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Author Topic: 1- Basic database of Nile Valley studies
zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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"I would like to see above all a greater number of researchers — Afro-Americans — young Americans — even whites. Why not? Because it’s the young who are least prejudiced. As a consequence, they are the most capable of making triumph ideas which frighten the older generation.

Also, I think that it will be necessary to put together polyvalent scientific teams, capable of doing in-depth studies, for sure, and that’s what’s important. It bothers me when someone takes me on my word without developing a means of verifying what I say ... We must form a scientific spirit capable of seeing even the weaknesses of our own proofs, of seeing the unfinished side of our work and committing ourselves to completing it. You understand? Therefore we should then have a work which could honestly stand criticism, because what we’ve done would have been placed on a scientific plane."

—Cheikh Anta Diop, Interview with Harun Kofi Wangara (Harold G. Lawrence), 1974.

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Ish Gebor
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^Zarahan, I agree.

It is very important that a new generation picks up where pioneers left. There is a lot more to be discovered and unraveled. People can't thrive off on studies that are 30 years old, and look at them like oh those great scholars.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Indeed, and the thing is Diop was always big on
evidence and data, Unfortunately some folk forget
this and focus on the the mystical and rhetorical,
with the rhetorical especially being an easy way
out because it requires very little work or study.
There is a place for rhetoric and mysticism to be
sure, but they provide little concrete to confront
the many enemies of a balanced African biohistory,
in both their "soft" or "hard" manifestations. This
is one of the significant divides in the field.

Diop also did not expect that things would be static and
unchanging, forever locked in stone. BUt ever so often you run into
cats who still have not moved beyond Chancellor Williams, for example,
circa 1970- valuable as background to be sure, but the field has moved on.
A good grasp of the factual and evidentiary database is
necessary for progress, and this is critical in expanding knowledge,
as well as critiquing either patronizing liberals, right-wing propagandists,
or the plain i'gnant.

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Akachi
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I would say that the narrative in the African Origins of Civilization follows evidence that Western scholars have simply decided to ignore. This migration narrative is the basis of my thread over on Egyptsearch reloaded. Diop's theme book "The African Origins of Civilization" details many ancient events in a context that Western scholars have feared acknowledging in a brave unapologetic way. This book detailed the migrations of Africans from Kemet/Sudan/the Sahara desert going back to the Natufians (Ricaut 2008) of the end of the ice age and into later European migrations of the Pelasgians and even later migration of Thutmose's armies. This book made the brave assertion of Africans migrating into the Americas prior to the notion being thoroughly explored and validated by Ivan Van Sertima. The very title/claim of the book was something that was not "scholastically" concrete until the discovery of the incense burners in Qustul 5 years after it was published, and Diop's narrative was complete without it. Simply put every claim from the book has been verified through contemporary research.

Chancellor Williams book details an ancient race war between the original melaninated Africans of the upper Nile and the Set type mulattoes of northern Kemet that lead to the formation of Dynastic Kemet under Menes when those mulattoes were defeated and expelled. From a historical viewpoint this reigns true the fact that further down the line a Set worshiping group of mulattoes SUDDENLY appears at the door steps of Kemet begging for entrance known as the Hyksos. The Hyksos would have had to have an earlier Kemetic origin of sorts to come back in worshiping a Kemetic deity. Egyptology does not tackle such issues. They wish to take the racial context out of this segment of history, because coming from such humble origins is not flattering to their egos.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Agreed in part- many Western scholars want to minimize, deny or distort.
As for Williams, I disagree with his notion of a Race War- light skinnad
on one side and dark-skinnad on the other. That's too simplistic
given that many so-called 'Asiatics" at the time might have been
almost as dark as various Nubians, and some Nubians were just as brown
as any "Asiatic." William's "mulatto" format, rigidly applied in
the Nile Valley is a strained straitjacket based on the 1960s
American race scene.

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Tukuler
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Wms covered the parallel complexion issue and its use as a pretext -- maybe similar to merchants of
today who'll say "Me black, me black."

Wms also commends the 'whites' who went black.

