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Author Topic: Bogus Wikipedia moles exposed and debunked
zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Bogus Wikipedia moles have been busy as in
the article:
"Population History of Ancient Egypt."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_history_of_Egypt

Its filled with bogus edits by the white moles, with said editors
posting "citations" - but they distort and outright lie about what
the citations are actually saying. Cases in point;


A survey cited by Kemp (2005) of ancient Egyptian crania spanning all time periods found that the Egyptian population as a whole clusters more closely to modern Egyptians than to other groups, but that they also cluster more closely to the Asian and Mediterranean groups than they did to the earlier Sub-Saharan African groups. Kemp also noted that Egypt conquered and settled Nubia beginning in the 1st Dynasty.

Uh no, actually Kemp clearly warns that said finding is because
samples were drawn from the far north, near Cairo and are
LATE PERIOD samples as shown below.
Samples from the north, Kemp also notes are also
not representative of ancient Egypt.

QUOTES from kemp: ---------------------------------------------

"Early Dynastic Periods. When the Elephantine results were added to a broader pooling of the physical characteristics drawn from a wide geographic region which includes Africa, the Mediterranean and the Near East quite strong affinities emerge between Elephantine and populations from Nubia, supporting a strong south-north cline. (Barry Kemp. (2006) Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. p. 54)"

"..collected by Petrie in 1907 from a cemetery on a desert ridge to the south of Giza and dating from the 26th to the 30th Dynasties.. If, on the other hand, CRANID had used one of the Elephantine populations of the same period, the geographic association would be much more with the African groups to the south. It is dangerous to take one set of skeletons and use them to characterize the population of the whole of Egypt." (Barry Kemp, Ancient Egypt Anatomy of a Civilisation, Routledge: 2005, p. 55)


"In the south, the material culture has much more in common with that of Northern Nubia, its neighbour, and the peoples of the two areas were closely similar at the skeletal level.." --Barry Kemp, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilisation, 2006 ed. p. 89

 -


 -
No matter how the Wikipedia distorters try to spin it
AE's cluster with Nubians not the hoped for
"Eurasians." This diagrams are from Kemp, but
you notice how the trolls "forget" to mention
this, along with Brace 2005's conclusions...


And Kemp's observation on the limb proportions has
mysteriously disappeared from the article. But
pathetic "stealth' removals, pstting themselves on
the back as if they were doing something
significant, won't help the white trolls.
The accurate information is already out on the
web via ES and Reloaded and there is nothing they
can do to suppress it.

 -
"The limb-length proportions of males from the
Egyptian sites group them with Africans rather
than with Europeans."

-- (Barry Kemp, "Ancient Egypt Anatomy of a
Civilisation. (2005) Routledge. p. 52-60)


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MORE BULLSH1T AND OUTRIGHT LYING FROM THE WIKIPEDIA DISTORTERS FOLLOWS:

A 2005 study by Keita of predynastic Badarian (Southern Egyptian) crania found that the Badarian samples cluster more closely with East African (Ethiopic) samples than they do with Northern European (Berg and Norse) samples

Uh, no, the Badari did not cluster with any "Ethiopic" samples.
The cluster with Kenyan tribes and Zulu. The white Wikipedia
trolls lie and distort outright.


In 2008 Keita found that the early predynastic groups in Southern Egypt were similar craniometrically to Nile valley groups of Ethiopic extraction, but as a whole the dynastic Egyptians (includes both Upper and Lower Egyptians) show much closer affinities with the modern day population and Eurasians than they do to Sub-Saharan Africans.

What utter bullsh1t..

 -


"He also points out that the term super negroid is inappropriate, as it is also applied to non negroid populations."

lol.. Whether the term is "appropriate" is meaningless,
since it describes tropically adapted people. Change the
label as much as you like, but and the bottom line remains
the same- tropically adapted Africans. Brace all
disputed the notion of invading whites or
"Wandering Caucasoids" as he calls them, but you
notice that that too, never makes it into the
"article."

 -


According to Robins and Shute the average limb elongation ratios among ancient Egyptians is higher than that of modern West Africans who reside much closer to the equator. Robins and Shute therefore term the ancient Egyptians to be "super-negroid" but state that although the body plans of the ancient Egyptians were closer to those of modern negroes than for modern whites, “this does not mean that the ancient Egyptians were negroes".

