkina Faso (1987); 2,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Kebbi State, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, and Bunza LGA's; Niger State. Also in Benin. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai. Muslim. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1990. NT 1954. Bible portions 1934.

ZEEM [ZUA] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Dialects: ZEEM (TULAI), DANSHE (CHAARI), LUSHI (LUKSHI, DOKSHI). The Zeem dialect cluster in the Barawa language cluster. Survey needed.

ZIRIYA (JIRIYA) [ZIR] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Kere and Ziriya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Nearly extinct.

ZIZILIVEKEN (ZIZILIVAKAN, ZILIVA, ÀMZÍRÍV, FALI OF JILBU) [ZIZ] A few hundred in Cameroon (1992 Crozier and Blench). Near Nigerian border, Bourrah Subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga Division, Far North Province. Also in Nigeria. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. People are called 'Fali of Jilbu'. May be the same as Jilbe in Nigeria. Survey needed.


Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 2 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
Non Sequitir. I NEVER said I know everything about all cultures in Africa. YOU said that.

I don't have to. Buddy, when you make claims such as "Most African cultures', you have implied that you know almost all about African cultures. A person doesn't just make a casual claim of "Most", without knowing "most" African cultures. Now, lets have the specifics on these, or are you going to continue with these lame trolling tactics of yours, that we are now getting use to?

quote:
Doug M:
And I get the impression that YOU think you do and it makes your head hurt to see someone else post something, which threatens your position as CHIEF KNOW IT ALL OF AFRICA

Well, Miss Cleo, I am afraid that your attempt at psychological analysis has been exposed as one big scam and your time for such petty little mind games has long expired. But indeed, if we were to assume that there was really something to what you are daydreaming about above, certainly YOU are quite far from being that individual. What have you thus far produced that has been requested of you, and what of value have you presented in this entire thread, other than stalling tactics via ambiguous claims, presumably because you feel that folks here are dumb enough to be taken by your bogus claims, and then turning around and asking others to prove you wrong. People like yourself hide behind ambiguity, precisely because it makes you feel that you can dodge the specifics needed to expose your scams, scams that fool none other but yourself.


quote:
Doug M:
Trust me I am much more humble than that.

You are the last person who should be asking for the trust of another, when you continue to troll, after repeated requests for you to specify your claims. Trolls hide behind ambiguity, and then ask others to prove what it is that THEY are being asked to specify and hence, prove or corroborate. That is not being humble, it is being a troll; plain and simple!


quote:
Doug M:
I DO know enough to know that MOST did not build in stone, especially before and during the time of the Dynastic period in Egypt.

We get it: You don't know what those "MOST" themselves are; but you know enough to know that "MOST" didn't do what you claim they didn't, during an unspecified timeframe or place, presumably some time "during the time of Dynastic Egypt". Now, this is the kind of logic that makes sense to only TROLLS!

quote:
Doug M:


MY point still stands, unless you can prove otherwise.

What point? We are still waiting for you to make a point!

quote:
Doug M:
If you need to figure out what MOST means, then you NEED to stop asking me and CONSULT a dictionary, o wise one of Africa.

You need to figure out what "specify" means, what "corroboration" means, what "Most" means, what "Africa" means, what "culture" means, before you can put those words together, and make claims on things you have no clue about, o trolling one of America.

quote:
NONE of the images you posted show scenes of daily life CARVED in stone like the Egyptians.
NONE of them were intended to, but of course, it is a figment of your imagination. The point that needed to be taken home, was one about permanent structures in the said cultures, particularly stone.

quote:
Doug M:
If so, please point it out.

We can start, by going through the "Most African cultures" that you keep referring to, but have no idea what they are. If you do have an idea of what those are, we might be in the business of moving this discussion forward. But I won't hold my breath.

quote:
Doug M:
I ONLY was comparing the DURABILITY of images carved in stone versus the NON DURABILITY of the ITEMS depicted. But, OF COURSE, now I have to show you the CHEMICAL make up of ALL items used in ALL African societies to SAY this right?

Not a bad request that you made up yourself, but we don't expect you to be capable of living up to it.

quote:
Doug M:
YOu come off as a pompous, egotistical, SELF appointed GATEKEEPER, as if someone HAS to go through you in order to be ALLOWED to state their opinions.

I don't make opinions, I corroborate my claims, which is something you should try doing at any point in this discussion. Looks like you expose yourself as a baseless egotistical, self-deluding, [and it goes without saying] insignificant vile little troll as we go further with these exchanges.

quote:
Doug M:
What are YOUR CREDENTIALS that allows you to spout so much NONSENSE.

Likewise, I would like to know what you 'think' your credentials are, since you are incapable of knowing what they are, that allows you to assume that we aren't aware that you are troll.

quote:
Doug M:
How many books have YOU written? How many times have you BEEN to Africa? How many African cultures can YOU name? How many African Cultures do you know in INTIMATE detail concerning language, culture and history?

Interesting, these are the same things I've been meaning to find out about you. It is YOU who made the claim about "Most African cultures", and yet cannot even specify what these are, much less corroborate the wild claims you make about them!


quote:
Doug M:
Pont being everyone on this board may not have the same level of knowledge, but that is the POINT of this board. If I KNEW everything already, I SURE wouldn't come here expecting to LEARN anything. You are just being ASININE for NO OTHER PURPOSE than just out of spite. NOTHING you are saying is making the least amount of sense, but I WILL make YOU UNDERSTAND the silliness of YOUR WAYS my son.

Well, my daughter, what point have you made in this entire thread, other than to expose to the rest of us, that you are one laughable fraud and a troll?


quote:
Doug M:
I know enough to know that your LOGIC is faulty.

What logic of mine? We are trying to get to the bottom of YOUR claim about "Most African cultures".

quote:
Doug M:
Yes, there were cultures in Africa that built in stone. HOWEVER, they are NOT in the MAJORITY.

We've been waiting for you to tell us about the "MAJORITY" you keep nattering about, but don't seem to know what they are.

quote:
Doug M:
You keep trying to TWIST this into something ELSE.

When you are trolling, what is there for me to twist?


quote:
Doug M:
SHOW me, in any way you can, HOW THESE cultures are the MAJORITY of African cultures from ANY period and YOU will win the prize.