No. There weren't no overt race war.
Not even a conscious clash of races.
Nonetheless through time the darker filter
southward. This is observable across the
whole expanse of Northern Africa. Beydane
are brown skinned, yet their ethnonym
declares 'white' identity. Same social
process laid out in Wms. Except
Beydane say Abu Bakr flat out
expelled blacks from the desert.

The big plus of Destruction is
Chancellor Williams' 'plans' section.
I choose to build on what was left,
not sanctify it. I'll throw out the
bathwater but keep the baby
and the tub too. Lol


Apartheid ended what 35 years ago? And
Jim Crow 50? Political colonialism 50?
Before that? 300 years of oppression.
Yes, it's a hella burden but I can't act
like it didn't happen nor that without
the 1960-70s era struggle I wouldn't
have the tools/skills to post as I do
today.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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True what you say. I have read Williams. His solutions
section is candid and his call for unity against a
common foe is as relevant then as it is now, based on certain
situations prevailing at present. Likewise his blunt exposure
of the open or veiled supremacist agendas of that foe,
whether it be in the history books, or political battlefields.

There are several points that modern data calls into question.
He says for example that Africa's geography made it easier for
various invaders to conquer it, but this is not necessarily so.
Africa's great rivers are unnavigable for large stretches, with many
cliffs, cataracts, sandbars and rapids, unlike the easy transport
routes moving technology, material and knowledge on
many great rivers of Eurasia. It took the steamships
of the 19th century to finally overcome many of these problems.
Likewise Africa's relatively smooth coastline means
a lack of good natural harbors- unlike the massive
number of such harbors in Europe. Such easy transport
factors made conquest of parts of Europe much easier as well as
enabled Europeans to massively borrow and copy technology and
knowledge from outside EUrope. Writing for example was not
invented in Europe, nor the key animal and plant domestications, etc etc.
Europeans benefited massively by importing knowledge, people
and tech from outside.

This is part of why Egypt could never be the hegemon equivalent
of Rome or Greece in Africa. Compare the broad transmission
belt of the MEditerranean, or the easy navigation of so
many of Europe's great rivers, to the chopped up, blocked
Nile as just one example. Rome could move tens of thousands
of troops, grain, weapons, material etc from Syria to Spain at will,
using the Mediterranean, over 2000 miles of easy, straight-shot
water transport. Egypt had no such advantages in Africa-
and aside from the problems with the Nile it was
surrounded by hundreds of miles of inhospitable desert,
which by the way served as a protective barrier.
Africa's Sahara likewise was a barrier in many ways
to easy conquest and slowed down Arab incursions
and imperialism somewhat- though not totally stopped
them. The list can go on.

Nevertheless that is the nature of knowledge. It doesn't
stand still, and those coming after must take up the torch.
And of course Williams had to work with the info he had at
hand, at the time - heavily 1960s, with some early 70s stuff.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Akachi:

The very title/claim of the book was something that was not "scholastically" concrete until the discovery of the incense burners in Qustul 5 years after it was published,

 -
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Tukuler
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quote:
Originally posted by Tukuler:

I choose to build on what was left,
not sanctify it. I'll throw out the
bathwater but keep the baby
and the tub too. Lol

This means retain and build on
what remains valid and factual
while discarding the other stuff.

Who throwd out Copernicus and
Newton 'cos we got astrophysics?

We need to get to them or look
at them (have them under our
belt) to move on and understand
science today.

Same with Wms, Diop, Doc Ben,
Karenga, Madhubuti, van Sertima,
Snowden, Hansberry, Rogers, Osei,
Jackson, Ajayi, P Goldman, et al.

This comes natural for other peoples
not to start from square one each
succeeding generation. They move
forward from an accumulated base
of knowledge with no shame.

For example they been running the
same white man's north and east
Africa game since the Napoleonic
Expedition and refined it with each
new tool/methodology that's come
along since. Interpretation is key.

But we lack the womb to tomb
institution system to ingrain a
weltanschauung. In fact we
tear down what was built
for us to inherit.

We try to build on anti-this or
anti-that never realizing we
must define on the positive.

If ones goal is simply countering
negatives one becomes dependent
on that negative to exist. Remove
that negative and ones whole
reason for being is swept from
under them.