Robins and Schute also found that the Egyptians were
closer to the Negroes than others, but you notice how this
information never makes it into the Wikipedia "article."
In fact, the white trolls have been removing information
from the article by stealth over time and distorting it, in the
pathetic hope that they can convince any would be reader that
their bogus edits are valid. Fortunately Egyptsearch exists
and brings the real facts to bear, and they can't do a thing about it.
ES results also appear very early in Google, making their little bogus
edits meaningless as well.


----------------------------------------------------------------

Once again Wikipedia distorters, you have failed.
You are not fooling anyone, and more accurate
information is readily available on the web, and
early on in Google. Thus your hoped for bogus edits
are ultimately meaningless.

 -
And guess what dumbasses? There are several other
glaring errors that are NOT pointed out above.
They will stay on the page to be debunked time and
time again, undermining the credibility of your
bogus efforts...

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Truthcentric
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I don't recall Keita 2008 even using any sub-Saharan populations other than the Somalis. This is why I don't trust Wikipedia on any controversial issues.
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the lioness,
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Temporal Variation in Phenetic Affinity of Early Upper Egyptian Male Cranial Series

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3659/is_200804/ai_n30992654/?tag=content;col1

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^Lazy ass, do some work for a change and tell us
how the above supports the bogus Wikipedia 'Ethiopic"
claim as well as assorted "Eurasian" claims as well.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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In the long-running Wikipedia "article"- "Ancient Egyptian
Race Controversy" the usual "biodiversity" types,
shielded and aided by administrator collaborators,
continue to enter bogus information. Here is a
typical example:


1) Recent edits-: bogus 90% rejection claim - QUOTE in the Wikipedia "article" : "UNESCO convened the "Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script" in Cairo in 1974. At that forum the "Black Egyptian" theory was rejected by 90% of delegates,[128][129][UNESCO history Reference] and the symposium concluded that Ancient Egyptians were much the same as modern Egyptians.

^^The only thing wrong with this "fact" is that it
is completely bogus. There is no "90 percent" "rejection"
anywhere in the report. In fact, most participants, using
classic "racial" categories hold that "Negroes" (in
the stereotypical 'true negro' sense) made up a
substantial proportion of the population. QUOTE:

There is a contradiction here: all the anthropologists agree in stressing the
sizable proportions of the Negroid element—almost a third and sometimes
more—in the ethnic mixture of the ancient Egyptian population; but nobody
has yet defined what is meant by the term 'Negroid', nor has any explanation
been proferred as to how this Negroid element, by mingling with a 'Mediterranean'
component often present in smaller proportions, could be assimilated
into a purely Caucasoid race."

-- UNESCO 1981. The Peopling ancient Egypt..

The claimed "90% rejection" is sheer Wikipedia bullshiit,
protected from correction by dishonest administrators.
But that ain't nothing new... Hence the importance of
ES and Reloaded to give people the actual facts and let
them verify for themselves.


2) Example 2- bogus "DNA" evidence. QUOTE from WIki article: "More recent comparisons between the DNA of both modern and ancient Egyptians would appear to support the UNESCO view that modern Egyptians are genetically much the same as the ancient population.[4] CITATION 4:
Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review" in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, eds. Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. pp. 62–100


^^The only thing wrong with the above "citation"
is that it is wholly bogus. Yurco does not even
mention DNA in his article.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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RECAP FOR NEW READERS- VERIFY CITATIONS AND FACTS INDEPENDENTLY


 -

Recent studies find the ancient Egyptians had a
tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans
and were not cold-adapted like European type
populations. Tropical body plans also indicate
darker-skin.



QUOTE:
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians
had the "super-Negroid" body plan described by
Robins (1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7
(a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths;
data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the
Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the
Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early
Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than
predicted from femoral length. Despite these
differences, all samples lie relatively clustered
together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient
Egyptian stature and body proportions". American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.


a 2008 Study puts the ancient Egyptians closer to
US Blacks than whites:


Quotes:

"Intralimb (crural and brachial) indices are
significantly higher in ancient Egyptians than in
American Whites (except crural index among
females), i.e., Egyptians have relatively longer distal
segments (Table 4). Intralimb indices are not
significantly different between Egyptians and
American Blacks... Many of those who have studied
ancient Egyptians have commented on their
characteristically ''tropical'' or ''African'' body plan
(Warren, 1897; Masali, 1972; Robins, 1983; Robins
and Shute, 1983, 1984, 1986; Zakrzewski, 2003).
Egyptians also fall within the range of modern
African populations (Ruff and Walker, 1993), but
close to the upper limit of modern Europeans as well,
at least for the crural index (brachial indices are
definitely more ''African'').. In terms of femoral and
tibial length to total skeletal height proportions, we
found that ancient Egyptians are significantly
different from US Blacks, although still closer to
Blacks than to Whites.