What we need from you, is not a 'prize', but actually answers pertaining to your claims!


quote:
Doug M:
My point is that they ARE NOT and it certainly stands to reason that it is NOT necessary to NAME all of the ancient cultures that existed in Africa to prove it.

Crackpots feel no need to corroborate or specify their claims; we understand. [Wink]

quote:
Doug M:
quote:
Supercar posted:
Which Aksumite monument(s) are you referring to, and how is/are Aksumite monument(s) related to Egypt "anyway"?

You posted a aksumite obelisk didnt you?
Yes, and this has do to with Egypt, how?

quote:
Doug M:
This obelisk is a representation IN STONE of wooden structures from Aksum. Therefore, a representation in stone of things from the daily life in Askum. I hope you understand why this is valuable, seeing as how wood is less durable than stone.

How about answering the questions, which again pertain to your very own claims…recalling,

Which Aksumite monument(s) are you referring to, and how is/are Aksumite monument(s) related to Egypt "anyway"?


quote:
Doug M:
Look at it this way, I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.

Which timeframes, which hunter gatherers and nomads are being referred, and how have they “rarely settled down long enough to build such structures”. More words but no material!


quote:
Doug M:
All kidding and nonsense aside,

Which we've been getting on your end, right...

quote:
Doug M:
it depends on HOW you define a "culture". If you define a culture along the lines of a language family or broad collection of various ethnicities, then fine, that NARROWS the count to a smaller group. However, if you count cultures as small groupings of peoples with independent chiefs and different cultural practices, then the NUMBER can reach the ceiling. How do YOU define a culture?

In my mind, the cultures of Africa could be made up of groups as small as a few thousand on up to hundreds of thousands. Many would go "under the radar" since they are so small. In THAT sense there probably TOO many to name.

Good question about defining 'culture', which brings time and again, to those "MOST African cultures" at the "time of dynastic Egypt" that you keep blabbering about, but never specify them, much less corroborate your charges on them.
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by osirion:

We may see that the way of life of the AE were similar to Sub-Saharan Africans but I don't see the art style similarities. It seems to me that the style is an import from Eurasia.

Osirion, since when did "Sub-Saharan" art fall into one style?? Are there not many styles, since there are a myriad of "Sub-Saharan" cultures? Exactly what makes you think Egyptian style art comes from Eurasia??

quote:
Ausar writes:
Osirion, I already showed how ancient Egyptian artwork was similar in both the fertility figures and maternity figures. None of the following is found in Eur-asian cultures Matter of fact, it was actually the ancient Egyptians who influenced the Eur-asians with the Kuros statue figures.

Most of ancient Egyptian artwork in the various tombs are meant to be spirtual doubles of the person. It was believed that the ka of the deceased could enter the sculpture.

Everything in ancient Egyptian culture from the artwork down even the architecture had a spirtual meaning.


Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 4 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Oh and Doug, Supercar is right.

There were various peoples in "Sub-Sahara" that employed stone building other than Nile Valley peoples (Egyptians & Kushites) and Aksumites. Various peoples from West Africa, through Central Africa, all the way down to Zibabwe in Southern Africa.

The problem is that not enough archaeological work is done in Africa, save the Nile Valley region especially Egypt.

Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
Oh and Doug, Supercar is right.

There were various peoples in "Sub-Sahara" that employed stone building other than Nile Valley peoples (Egyptians & Kushites) and Aksumites. Various peoples from West Africa, through Central Africa, all the way down to Zibabwe in Southern Africa.

The problem is that not enough archaeological work is done in Africa, save the Nile Valley region especially Egypt.

How is he right? I can list a few hundred DIFFERENT ethnic groups, boiled down into about maybe 60 "cultures" JUST for NIGERIA. Do you mean to tell me that MOST of these cultures built in stone? That is a tall task. I would LIKE to beleive it, but the FACTS, especially from the period of history in question, are against it.

He still has to PROVE the point, not talk around it. Maybe we should take this to a new thread, since I REALLY would LIKE to dig into this deeper.

Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:

How is he right? I can list a few hundred DIFFERENT ethnic groups, boiled down into about maybe 60 "cultures" JUST for NIGERIA. Do you mean to tell me that MOST of these cultures built in stone? That is a tall task. I would LIKE to beleive it, but the FACTS, especially from the period of history in question, are against it.

He still has to PROVE the point, not talk around it. Maybe we should take this to a new thread, since I REALLY would LIKE to dig into this deeper.

Of course not all Nigerians, but most Nigerian ethnic groups are descended from the ancient Nok culture which first used iron. And the Nok as well as many Nigerian groups did employ stone building. It may not have been impressive as Egypt but this still had it nontheless
Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
Oh and Doug, Supercar is right.

There were various peoples in "Sub-Sahara" that employed stone building other than Nile Valley peoples (Egyptians & Kushites) and Aksumites. Various peoples from West Africa, through Central Africa, all the way down to Zibabwe in Southern Africa.

The problem is that not enough archaeological work is done in Africa, save the Nile Valley region especially Egypt.

How is he right? I can list a few hundred DIFFERENT ethnic groups, boiled down into about maybe 60 "cultures" JUST for NIGERIA. Do you mean to tell me that MOST of these cultures built in stone? That is a tall task. I would LIKE to beleive it, but the FACTS, especially from the period of history in question, are against it.

He still has to PROVE the point, not talk around it. Maybe we should take this to a new thread, since I REALLY would LIKE to dig into this deeper.

I have nothing to prove, other than to continue to expose the fact that you don't know what the hell you are talking about. Case in point, we are into the second page of this topic, and We have yet to have an idea of what these "Most African cultures" are, what they comprised of, where these were located, what specific time frames [other than your vague talk of these coinciding with 'time of dynastic Egypt'. Dynastic Egypt encompasses a wide range of time frames; not a single.], not to mention why it is that they left no signs of their culture via artistic work.
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:

How is he right? I can list a few hundred DIFFERENT ethnic groups, boiled down into about maybe 60 "cultures" JUST for NIGERIA. Do you mean to tell me that MOST of these cultures built in stone? That is a tall task. I would LIKE to beleive it, but the FACTS, especially from the period of history in question, are against it.

He still has to PROVE the point, not talk around it. Maybe we should take this to a new thread, since I REALLY would LIKE to dig into this deeper.