Besides Square Oneing, these
generations never experienced
a liberation struggle and many
imagine the playing field is
level. As if somehow a mere
50 years of 'independent'
Africa, purported equal
rights and a physically half Luo
potus, completely erased or even
healed the 500 year legacy of the
Triangular Trade, colonialism,
genocide, apartheid, Jim Crow,
etc; and the 1500 year weight of
the Hham Mythos.

No. We don't have the luxury to
divorce ourselves from reality.
Our very quality of life is impacted
by the way our history, ethnology,
molecular biology, and so on is
perceived by those matriculating
European and Semitic institutions.

At least give our own a chance
as we try our best to objectively
develop an authentic Africana
of a World Class status without
skewing interpretation toward
self bias.

quote:

Page opening posted by don Cardova :

We must form a scientific spirit capable of seeing even the weaknesses of our own proofs, of seeing the unfinished side of our work and committing ourselves to completing it. You understand? Therefore we should then have a work which could honestly stand criticism, because what we’ve done would have been placed on a scientific plane."

—Cheikh Anta Diop, Interview with Harun Kofi Wangara (Harold G. Lawrence), 1974

.

PS
just imagine form schools where the tested and best
from our past scholars are taught, learned, and
launched from. Wow! To enter college with that
and the brightest and best of all the ES opinions
no matter from who? Already multidisciplinary
and multi ethnic minded.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Indeed. I think Keita was kinda hinting at what Diop said about
polyvalent teams in his article from the Cobb Research Center.

http://www.cobbresearchlab.com/issue-1/2015/1/26/history-and-genetics-in-africa-a-need-for-better-cooperation-between-the-teams

COurse there is only so much guys like us on the web can do.
But if there is cooperation with the cats coming along in
universities, together with the old heads, such teams
can be built. A loose network structure can work- no need for
monolithic agreement on all points. There is plenty of room
for disagreements, but a rough "tactical cooperation" can be
put in place that expands the field. That cooperation can also
also extend to open-minded white specialists/enthusiasts in the field of which
we've seen a few such as Gatto and some others. Even Yurco at
one point, was talking about a rough accommodation with Asante.

Genuine folk can work their different angles and venues, yet exhibit
a generous spirit not automatically geared to tearing one another
down. Simple examples- acknowledging points of agreement with someone,
giving people credit for a particular piece of work or effort,
sharing info, etc etc. None of this requires total agreement. In fact, given
the diversity of perspectives, disagreement is to be expected.

COurse there are several obstacles to good cooperation-
it may never come to pass- and the same folk in the field for years
will not be around forever.


(1) Hostile Eurocentrics, combining deception and
stealth with outright opposition- these include
various racists or "hereditarian" types, and associated troll
and diversionary tactics we have seen so often.

(2) Various "Afro-enthusiasts" who don't do much research,
but are quick to jump on "consciousness" or mystic type bandwagons,
even as they flood the zone with inaccurate info or untenable claims.
A mystic angle is its own creature- the problem is when some folk
insist that their mystic claim is the only "true" scholarship or research,
an flood the zone accordingly.

(3) Various patronizing, condescending and "establishment"
types from academia- who while talking a good game bout science and
objectivity have their own set of slippery agendas. They too
can run "zone flood" games, that will need teams to deconstruct.

(4) Various factional leaders afflicted with the HNIC syndrome,
or who see their particular ideology or approach as the only "true" way.


COurse, these teams could also be built in academia to some
extent becoming a mostly college student thing but there is a massive
base out there not in college.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Tukler said:
No. We don't have the luxury to
divorce ourselves from reality.
Our very quality of life is impacted
by the way our history, ethnology,
molecular biology, and so on is
perceived by those matriculating
European and Semitic institutions.

At least give our own a chance
as we try our best to objectively
develop an authentic Africana
of a World Class status without
skewing interpretation toward
self bias.


And to realize your vision, there needs to ne more moderation of
the forums. Why do assorted racists like "Real tawk" get a free hand,
when the brothers, who are way less offensive and are not hurling
epithets left and right, are banned from Forum Biodiversity,
and other such? We are not even taking steps to at
least ensure a minimum standard in our own forums.
Your mailbox is usually full. Are you moderating at all?
--------------------------------------------------------

Real tawk
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Member # 20324
Ish Gabor
posted 28 May, 2017 08:22 AM ASSHOLE, Neanderthal descends from homoeretus of Europe and Asia. Fvck off, n1gger.