Comparisons of linear body proportions of Old
Kingdom and non-Old Kingdom period individuals,
and workers and high officials in our sample found
no statistically significant differences among them.
Zakrzewski (2003) also found little evidence for
differences in linear body proportions of Egyptians
over a wider temporal range. In general, recent
studies of skeletal variation among ancient Egyptians
support scenarios of biological continuity through
time. Irish (2006) analyzed quantitative and
qualitative dental traits of 996 Egyptians from
Neolithic through Roman periods, reporting the
presence of a few outliers but concluding that the
dental samples appear to be largely homogeneous
and that the affinities observed indicate overall
biological uniformity and continuity from Predynastic
through Dynastic and Postdynastic periods.

Zakrzewski (2007) provided a comprehensive
summary of previous Egyptian craniometric studies
and examined Egyptian crania from six time periods.
She found that the earlier samples were relatively
more homogeneous in comparison to the later
groups. However, overall results indicated genetic
continuity over the Egyptian Predynastic and Early
Dynastic periods, albeit with a high level of genetic
diversity within the population, suggesting an
indigenous process of state formation. She also
concluded that while the biological patterning of the
Egyptian population varied across time, no consistent
temporal or spatial trends are apparent. Thus, the
stature estimation formulae developed here may be
broadly applicable to all ancient Egyptian
populations.."
("Stature estimation in ancient Egyptians: A new
technique based on anatomical reconstruction of
stature." Michelle H. Raxter, Christopher B. Ruff,
Ayman Azab, Moushira Erfan, Muhammad Soliman,
Aly El-Sawaf, (Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008,
Jun;136(2):147-55


Older limb studies find the same:

"In this regard it is interesting to note that limb
proportions of Predynastic Naqada people in Upper
Egypt are reported to be "Super-Negroid," meaning
that the distal segments are elongated in the fashion
of tropical Africans.....skin color intensification and
distal limb elongation are apparent wherever people
have been long-term residents of the tropics." (C.L.
Brace, 1993. Clines and clusters..")


"An attempt has been made to estimate male and
female Egyptian stature from long bone length using
Trotter & Gleser negro stature formulae, previous
work by the authors having shown that these rather
than white formulae give more consistent results with
male dynastic material... When consistency has been
achieved in this way, predynastic proportions are
founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs
are even longer in relation to the proximal segments
than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions
are termed "super-negroid"...

Robins (1983) and Robins & Shute (1983) have
shown that more consistent results are obtained from
ancient Egyptian male skeletons if Trotter & Gleser
formulae for negro are used, rather than those for
whites which have always been applied in the past. ..
their physical proportions were more like modern
negroes than those of modern whites, with limbs that
were relatively long compared with the trunk, and
distal segments that were long compared with the
proximal segments. If ancient Egyptian males had
what may be termed negroid proportions, it seems
reasonable that females did likewise."
(Robins G, Shute CCD. 1986. Predynastic Egyptian
stature and physical proportions. Hum Evol
1:313-324. Ruff CB. 1994.)





The ancient Badarians were quite representative of
ancient Egyptians as a whole and showed clear links
with tropical Africans to the south. They have been
sometimes excluded in studies of the ancient
Egyptian population, which shows continuity in its
history, not mass influxes of foreigners until the late
periods.


Quotes:
"As a result of their facial prognathism, the Badarian
sample has been described as forming a
morphological cluster with Nubian, Tigrean, and
other southern (or \Negroid") groups (Morant, 1935,
1937; Mukherjee et al., 1955; Nutter, 1958, Strouhal,
1971; Angel, 1972; Keita, 1990). Cranial nonmetric
trait studies have found this group to be similar to
other Egyptians, including much later material (Berry
and Berry, 1967, 1972), but also to be significantly
different from LPD material (Berry et al., 1967).
Similarly, the study of dental nonmetric traits has
suggested that the Badarian population is at the
centroid of Egyptian dental samples (Irish, 2006),
thereby suggesting similarity and hence continuity
across Egyptian time periods. From the central
location of the Badarian samples in Figure 2, the
current study finds the Badarian to be relatively
morphologically close to the centroid of all the
Egyptian samples. The Badarian have been shown to
exhibit
greatest morphological similarity with the temporally
successive EPD (Table 5). Finally, the biological
distinctiveness
of the Badarian from other Egyptian samples has also
been demonstrated (Tables 6 and 7).