Of course not all Nigerians, but most Nigerian ethnic groups are descended from the ancient Nok culture which first used iron. And the Nok as well as many Nigerian groups did employ stone building. It may not have been impressive as Egypt but this still had it nontheless.
It is not about whether it is as impressive as Egypt or not. All I said was that in Egypt, you can SEE the daily life of ancient Egypt carved in stone, so it makes it EASIER for us TODAY get a glimpse of the daily life and culture of ancient Egypt. The fact MOST other African cultures did not do the same thing is not a BAD thing, just makes it a little harder to uncover the data about daily life and culture for these groups.

When I made my statement, I made it based on NOT JUST the BIG groups we all know about, but ALL groups of varying sizes in Africa. I need to look at this further. There is too much information to dig through. My point is that it depends on how you define a culture or distinct ethnic group. Then you have to go back in time and determine whether the same groups existed or there were more. It is easy to SAY that most of the groups in Nigeria descended from the Nok, but that does not mean that they all built in stone either. In fact, many people say that one characteristic of culture in Africa is that many groups remained in small clans or villages, self sufficient and able to use the environment as part of their protection against enemies. Indeed THIS is why we need MORE archaeology on Africa. If we only focus on groups in Africa with maybe a Million or more, we are bypassing maybe hundreds of smaller groups that may only have numbered in the tens or hundreds of thousands. For each of those, you would have to track down and do the research on their origins and histories. Quite a lot of work indeed.
On the other hand many of the larger groups may have absorbed smaller groups as time went on. Definitely not an easy task to unravel. I beleive that there are MORE cultures in Africa than the major groups we always here about like the Hausa, Yoruba, Dinka, Nuer, Nuba, Tuareg, etc.

Whether other Africans built in stone or not, it should not be interpereted as a qualitative observation. The fact that MOST African cultures did not leave a record in stone in of daily life and cultural activities is not a bad thing. It just makes the process of determining such a little more difficult, due to the nature of the materials involved.

quote:

t should be noted, before going further, that many West African peoples did not choose the path of state formation (often said to be the path of 'civilizational development'), but instead created political systems based on elaborate kinship models that coupled local autonomy and wider networks to create viable political orders. It must be noted that in West Africa, even comparatively small communities could maintain their political independence by taking advantage of forest environments to shelter themselves from attack or takeover by more powerful neighbors.

Little material evidence is available to scholars working to reconstruct this era of West African prehistory, because so little archeological work has been done. However, what is known about changes in material culture and something of their implications for social change or artistic development can be briefly summarized for those areas where archaeologists have been at work. The principal ethno-linguistic groups whose material cultures are under discussion below.

from http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/africanhistory.html
Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Modman Ardo
Moderator
Member # 1797

Rate Member
Icon 3 posted      Profile for Modman Ardo   Author's Homepage     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Hello Doug,

This is not 100% true about African cultures never documented daily activities. For instance both the Yoruba people and people of Dahomey did carve bas-reliefs depiction various activities from war to spiritual ceremonies. Understand also that most contemporary Africans have a living traditions that have been documented and studied by anthropologist. The documents of daily life is not very necessary unless you have a dead culture like ancient Egypt or other cultures that have died out.


The information about ancient Western Africa is right there for you to reserch as long as you have acess to a library or published journal articles. If you want I can send you some articles about the Yoruba people I have collected. The Yoruba people have been the most studied group in Western Africa.


Other way to uncover historical data is through a methodology called historical linguistics. Through such methology you can uncover certain aspects of Western African traditions.

Posts: 8124 | From: Moderativille | Registered: Feb 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
osirion
Member
Member # 7644

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for osirion     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
quote:
Originally posted by osirion:

We may see that the way of life of the AE were similar to Sub-Saharan Africans but I don't see the art style similarities. It seems to me that the style is an import from Eurasia.

Osirion, since when did "Sub-Saharan" art fall into one style?? Are there not many styles, since there are a myriad of "Sub-Saharan" cultures? Exactly what makes you think Egyptian style art comes from Eurasia??

quote:
Ausar writes:
Osirion, I already showed how ancient Egyptian artwork was similar in both the fertility figures and maternity figures. None of the following is found in Eur-asian cultures Matter of fact, it was actually the ancient Egyptians who influenced the Eur-asians with the Kuros statue figures.

Most of ancient Egyptian artwork in the various tombs are meant to be spirtual doubles of the person. It was believed that the ka of the deceased could enter the sculpture.

Everything in ancient Egyptian culture from the artwork down even the architecture had a spirtual meaning.


Where is the abstract AE art that is similar to what we see in Sub-Saharan art?
Posts: 3994 | From: NW USA | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.



Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Thought2
Member
Member # 4256

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Thought2     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by osirion:
Where is the abstract AE art that is similar to what we see in Sub-Saharan art?

Thought Writes:

If by "Art" you mean artifacts, then one clear example is the harps of Buganda and Ancient Egypt. Another example is the headrests of the Ancient Egyptians and southern Sudanese. How many examples do you need?

Posts: 2720 | Registered: May 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:
Hello Doug,

This is not 100% true about African cultures never documented daily activities. For instance both the Yoruba people and people of Dahomey did carve bas-reliefs depiction various activities from war to spiritual ceremonies. Understand also that most contemporary Africans have a living traditions that have been documented and studied by anthropologist. The documents of daily life is not very necessary unless you have a dead culture like ancient Egypt or other cultures that have died out.


The information about ancient Western Africa is right there for you to reserch as long as you have acess to a library or published journal articles. If you want I can send you some articles about the Yoruba people I have collected. The Yoruba people have been the most studied group in Western Africa.


Other way to uncover historical data is through a methodology called historical linguistics. Through such methology you can uncover certain aspects of Western African traditions.

Sure, I would appreciate the info [Smile]
However, the issue is cultural similarities between Egypt and other parts of Africa, not whether I am the foremost expert on African cultures and the methods used to study such cultures.

Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Thought2
Member
Member # 4256

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Thought2     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.

Thought Writes:

Actually, you may need to do more research on the basic principles of human anthropology. There is a positive correlation between neolithic subsistence patterns and population growth. Hence, we see the dominance of genetic lineages associated with farmers in Africa (Haplogroup E), versus the genetic lineages associated with hunter gatherers (Haplogroup A and B).

Posts: 2720 | Registered: May 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Thought2
Member
Member # 4256

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Thought2     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
However, the issue is cultural similarities between Egypt and other parts of Africa, not whether I am the foremost expert on African cultures...