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=009688

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Oshun
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Oh he's calling people THAT now? He ain't even tryin to pretend he's black no more LOL.
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Tukuler
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
Tukler said:
No. We don't have the luxury to
divorce ourselves from reality.
Our very quality of life is impacted
by the way our history, ethnology,
molecular biology, and so on is
perceived by those matriculating
European and Semitic institutions.

At least give our own a chance
as we try our best to objectively
develop an authentic Africana
of a World Class status without
skewing interpretation toward
self bias.


And to realize your vision, there needs to ne more moderation of
the forums. Why do assorted racists like "Real tawk" get a free hand,
when the brothers, who are way less offensive and are not hurling
epithets left and right, are banned from Forum Biodiversity,
and other such? We are not even taking steps to at
least ensure a minimum standard in our own forums.
Your mailbox is usually full. Are you moderating at all?
--------------------------------------------------------

Real tawk
Member
Member # 20324
Ish Gabor
posted 28 May, 2017 08:22 AM ASSHOLE, Neanderthal descends from homoeretus of Europe and Asia. Fvck off, n1gger.

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=009688

Where ya been? Ain'tcha seen
http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=009270
Ain't try n fixin what I don't own.

I nwanna hear boudid.

For like 5 yrs I poured my $$$ into TNV.
A party I threw for our target demographic.
Shee-it. Not even crickets.

ESR's up and running with all you want
already in place. Where are the academics
collegians hi-schoolers informed amateurs?

Since the end of the Liberation Struggle
interest in 'hard' Africana has damned
near died.


In this 21st century Information Struggle
we don't even need cadres anymore. We
each are an Army of 1. No matter wor'
'bout the anti. Just keep pumping
the pro.


The intelligent will have their 'ear to the wise'
weed whacking words of woo out da damn way.
Is it a waste of their time chasing ghosts and
lingering fatalities unless it brings new info to
light (likes being done via the Tin Man). Outdo
the Geno-hamiticists. Challenge each other so
as to tighten up that backstroke till weeze all a
swimming like Flipper.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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 -

"The early Askumites built in stone. They erected massive carved monoliths over the graves of their leaders (one was 33 meters long and weighed over 700 tonnes, arguably the largest single piece of worked stone ever hewn."
--John Reader, 1998. Africa: The Biography of the continent. pg 208).

"Perhaps the best -known symbols of the Aksumites' particular ideas and style are the great carved monoliths, some of which still stand, erected to commemorate their dead rulers; they also record the considerable skill of the Aksumite quarrymen, engineers, and stone-carvers, being in some cases among the largest single stones ever employed in ancient times."
--Stuart Munro-Hay 1991. Askum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity


“The exquisitely carved monolithic stelae dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD are unique masterpieces of human creative genius. “ UNESCO World Heritage citation 1980


 -

 -


"an intricate network of over 16,000 kilometers of banks and ditches (iya) enclosed a 4000 kilometer cluster of community lands- a vast legacy on earth.. The earthworks run four to five times longer than the Great Wall of China, and involve moving more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops."
--PJ Darling, A Legacy in Earth- Ancient Benin and Ishan, Southern Nigeria in: Historical Archaeology in Nigeria, 1998. ed k. Weaver. p143

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Punos_Rey
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Picture spam bombs will be removed on sight. Keep it on topic.
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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2017 study finds sub-Saharan influence around Roman period. Ancient samples drawn from later period
of Dynastic Egypt -taken from the farther north- downplaying the south, and excluding nearby Nubia & Sudan


 -
Ancient samples from Abusir, near Faiyum in the north


Samples from Late period-of Egypt- which have more foreign influence quote:

“According to the radiocarbon dates .. the samples can be grouped into three time periods:
Pre-Ptolemaic (New Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period and Late Period), Ptolemaic and Roman Period."


Sampling from the far north- quote:
Written sources indicate that by the third century BCE Abusir el-Meleq was at the centre of a wider region that comprised the northern part of the Herakleopolites province, and had close ties with the Fayum.. We aim to study changes and continuities in the genetic makeup of the ancient inhabitants of the Abusir el-Meleq community .. since all sampled remains derive from this community in Middle Egypt and have been radiocarbon dated to the late New Kingdom to the Roman Period..”