These results suggest that the EDyn do form a
distinct morphological pattern. Their overlap with
other Egyptian samples (in PC space, Fig. 2)
suggests that although their morphology is
distinctive, the pattern does overlap with the other
time periods. These results therefore do not support
the Petrie concept of a \Dynastic race" (Petrie, 1939;
Derry, 1956). Instead, the results suggest that the
Egyptian state was not the product of mass
movement of populations into the Egyptian Nile
region, but rather that it was the result of primarily
indigenous development combined with prolonged
small-scale migration, potentially from trade, military,
or other contacts.

This evidence suggests that the process of state
formation itself may have been mainly an indigenous
process, but that it may have occurred in association
with in-migration to the Abydos region of the Nile
Valley. This potential in-migration may have
occurred particularly during the EDyn and OK. A
possible explanation is that the Egyptian state formed
through increasing control of trade and raw
materials, or due to military actions, potentially
associated with the use of the Nile Valley as a
corridor for prolonged small scale movements
through the desert environment.
(Sonia R. Zakrzewski. (2007). Population Continuity
or Population Change: Formation of the Ancient
Egyptian State. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 132:501-509)



Ancient Egyptians most related to other Africans
and are part of a Nilotic continuity rather than
something Mediterranean or Middle Eastern


"Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in
Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African
population had lived in the Nile Valley from ancient
to modern times... [the] Badarian people, who
developed the earliest Predynastic Egyptian culture,
already exhibited the mix of North African and
Sub-Saharan physical traits that have typified
Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989;
Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)... The peoples of
Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia
and Somalia are now generally regarded as a Nilotic
continuity, with widely ranging physical features
(complexions light to dark, various hair and
craniofacial types) but with powerful common
cultural traits, including cattle pastoralist traditions.."
(Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review," 1996 -in
Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Black
Athena Revisited, 1996, The University of North
Carolina Press, p. 62-100)


African peoples are the most diverse in the world
whether analyzed by DNA or skeletal or cranial
methods. Attempts to deny this are rooted in racism
and error. African people, particularly
SUB-SAHARAN Africans, vary the most in how
they look, more so than any other population in the
world.


"Estimates of genetic diversity in major geographic
regions are frequently made by pooling all individuals
into regional aggregates. This method can potentially
bias results if there are differences in population
substructure within regions, since increased variation
among local populations could inflate regional
diversity. A preferred method of estimating regional
diversity is to compute the mean diversity within
local populations. Both methods are applied to a
global sample of craniometric data consisting of 57
measurements taken on 1734 crania from 18 local
populations in six geographic regions: sub-Saharan
Africa, Europe, East Asia, Australasia, Polynesia,
and the Americas. Each region is represented by
three local populations.

Both methods for estimating regional diversity show
sub-Saharan Africa to have the highest levels of
phenotypic variation, consistent with many genetic
studies."
(Relethford, John "Global Analysis of Regional
Differences in Craniometric Diversity and Population
Substructure". Human Biology - Volume 73, Number
5, October 2001, pp. 629-636)

"The living peoples of the African continent are
diverse in facial characteristics, stature, skin color,
hair form, genetics, and other characteristics. No one
set of characteristics is more African than another.
Variability is also found in "sub-Saharan" Africa, to
which the word "Africa" is sometimes erroneously
restricted. There is a problem with definitions.
Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors,
like language, that exclude developments that clearly
arose in Africa. For example, sometimes even the
Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is
excluded because of geography and language and the
fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and
faces.

However, the Horn is at the same latitude as Nigeria,
and its languages are African. The latitude of 15
degree passes through Timbuktu, surely in
"sub-Saharan Africa," as well as Khartoum in Sudan;
both are north of the Horn. Another false idea is that
supra-Saharan and Saharan Africa were peopled after
the emergence of "Europeans" or Near Easterners by
populations coming from outside Africa. Hence, the
ancient Egyptians in some writings have been
de-Africanized. These ideas, which limit the
definition of Africa and Africans, are rooted in racism
and earlier, erroneous "scientific" approaches." (S.
Keita, "The Diversity of Indigenous Africans," in
Egypt in Africa, Theodore Clenko, Editor (1996),
pp. 104-105. [10])



Modern DNA studies find even though some
African peoples look different, they are genetically
related through the PN2 transition clade of the
Y-chromosone. Haplogroup E links numerous
peoples together even though they don't look exactly
the same.