Thought Writes:

How can one recognize the cultural similarities between Egypt and other parts of Africa without being a expert on African cultures? How would one be able to recognize these similarities if one is ignorant of African culture in general?

Posts: 2720 | Registered: May 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.



It is about when and where. Until recently, the begining of agriculture was always thought to have begun OUTSIDE of Africa. Of course up to date research is proving that false, but there needs to be more research done. Agriculture is a key event in the development of human populations, however, it is also well known that there were many pastoral groups up to and after the development of organized agriculture. I actually believe that people planting crops is far older than we think, because it may have occurred on a much smaller scale, at earlier points in history than we NOW have evidence for. Most of the evidence we have for agriculture is associated with the development of complex societies, hence, agriculture is a key aspect in tracing the development of modern civilizations. That does not mean that people were not planting things on a much smaller scale at scattered points in history PRIOR to the development of complex social structures.
Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Doug M: posted this from a link:

quote:
t should be noted, before going further, that many West African peoples did not choose the path of state formation (often said to be the path of 'civilizational development'), but instead created political systems based on elaborate kinship models that coupled local autonomy and wider networks to create viable political orders.
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:
Hello Doug,

This is not 100% true about African cultures never documented daily activities. For instance both the Yoruba people and people of Dahomey did carve bas-reliefs depiction various activities from war to spiritual ceremonies. Understand also that most contemporary Africans have a living traditions that have been documented and studied by anthropologist. The documents of daily life is not very necessary unless you have a dead culture like ancient Egypt or other cultures that have died out.


The information about ancient Western Africa is right there for you to **reserch** as long as you have acess to a library or published journal articles. If you want I can send you some articles about the Yoruba people I have collected. The Yoruba people have been the most studied group in Western Africa.


Other way to uncover historical data is through a methodology called historical linguistics. Through such methology you can uncover certain aspects of Western African traditions.

You can say it again.
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

Can you answer the question please? The consideration made about where and
when is just as applicable to foragers and pastoralist. The claim that "MOST
cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY
settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures" was made without regard
to location or era.

Also the concept of a "neolithic revolution" is outdated now. Foragers made the
first settlements and permanent housing structures. Agriculture could not begin
without permanent settlement of people to tend gardens and fields.

And, I think, African pastoralist, especially herders, are predominantly
transhumant instead of actually nomadic.

Another thing to bear in mind is that these three basic methods of food
procurement are not mutually exclusive. Gathering, hunting, shepherding,
herding, farming, can all be practiced in a single culture pending the desired
taste for the evening's meal. Even in post-industrial cultures if you have a yen for
venison you most likely will have to hunt the deer down.


quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.



It is about when and where. Until recently, the begining of agriculture was always thought to have begun OUTSIDE of Africa. Of course up to date research is proving that false, but there needs to be more research done. Agriculture is a key event in the development of human populations, however, it is also well known that there were many pastoral groups up to and after the development of organized agriculture. I actually believe that people planting crops is far older than we think, because it may have occurred on a much smaller scale, at earlier points in history than we NOW have evidence for. Most of the evidence we have for agriculture is associated with the development of complex societies, hence, agriculture is a key aspect in tracing the development of modern civilizations. That does not mean that people were not planting things on a much smaller scale at scattered points in history PRIOR to the development of complex social structures.

Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Doug M is quite right though his wording is incorrect. Besides, he's not
saying Africa only had rulerless societies.

One of the triumphant aspects of African social thought is the fact of its
complex asephalous states. This is nothing to deny or be defensive against.

Article onn the acephalous value for developing African economies


quote:
Originally posted by Supercar:
Doug M: posted this from a link:

quote:
t should be noted, before going further, that many West African peoples did not choose the path of state formation (often said to be the path of 'civilizational development'), but instead created political systems based on elaborate kinship models that coupled local autonomy and wider networks to create viable political orders.
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?

Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Doug M is quite right though his wording is incorrect. Besides, he's not saying Africa only had rulerless societies.

And who said that he was saying that?

quote:
alTakruri:
One of the triumphant aspects of African social
thinking is the fact of its complex asephalous states. This is nothing to deny or be defensive against.
quote:
Supercar:
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?


Are you suggesting that the aforementioned cultural entities are examples of acephalous states?
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
No time for games. You know quite well that empires are not acephalous.

When acephalous states were mentioned you brought up three major West
African empires as if to propose that there were not complex acephalous states
in Africa, i.e., that Africa only had states with heads of state?

Is that what you were trying to get across?

quote:
Originally posted by Supercar:
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Doug M is quite right though his wording is incorrect. Besides, he's not saying Africa only had rulerless societies.

And who said that he was saying that?

quote:
alTakruri:
One of the triumphant aspects of African social
thinking is the fact of its complex asephalous states. This is nothing to deny or be defensive against.
quote:
Supercar:
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?


Are you suggesting that the aforementioned cultural entities are examples of acephalous states?


Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.


According to the latest evidence, agriculture was invented in several areas of Africa independently. In the Sahara, Ethiopia, and West Africa. There could be other areas as well that haven't discovered, so how did you come about this generalization that most Africans were either foragers or pastoralists??

In fact the majority of Africans today have had a longstanding tradition of agriculture, most of this having to do with the Bantu expansion.

Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
No time for games.

...unless of course, you are engaged in one I am not yet aware of!

quote:
alTakruri:
You know quite well that empires are not acephalous.

Indeed. It makes me wonder about your response to my mentioning of those examples, as states!

quote:
alTakruri:
When acephalous states were mentioned...

Which acephalous states were mentioned?


quote:
alTakruri:
...you brought up three major West African empires as if to propose that there were not complex acephalous states in Africa, i.e., that Africa only had states with heads of state?

Is that what you were trying to get across?

Your assumption, since there is nowhere in my post, that there was no such thing as acephalous societies in Africa. The question should rather be, what does your comments have anything to do with mine?
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Supercar:
The question should rather be, what does your comments have anything to do with mine?

My exact reaction when I read your reaction quoted below which had
absolutely nothing to do with my statements:


quote:
Supercar wrote:
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?

quote:
Supercar wrote:
Are you suggesting that the aforementioned cultural entities are examples of acephalous states?


Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Supercar
Member
Member # 6477

Icon 1 posted      Profile for Supercar         Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
quote:
Originally posted by Supercar:
The question should rather be, what does your comments have anything to do with mine?