Limitations of study candidly admitted by authors - Quote:

“However, we note that all our genetic data were obtained from a single site in Middle Egypt and may not be representative for all of ancient Egypt. It is possible that populations in the south of Egypt were more closely related to those of Nubia and had a higher sub-Saharan genetic component, in which case the argument for an influx of sub-Saharan ancestries after the Roman Period might only be partially valid and have to be nuanced. Throughout Pharaonic history there was intense interaction between Egypt and Nubia, ranging from trade to conquest and colonialism, and there is compelling evidence for ethnic complexity within households with Egyptian men marrying Nubian women and vice versa 51,52,53. Clearly, more genetic studies on ancient human remains from southern Egypt and Sudan are needed before apodictic statements can be made."
--Schuenemann 2016 Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods. NatComm, 8:15694

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Andromeda2025
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The earliest burials known in the Nile Valley are those at Nazlet Khater and
Kubbaniya, mentioned above. A group of three slightly younger burials was found at
Deir el-Fakhuri, near Esna. All of these skeletons are of fully modern Homo sapiens
sapiens, but they were very robust, with short wide faces and pronounced alveolar
prognathism. They have been compared with a type known as Mechtoid (from the site of
Mechta el-Arbi), which are found in Late Paleolithic sites throughout North Africa, and
particularly in the Maghreb.


In the Nile Valley there are three Late Paleolithic graveyards, all associated with
Qadan assemblages: Jebel Sahaba, a few kilometers north of Wadi Haifa on the east bank
of the Nile, with 59 burials; Site 6-B-36, on the west bank almost opposite Wadi Haifa,
with 39 burials; and Wadi Tushka, north of Abu Simbel in southern Egypt, with 19
burials. The radiocarbon dates range between 14,000 and 13,000 BP. All of the skeletons
are Mechtoid, indicating a long and unbroken history for this type in the Nile Valley.


North of the el-Badari district, no Predynastic sites are known for over 300km.
Archaeological evidence in the Fayum of both Nagada and Ma'adi culture wares now
seems to suggest that this region was where peoples of the Predynastic cultures of Upper
and Lower Egypt first came into contact. The best known Predynastic site in the Fayum
region is the small cemetery at Gerza, from which the term Gerzean (Nagada II) is
derived. Excavated by Petrie, this cemetery contained 288 burials with (Upper Egyptian)
ceramics which are typically Nagada II. A later Predynastic cemetery with several
hundred burials, excavated by Georg Moller, is located at Abusir el-Meleq, about 10km
west of the present Nile. Ma'adi culture ceramics are found at the cemetery of es-Saff on
the east bank opposite Gerza, and a site near Qasr Qarun in the southwestern region of
the Fayum, excavated by Caton Thompson and E.W.Gardner in the 1930s.


Archaeological evidence clearly demonstrates the existence of two different material
cultures with different belief systems in Egypt in the fourth millennium BC: the Nagada
culture of Upper Egypt and the Ma'adi culture of Lower Egypt. Evidence in Lower Egypt
consists mainly of settlements with very simple burials, in contrast to Upper Egypt,
where cemeteries with elaborate burials are found. The rich grave goods in several major
cemeteries in Upper Egypt represent the acquired wealth of higher social strata, and these
cemeteries were probably associated with centers of craft production. Trade and
exchange of finished goods and luxury materials from the Eastern and Western Deserts
and Nubia would also have taken place in such centers. In Lower Egypt, however, while
excavated settlements permit a broader reconstruction of the prehistoric economy, there is
little evidence for any great socioeconomic complexity.


State formation

Archaeological evidence points to the origins of the state which emerged by the 1st
Dynasty in the Nagada culture of Upper Egypt, where grave types, pottery and artifacts
demonstrate an evolution of form from the Predynastic to the 1st Dynasty. This cannot be
demonstrated for the material culture of Lower Egypt, which was eventually displaced by
that originating in Upper Egypt.