"But the Y-chromosome clade defined by the PN2
transition (PN2/M35, PN2/M2) shatters the
boundaries of phenotypically defined races and true
breeding populations across a great geographical
expanse. African peoples with a range of skin colors,
hair forms and physiognomies have substantial
percentages of males whose Y chromosomes form
closely related clades with each other, but not with
others who are phenotypically similar. The
individuals in the morphologically or geographically
defined 'races' are not characterized by 'private'
distinct lineages restricted to each of them." (S O Y
Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human
variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)


"Recall that the Horn-Nile Valley crania show, as a
group, the largest overlap with other regions. A
review of the recent literature indicates that there are
male lineage ties between African peoples who have
been traditionally labeled as being ''racially'' different,
with ''racially'' implying an ontologically deep divide.
The PN2 transition, a Y chromosome marker, defines
a lineage (within the YAPþ derived haplogroup E or
III) that emerged in Africa probably before the last
glacial maximum, but after the migration of modern
humans from Africa (see Semino et al., 2004). This
mutation forms a clade that has two daughter
subclades (defined by the biallelic markers M35/215
(or 215/M35) and M2) that unites numerous
phenotypically variant African populations from the
supra-Saharan, Saharan, and sub-Saharan regions.."
(S.O.Y Keita. Exploring northeast African metric
craniofacial variation at the individual level: A
comparative study using principal component
analysis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 16:679-689, 2004.)
keita2004neanalysis.htm

"Africa contains tremendous cultural, linguistic and
genetic diversity, and has more than 2,000 distinct
ethnic groups and languages.. Studies using
mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear DNA markers
consistently indicate that Africa is the most
genetically diverse region of the world." (Tishkoff
SA, Williams SM., Genetic analysis of African
populations: human evolution and complex disease.
Nature Reviews Genetics. 2002 Aug (8):611-21.)


DNA of some modern Egyptians found a genetic
ancestral heritage to East Africa:

"The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of 58
individuals from Upper Egypt, more than half (34
individuals) from Gurna, whose population has an
ancient cultural history, were studied by sequencing
the control-region and screening diagnostic RFLP
markers. This sedentary population presented
similarities to the Ethiopian population by the L1 and
L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the
West Eurasian component (defined by haplogroups H
to K and T to X) and particularly by a high frequency
(17.6%) of haplogroup M1. We statistically and
phylogenetically analysed and compared the Gurna
population with other Egyptian, Near East and
sub-Saharan Africa populations; AMOVA and
Minimum Spanning Network analysis showed that
the Gurna population was not isolated from
neighbouring populations. Our results suggest that
the Gurna population has conserved the trace of an
ancestral genetic structure from an ancestral East
African population, characterized by a high M1
haplogroup frequency. The current structure of the
Egyptian population may be the result of further
influence of neighbouring populations on this
ancestral population."
(Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, et al. (2004)
Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary
population from Egypt.Ann Hum Genet. 68(Pt
1):23-39.)

Tishkoff et al on Africa having the most genetic
diversity:


"Africa contains tremendous cultural, linguistic and
genetic diversity, and has more than 2,000 distinct
ethnic groups and languages (see online link to
Ethnologue). Studies using mitochondrial (mt)DNA
and nuclear DNA markers consistently indicate that
Africa is the most genetically diverse region of the
world(TABLE 1).However,most studies report only
a few markers in divergent African populations,
which makes it difficult to draw general conclusions
about the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in
these populations (FIG. 1). Because genetic studies
have been biased towards more economically
developed African countries that have key research
or medical centres, populations from more
underdeveloped or politically unstable regions of
Africa remain undersampled (FIG. 1). Historically,
human population genetic studies have relied on one
or two African populations as being representative of
African diversity, but recent studies show extensive
genetic variation among even geographically close
African populations, which indicates that there is not
a single 'representative' African population."
-- Tishkoff NATURE REVIEWS | GENETICS
VOLUME 3 | AUGUST 2002