My exact reaction when I read your reaction quoted below which had
absolutely nothing to do with my statements:


quote:
Supercar wrote:
What do you think the likes of Ghana, Songhay or Mali were all about?

quote:
Supercar wrote:
Are you suggesting that the aforementioned cultural entities are examples of [b]acephalous states?


If what you say is to make any sense, then your reaction is indicative of a confused individual. If your comment had nothing to do with mine in the first place, then why quote me and make your comment?
Posts: 5964 | Registered: Jan 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.


According to the latest evidence, agriculture was invented in several areas of Africa independently. In the Sahara, Ethiopia, and West Africa. There could be other areas as well that haven't discovered, so how did you come about this generalization that most Africans were either foragers or pastoralists??

In fact the majority of Africans today have had a longstanding tradition of agriculture, most of this having to do with the Bantu expansion.

Interesting. Where is your evidence for this?
Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Supercar:
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:
Hello Doug,

This is not 100% true about African cultures never documented daily activities. For instance both the Yoruba people and people of Dahomey did carve bas-reliefs depiction various activities from war to spiritual ceremonies. Understand also that most contemporary Africans have a living traditions that have been documented and studied by anthropologist. The documents of daily life is not very necessary unless you have a dead culture like ancient Egypt or other cultures that have died out.


The information about ancient Western Africa is right there for you to **reserch** as long as you have acess to a library or published journal articles. If you want I can send you some articles about the Yoruba people I have collected. The Yoruba people have been the most studied group in Western Africa.


Other way to uncover historical data is through a methodology called historical linguistics. Through such methology you can uncover certain aspects of Western African traditions.

You can say it again.
It is not about how much I have studied West Africa, it is about how much of a relationship Egypt has to other parts of Africa. To be specific, my opinion is that the tradition of Egyptians carving scenes of daily life can be traced to the traditions of the Saharan populations that left scenes of daily life in their rock art. Am I an expert on Saharan rock art, no. But is that my opinion, yes. Therefore, it is not about me becoming an expert in Saharan rock art. It is about me being able to show the facts that I use to back up such an opinion.

Likewise, my opinion about Egyptians having scenes of daily life carved in stone on the walls of temples and tombs as being UNLIKE most African cultures is also an opinion. MOST ancient African cultures DID NOT carve scenes in stone on their monuments. If you feel this is incorrect, then prove me wrong, by showing me information that contradicts this. Otherwise, saying I should STUDY West Africa or some other such thing, in this case only covers for the LACK of evidence on your part to refute my opinion.

I STILL say that MOST African cultures, especially around 1000 BC did not build in stone and those that did DID NOT carve scenes of everyday life on the walls like the Egyptians. If ANYONE can PROVIDE EVIDENCE to the contrary, then fine I will be refuted. Up to this point, NO ONE has.

Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Doug M
Member
Member # 7650

Member Rated:
4
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Doug M     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

Can you answer the question please? The consideration made about where and
when is just as applicable to foragers and pastoralist. The claim that "MOST
cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY
settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures" was made without regard
to location or era.

Also the concept of a "neolithic revolution" is outdated now. Foragers made the
first settlements and permanent housing structures. Agriculture could not begin
without permanent settlement of people to tend gardens and fields.

And, I think, African pastoralist, especially herders, are predominantly
transhumant instead of actually nomadic.

Another thing to bear in mind is that these three basic methods of food
procurement are not mutually exclusive. Gathering, hunting, shepherding,
herding, farming, can all be practiced in a single culture pending the desired
taste for the evening's meal. Even in post-industrial cultures if you have a yen for
venison you most likely will have to hunt the deer down.


quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
quote:
Originally posted by alTakruri:
Aren't farmers indicative of the subsistence of most African cultures
out numbering foragers and pastoralists combined?

quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
... I believe that MOST cultures in Africa were hunter gatherers and pastorial nomads, who RARELY settled down LONG ENOUGH to build such structures.
. . . .

But back to the thread and the topic.



It is about when and where. Until recently, the begining of agriculture was always thought to have begun OUTSIDE of Africa. Of course up to date research is proving that false, but there needs to be more research done. Agriculture is a key event in the development of human populations, however, it is also well known that there were many pastoral groups up to and after the development of organized agriculture. I actually believe that people planting crops is far older than we think, because it may have occurred on a much smaller scale, at earlier points in history than we NOW have evidence for. Most of the evidence we have for agriculture is associated with the development of complex societies, hence, agriculture is a key aspect in tracing the development of modern civilizations. That does not mean that people were not planting things on a much smaller scale at scattered points in history PRIOR to the development of complex social structures.

Yes I agree that farming is a relatively settled activity. I also agree that there were MANY African groups that were practicing farming at an early period. That is WHY I stated the following:

quote:

Agriculture is a key event in the development of human populations, however, it is also well known that there were many pastoral groups up to and after the development of organized agriculture. I actually believe that people planting crops is far older than we think, because it may have occurred on a much smaller scale, at earlier points in history than we NOW have evidence for.

Meaning that, like you said, pastoralism and subsistence agriculture are not mutually exclusive and that many of our modern ideas on ancient agriculture are tied to European definitions of historical processes associated with development of "complex" civilizations.

Also, just because a community was settled or practiced agriculture, does not mean that they built in stone. Many could have used wood, mud brick or grass to build complex communities. The point being that when someone wants to find evidence of "complex" societies, they may look for evidence of stone building before evidence of wood building. Likewise, because wood and such easily decay, much evidence may have been lost over time of complex compounds which could give us a better idea of the development of African societies. So I agree that it is not accurate to say that it is a difference of pastoral/sedentary populations that would have led to the absence of stone building in most African cultures around 1000BC. There are many other factors that go into it.

Posts: 6166 | Registered: May 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
According to the latest evidence, agriculture was invented in several areas of Africa independently. In the Sahara, Ethiopia, and West Africa. There could be other areas as well that haven't discovered, so how did you come about this generalization that most Africans were either foragers or pastoralists??

In fact the majority of Africans today have had a longstanding tradition of agriculture, most of this having to do with the Bantu expansion.


Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
alTakruri
Member
Member # 10195

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for alTakruri     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Well, I don't approach the study of Africa from a penis envy level where
everything is measured up to Europe's yardstick.