By circa 3050 BC the Early Dynastic state had emerged in Egypt. One result of the
expansion of Nagada culture throughout northern Egypt would have been a greatly
elaborated (state) administration, and by the beginning of the 1st Dynasty this was
managed in part by the invention of writing, used on sealings and tags affixed to state
goods. The early Egyptian state was a centrally controlled polity ruled by a (god-)king
from the newly founded capital of Memphis in the north, near Saqqara. What is truly
unique about the early state in Egypt is the integration of rule over an extensive
geographic region. There was undoubtedly heightened commercial contact with
southwest Asia in the late fourth millennium BC, but the Early Dynastic state in Egypt
was unique and indigenous in character.

https://archive.org/stream/EncyclopediaOfTheArchaeologyOfAncientEgypt/EncyclopediaOfTheArchaeologyOfAncientEgypt_djvu.txt

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Ish Gebor
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^ Yep, the origin is Central Sudan, a tropical African people. And magically white controlled sources claim the people were cold adapted Central Europeans.
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Amun-Ra The Ultimate
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We already have ancient DNA results from Kush and the Tasian site of Kadruka (precusor to Badarian/Naqada):


 -
From Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan (Hassan 2009)

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
^ Yep, the origin is Central Sudan, a tropical African people. And magically white controlled sources claim the people were cold adapted Central Europeans.

lol
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
^ Yep, the origin is Central Sudan, a tropical African people. And magically white controlled sources claim the people were cold adapted Central Europeans.

lol
Eurocentric supporters never explained where all these African populations where to begin with.
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Perchance spontaneously when the Celestials landed
to... well Marvel fans would know.. [Smile]


-------------------------------------------------------------

But one clue, anyhow...


"Tracing the paths of modern humans from Africa

"In the 1980s, genetic and fossil evidence began
to call attention to Africa’s preeminence in the
origins of modern human populations (1), but this
evidence could be interpreted in two fundamentally
different ways (2). Was Africa’s role greater than
other continents because it always harbored a larger
human population (size) or because modern humans
arose in Africa first and subsequently expanded
their range across the world (time)? In the 2000s,
improvements in DNA sequencing technology and
genetic sampling of more present day human groups
made it possible to accurately characterize the
genetic diversity of groups from different regions
of the world, and it became clear that within-
group genetic diversity decreased predictably with
increased geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa (3, 4).

Subsequently, similar, albeit weaker, relationships
were found between within-group variation in aspects
of skeletal morphology (cranial, dental, and pelvic
measurements) and distance from sub-Saharan Africa
(5⇓⇓–8)."

--Weaver 2014-Tracing the paths of modern humans from Africa-PNAS
v111-n20,7170-7171

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Elite Diasporan
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Welcome back Zaharan. [Smile]
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Thanks.

Some info from Chris Stringer, on why multiregionalism
is still somewhat weak despite recent evidence of Neanderhal/archaic admix.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534714000470

QUOTE:

"RAO is still the most appropriate model

The big picture is that we are predominantly of recent African origin, and RAO is not just about the sources of our shared modern morphology and most of our genes; it is also about the genesis of our shared patterns of behaviour. Inferred behavioural gaps between Neanderthals and modern humans have certainly narrowed from recent research, but in my view they have not disappeared. I think that the pre-eminence of Africa in the story of modern human origins was primarily a question of its larger geographic and human population size, which gave greater opportunities for morphological and behavioural variations, and for innovations to develop and be conserved, rather than the result of a special evolutionary pathway. By contrast, genomic data suggest that the lineages of the Neanderthals and Denisovans had much greater demographic attrition [25], perhaps related to the challenges posed by the unstable climates of Eurasia, and this might well have inhibited their cultural as well as physical evolution [6].

‘Modernity’ was not a package that had a single African origin in one time, place, and population, but was a composite whose elements appeared, and sometimes disappeared, at different times and places and then coalesced to assume the form we see in extant humans [6]. However, during the past 400 000 years, most of that assembly took place in Africa, which is why a recent African origin still represents the predominant (but not exclusive) mode of evolution for H. sapiens. Rather than saying ‘we are all multiregionalists trying to explain the out-of-Africa pattern’ [1], it would be more appropriate to say ‘we are all out-of-Africanists who accept some multiregional contributions’."

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