But all punning aside, neither architecture in stone nor majestic heads of state
are necessary for benchmarking Africa's societies or "states". This is to say
that as far as I can see, monumental stone cutting for public commemoration
on the level of KM.t hardly exist outside of a few metro urban centers
on any continent.

And yes, in general and for many reasons, Africa outside of the Nile Valley
and later in time than KM.t didn't care as much for varied and lasting
material productions as other continents did. Which is not to say they
didn't have any because we know full well they did.

Yet I need not be reactionary and feel the need to "prove" Africa is equal
or has the same developments as Asia or Europe that "hallowed benchmark"
so many still hold up as "highest of the high". No, by doing that I would
only miss out on the true unique value only Africa can offer and instead
be off chasing white ghosts instead of heeding ancestral cries.

So those Africans who had stone or could get stone and valued stone used
it for building (there are many stone sites scattered over the continent)
and when they pleased, for engraving.

Likewise for those who chose mud brick or chose wood, or chose wattle,
or who chose hide, for Africans did built with those more so than with stone.

I don't need an outlook on Africa that makes me fabricate multistorey stone
dwellings or else Africa is inferior because I worship Europe/Asia and
Europe/Asia abounds with such edifices and so every culure what don't build that way
must be primitive or backward and I don't want to appear inferior/primitive/backward.
Why you've accepted the game on Eurocentric terms!

No the African sees the complex beauty of his own through his own eyes
not through imported foreign spectacles which frame a reference inadequite
to appreciate what's right before the eyes.

A chess master from Europe/America/Australia visits rural inner Africa and
observes a wari type game played in the dirt. Little pits dug in the dirt
and pebbles may be all the gaming "pieces" he sees.

[At this point some of you are now having a knee jerk reaction and can only
think on Europe's terms and so you want to interject and go on and on about
the fine cast metal chess pieces made in West
Africa or the high qaulity fine
wooden and semi-precious stone wari sets. And in thinking that way you don't
get it at all]

In cultural chauvinistic contempt he dismisses wari as below his gamesmen's
application as a child invites him to squat and play. Not wanting to appear
aloof he humours the kid and listens to the very simple mechanics of "cows and
kraals". In his mind he thinks, how simple for me a chessmaster to instantly
thoroughly understand this stupid native game and beat its best player less
lone this child.

Come that night he drinks calabash after calabash of palm wine to drown his
embarassment, all the while wondering how that kid could beat him over and
over again, and in so few moves no less, as his hosts good naturedly rib him
with praise while somewhere some guy improvises an ode to the Great
Chessmaster who couldn't win wari once.

And so it is with architecture and public monuments, in trying to show
a measure similar to Europe/Asia we miss what genius has gone into
the commonmost.

So what if Africa isn't overflowing with "impressive" KM.t/Kush/Axum type monumental
stone ruins or multistorey Swahili type houses or zemba bwe wallings? So what!

Its the people and the social order where its really at.


quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
Meaning that, like you said, pastoralism and subsistence agriculture are not mutually exclusive and that many of our modern ideas on ancient agriculture are tied to European definitions of historical processes associated with development of "complex" civilizations.

Also, just because a community was settled or practiced agriculture, does not mean that they built in stone. Many could have used wood, mud brick or grass to build complex communities. The point being that when someone wants to find evidence of "complex" societies, they may look for evidence of stone building before evidence of wood building. Likewise, because wood and such easily decay, much evidence may have been lost over time of complex compounds which could give us a better idea of the development of African societies. So I agree that it is not accurate to say that it is a difference of pastoral/sedentary populations that would have led to the absence of stone building in most African cultures around 1000BC. There are many other factors that go into it. [/QB]


Posts: 7941 | From: the Tekrur in the Western Sahel | Registered: Feb 2006  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:

Pax Dahomenias, I would appreciate if you or others would be kind enough to tell us more about these connections.

Hi Ausar and others,
I'll try to post some informations about it at the end of the week. Please stay tuned.

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Hello all,
There are several sources dealing with cultural comparative studies between Kmt and traditional other African cultures. Unfortunately I only have a few of them at home so the following information will be largely incomplete. Most of the following information is taken from Egyptologists Aboubacry Moussa Lam, Oum Ndigi and Jean Charles Coovi Gomez' francophone works. I have found myself a lot of other similarities but as I plan to publish them in the future, I don't want to post them on here for now.

I'll post some other infos later.

Myra and others:
I have an anglophone article about masks in Kmt and modern Africa at home, please let me know via PM if you're interested in it.

I)Pantheon and Mythology:
Many Kemetic deities are still worshipped in modern Africa.Here are a few.
Oum Ndigi demonstrated by showing ten homophones of Geb's names identical to their counterparts in Basaa which are also homophones of a Basaa deity called Koba, that Geb and Koba are the very same deity. He also pointed out some mythological parallelisms such as the identification of Geb and Koba to the Time,to a goose sitting on the Primordial egg, to the fifth of the Primordial ancestors,etc...


Aboubacry Moussa Lam pointed out some striking resemblances between Dogon and Kemetic mythologies. Like in Kmt, the Dogon creation began with primordial waters (called Nommo in the Dogon language ,a word related to the kmtic Nwmw which would most logically be the actual translitteration of one of the mdw ntr usually translitterated by Egyptologists as "Nwnw"(Nun)), which are "populated" in both areas by reptile-like creatures. From these waters came out eight creatures that came to life as couples:they are thus an ogdoad but become an ennead along with the creator god just like in Kmt. The supreme God of Dogon people is called Amma, a name related to 'Imn(Amun) according to Théophile Obenga and both Gods do use their penises and speech to create. Like Amun who was invoked by Pharaohs to make the level of water rise, Amma is a water god. Still according to French Africanist Marcel Griaule, Amma is a ram wearing a calabash between his horns representing the sun.We all know that Amun was often depicted as a Ram wearing but he actually wasn't before the New Kingdom:he was only a provincial unsolarized deity and wasn't assimilated to the ram back then.It would thus mean that contacts between the two populations occured after the NK.Pic of Amen-Ra at Abu Simbel:
 -


Recently, Théophile Obenga said that the name of the supreme God of Dagari people of Burkina Faso was Myin and that this name was related to 'Imn.Interestingly enough, Myin is also considered to be the sun to Dagari people. Perhaps some meticulous comparative researchs about Myin and Amun could lead to the same conclusion as the relationship between Amun & Amma.

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
^^ Pax, while I agree that some African gods may have a connection to Egyptian gods like Amun, I would be cautious in trying to connect them to Dynastic Egypt.

Rather, I believe such connections come from prehistoric periods and especially connections via the Sahara. There is evidence of Nubians worshipping a god identified with Amun as well as ancient Libyans around Siwa.

Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
I understand your cautiousness Djehuti but I believe that Amma's description, as well as its relationship to the Nommo and the eight primordial ancestors is definitely dynastic Egyptian.
Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Pax Dahomensis:
I understand your cautiousness Djehuti but I believe that Amma's description, as well as its relationship to the Nommo and the eight primordial ancestors is definitely dynastic Egyptian.

If so, then what is the evidence to suggest that the Dogon had contact with dynastic Egypt?? Which culture are you suggesting first had these religious concepts??
Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
II)Conception of death

Kemetians had a conception of death quite similar to that of modern Africans. According to this page:

quote:
Because Re was Atum as well as Amun, people saw him as simply another form of the Creator god. Because he traveled each day through the heavens, he was also the god of time. The “birth” and “death” of the sun each day helped the Egyptians to understand time, life, death, and resurrection. The sun gave the Egyptians confidence that life never ended, and that death was merely another form of life. The Kushites shared the same beliefs.
About the BaKongo people of Central Africa, this page says:
quote:
Life in that sense is a cyclical and repetitive movement between the two worlds mentioned above, resembling the path of the sun. At the rising and setting of the sun then, the living and the dead exchange day and night.
In Kongo belief, man's life does not end, it constitutes a cycle, and death is merely a transition in the process of change. Following that belief, a man's soul does not dwell in the grave after his death but leaves it to become a ghost (n'kuyu) in the land of the dead, which is called ku mpemba a fula.

Akh:
quote:
This was the form in which the blessed dead lived on in the hereafter. It was also the result of the union between the Ba and the Ka. An Akh was believed to live on unharmed for eternity, they were sometimes referred to as 'The Shining Ones'.


French Africanist Louis Vincent Thomas reported a fon chant describing death(ku) as an illumination after which life would no more lived be into darkness.

quote:
According to Egyptian beliefs, the soul of the dead accompanied the sun on its eternal journey in the Upper Waters (the heavens) around the world. A boat or at least a model of a boat was therefore included in every tomb.


Beninese anthropologist B.Adoukonou reported that the dead had to travel with a boat to the world of the deads.
Many people of modern day Africa do use the same term as the Md Ntr "akh" meaning "to become a spirit",e.g. ku le-ku
Of this word are also derived terms meaning "ghost" in these languages e.g. kutito(fon-gbe),okue(mbochi) just like akhu(ghost) derives from akh in the Mdw Ntr.

When French missionaries discovered the term "okue", they systematically and erroneously translated it by "devil". Interestingly in Coptic, akhu also means "devil "although we know that they were definitely considered as such during pharaonic Times. Perhaps the Christians who evangelized both Kemetians and Mbochi people had the same reaction vis à vis of the same concept.

A representation of an animated Djed Pillar:
 -

A Kutito/Egungun ceremony in Porto Novo,Benin:
 -

 -

In Togo,Benin and Nigeria, the Kutito(among Gbe speaking people) and Egungun (among Yoruba speaking people) are masked dancing ancestors returning to earth to help and punish living people. Jean Charles Coovi Gomez pointed out that this ceremony was exactly the same as what we know of Kemetic "raising the Djed Pillar Ceremony".


Egungun ,the Yoruba name of the ceremony means "bone, skeleton". In Kmt, the Djed pillar was considered as the backbone of the neter Ausar.
There is ample evidence for mummification in traditional Africa.Félix Dubois reported it among Songhoi people, M.Delafosse among Baule(Akan) people of Ivory Coast, A.M.L Desplagnes among the Dogon and Mossi, J.C.C.Gomez among the Yoruba.

Mummy of the Obi Ijeh of Idumuoghu,Ibusa, Nigeria
 -

More to come...

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 3 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
^^Yes all of these similarities imply a connection to Egypt, but again where is the evidence to show that this was with dynastic Egypt instead of a prehistoric African connection??
Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 3 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Pax Dahomensis:
 -

I find this mummy of a West African royal especially interesting, showing that West Africans also had a concern for preserving the dead of their rulers.
Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Modman Ardo
Moderator
Member # 1797

Rate Member
Icon 3 posted      Profile for Modman Ardo   Author's Homepage     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Here is a reference that I found in mainstream Egyptology publication comparing kingship in ancient Km.t and other contemporary African kingdoms:


94.1021
BONHÊME, Marie-Ange, Appétit de roi, in: Hommages Leclant 2, 45-53.
Discussion of the theme "eating the kingship," a practice attested in Papyrus Brooklyn (47.218.50, col. XVI, 6-7) describing the rites of the "confirmation of the royal power in the New Year." In these rites the king is eating the jAw.t/jA.t symbol in bread. There seem to be some similarities between the described Egyptian rites and the conception and practice of "eating the kingship" in certain African kingdoms. M.W.K.


Do you have acess to this articles,Pax Dahomenias? If you do is there any way to scan it or translate at least some of it?

Posts: 8124 | From: Moderativille | Registered: Feb 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:
Do you have acess to this articles,Pax Dahomenias? If you do is there any way to scan it or translate at least some of it?

Yep, but It will probably take some time. I'll keep you updated.
Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 5 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by ausar:
Here is a reference that I found in mainstream Egyptology publication comparing kingship in ancient Km.t and other contemporary African kingdoms:


94.1021
BONHÊME, Marie-Ange, Appétit de roi, in: Hommages Leclant 2, 45-53.
Discussion of the theme "eating the kingship," a practice attested in Papyrus Brooklyn (47.218.50, col. XVI, 6-7) describing the rites of the "confirmation of the royal power in the New Year." In these rites the king is eating the jAw.t/jA.t symbol in bread. There seem to be some similarities between the described Egyptian rites and the conception and practice of "eating the kingship" in certain African kingdoms. M.W.K.

Which symbol was this, Ausar?
Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Djehuti:
Some cultural elements that refer to specific Dynastic Egypt evolutions do imply a Dynastic contact with African people. As I said I don't want to post them on here for now but I promise I'll keep you updated when I'll publish them.

Sorry.

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Aboubacry Moussa Lam pointed out the resemblance between the kmtic khepesh and this weapon held by Mangbetu King Munza:

 -

 -

More to come.

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
From Oscar Pfouma "Histoire culturelle de l'Afrique Noire":

quote:
The Dogon sign "gono" or "gonono",written at the end of the Sigi Time (sixty years) and identical to the Egyptian "ânkh" represents God after he created the world. Ancient Egyptians also celebrated, each sixty years, a ceremony called "hn" representing the renewing of the world. The osirian rite Sâh and the Dogon Sigi are isomorphic.
The relationship between AE and modern Black Africa is irrefutable.
Dogon gonono:"a 60 years time"
Egypt hnn:"a 60 years time"(Budge)
Dogon Sigi
Egypt sâh
Dogon Naporo=Osiris
Egypt Npr=Osiris(E.Naville)

The Egyptian word for deity but also pharaoh, Ntr is also found in modern BA languages as thus:

Coptic:Noyte, Nute
Gurma:Unteru(god)
Gurmantche:"Untenu"(god)
Fulani:"Ntori"(god)
Masai:"Naiteru"(god)
Kwasio:"Nture"(sacred)
Mombutu:"Nôro"(god)

BA and AE religious customs are exactly the same;Hermopolitan cosmogony is found among Northern Cameroon populations.According to M.Maubert "Coutumes du Gurma":
"it is impossible(...)even for a layman, to not mention(...) AE, more precisely Hermopolis in Middle Egypt, whose specialists tell us that its cosmogony was about some elements (...)very similar to those we had the surprise to found among Fali people.A primordial egg or "Mother Egg".Two waters existing before everything, (...)"Waters containing waiting germs of creation(...) the only trait common to all the AE cosmogonies(...)" Existence of two lands and four rivers. The intervention of an ogdoad, whose members ,the organizers of the world who worked to built the more or less complete state of the world we know today(...) were originally one and same divinity but represented four entities and finally four couples(...), each couple representing the male and female aspect of one of the other entities(...) The classical iconography shows this eight characters as strange anthropomorphic creatures(...) frog-headed men, snake-headed women in Egypt and are described as crawling beasts living in muddy waters in Cameroon. Even the black ape, mentioned by Lebeuf reminds us of Thot, the baboon-headed god of Hermopolis."

The name of Thot(Greek name for Djehuti) is still found in Modern BA:Zukta, Zigta,(Muhuleh), Jukta(Jukun).

More to come.
Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Pax Dahomensis
Member
Member # 9851

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Pax Dahomensis     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
Djehuti:
Do you agree with most Egyptologists that the concept of the Nun was inspired by the vision of the Nile in spate?

Posts: 203 | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Pax Dahomensis:
Aboubacry Moussa Lam pointed out the resemblance between the kmtic khepesh and this weapon held by Mangbetu King Munza:

 -

 -

That weapon (scyth) is also an agricultural tool and is shown wielded by kings from earlier periods.

Agriculture as been around since the predynastic era and agriculture may have once been practiced in the Sahara. Thus a prehistoric overall African connection.

Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Djehuti
Member
Member # 6698

Rate Member
Icon 1 posted      Profile for Djehuti     Send New Private Message       Edit/Delete Post   Reply With Quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Pax Dahomensis:

From Oscar Pfouma "Histoire culturelle de l'Afrique Noire":

[QUOTE] The Dogon sign "gono" or "gonono",written at the end of the Sigi Time (sixty years) and identical to the Egyptian "ânkh" represents God after he created the world. Ancient Egyptians also celebrated, each sixty years, a ceremony called "hn" representing the renewing of the world. The osirian rite Sâh and the Dogon Sigi are isomorphic.
The relationship between AE and modern Black Africa is irrefutable.
Dogon gonono:"a 60 years time"
Egypt hnn:"a 60 years time"(Budge)
Dogon Sigi
Egypt sâh
Dogon Naporo=Osiris
Egypt Npr=Osiris(E.Naville)

The Egyptian word for deity but also pharaoh, Ntr is also found in modern BA languages as thus:

Coptic:Noyte, Nute
Gurma:Unteru(god)
Gurmantche:"Untenu"(god)
Fulani:"Ntori"(god)
Masai:"Naiteru"(god)
Kwasio:"Nture"(sacred)
Mombutu:"Nôro"(god)

BA and AE religious customs are exactly the same;Hermopolitan cosmogony is found among Northern Cameroon populations.According to M.Maubert "Coutumes du Gurma":
"it is impossible(...)even for a layman, to not mention(...) AE, more precisely Hermopolis in Middle Egypt, whose specialists tell us that its cosmogony was about some elements (...)very similar to those we had the surprise to found among Fali people.A primordial egg or "Mother Egg".Two waters existing before everything, (...)"Waters containing waiting germs of creation(...) the only trait common to all the AE cosmogonies(...)" Existence of two lands and four rivers. The intervention of an ogdoad, whose members ,the organizers of the world who worked to built the more or less complete state of the world we know today(...) were originally one and same divinity but represented four entities and finally four couples(...), each couple representing the male and female aspect of one of the other entities(...) The classical iconography shows this eight characters as strange anthropomorphic creatures(...) frog-headed men, snake-headed women in Egypt and are described as crawling beasts living in muddy waters in Cameroon. Even the black ape, mentioned by Lebeuf reminds us of Thot, the baboon-headed god of Hermopolis."

The name of Thot(Greek name for Djehuti) is still found in Modern BA:Zukta, Zigta,(Muhuleh), Jukta(Jukun).

Words for 'gods' or 'divine' are even more ancient in origin still. Such word similarities only proves a prehistoric connection instead of a dynastic one.

Besides, weren't YOU the one that cautioned me about using simple word comparisons, even though the example I used was between Egyptian and Somali-- two languages which we know are closely related!

Posts: 22723 | From: Atlanta, Georgia, USA | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
  This topic comprises 3 pages: 1  2  3   

Quick Reply
Message:

HTML is not enabled.
UBB Code™ is enabled.

Instant Graemlins
   


Post New Topic  New Poll  Post A Reply Close Topic   Feature Topic   Move Topic   Delete Topic next oldest topic   next newest topic
 - Printer-friendly view of this topic
Hop To:


Contact Us | EgyptSearch!

(c) 2012 EgyptSearch.com

Powered by UBB.classic™ 6.7.3