"Genetic studies that attempt to recover the
biological history of the species have generally found
that there is a split between their restricted African
samples and "the rest of the world." These
approaches conceptualize human population history
as a series of bifurcations with each node being
relatively uniform. The "Africans" usually used are
either the short statured Aka or Mbuti, Khoisan
speakers, or West African stereotype s, in keeping
with a socially, not scientifically constructed concept
of African. Studies using individuals as the unit of
analysis evince a different pattern. A select subset of
Africans called the "group of 49" forms a unit versus
the rest of humankind. However the latter individuals
("rest of humankind") also includes non-East African
sub-Saharans. Hence there is no "racial" split. As has
been stated, the idea that human variation can be
described as being structured by subspecies(races)
that are treated as lineages is fundamentally false. In
actuality, also, although averages are used, the gene
studies usually give us histories that are not
necessarily the same as population histories."
Writing African History Chapter 4, Physical
Anthropology and African History, Shomarka Keita
University of Rochester Press p.134

Continent wide African DNA linkages
"The most extensive pan-African haplotype (16189
16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the
L2a1 haplogroup. This sequence is observed in West
Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in
North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, and
others; in Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali,
and others; in South Africa among the Khoisan
family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in
East Africa among the Kikuyu. Closely related
variants are observed among the Tuareg in North and
West Africa and among the East African Dinka and
Somali."
(-- Bert Ely , Jamie Lee Wilson , Fatimah Jackson
and Bruce A Jackson. (2006). African-American
mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in
multiple African ethnic groups. BMC Biology 2006,
4:34)

"It is of interest that the M35 and M2 lineages are
united by a mutation - the PN2 transition. This PN2
defined clade originated in East Africa, where various
populations have a notable frequency of its underived
state. This would suggest that an ancient population
in East Africa, or more correctly its males, form the
basis of the ancestors of all African upper Paleolithic
populations - and their subsequent descendants in the
present day."
(--Bengston, John D. (ed.), In Hot Pursuit of
Language in Prehistory: Essays in the four fields of
anthropology. 2008. John Benjamins Publishing: pp.
3-16)



Egyptian Y-chromosome haplotypes show
preponderance is with African clusters not Europe or
the Near East



Other DNA quotes from S.O.Y. Keita
See: http://www.geocities.com/keitadnaquotes.htm


Recent DNA studies of the Sudan show genetic
unity and linkage between the Sudanic, Horn,
Egyptian, Nubian and other Nilotic peoples,
confirming earlier skeletal/cranial studies and
historical data. (Yurco (1989, 1996), Keita
(1993,2004, 2005) Lovell (1999), Zakrewski (2003,
2007) et. al). Of note is that DNA data shows that
some peoples linked to one of the oldest Egyptian
populations, the original Copts, have a significant
frequency of the B-M60 marker, indicating early
colonization of Egypt by Nilotics in the state
formation period.


QUOTES:

"Haplogroup E-M78, however, is more widely
distributed and is thought to have an origin in eastern
African. More recently, this haplogroup has been
carefully dissected and was found to depict several
well-established subclades with defined geographical
clustering (Cruciani et al., 2006, 2007). Although this
haplogroup is common to most Sudanese
populations, it has exceptionally high frequency
among populations like those of western Sudan
(particularly Darfur) and the Beja in eastern Sudan...
Although the PC plot places the Beja and Amhara
from Ethiopia in one sub-cluster based on shared
frequencies of the haplogroup J1, the distribution of
M78 subclades (Table 2) indicates that the Beja are
perhaps related as well to the Oromo on the basis of
the considerable frequencies of E-V32 among Oromo
in comparison to Amhara (Cruciani et al., 2007)...

These findings affirm the historical contact between
Ethiopia and eastern Sudan (1998), and the fact that
these populations speak languages of the Afroasiatic
family tree reinforces the strong correlation between
linguistic and genetic diversity (Cavalli-Sforza,
1997)."

"Genetic continuum of the Nubians with their kin in
southern Egypt is indicated by comparable
frequencies of E-V12 the predominant M78 subclade
among southern Egyptians."
[Hassan et al. Y-chromosome variation.." Am J. Phy
Anthro. v137,3. 316-323

"The Copt samples displayed a most interesting
Y-profile, enough (as much as that of Gaalien in
Sudan) to suggest that they actually represent a living
record of the peopling of Egypt. The significant
frequency of B-M60 in this group might be a relic of
a history of colonization of southern Egypt probably
by Nilotics in the early state formation, something
that conforms both to recorded history and to
Egyptian mythology."
Source:
(Hisham Y. Hassan 1, Peter A. Underhill 2, Luca L.
Cavalli-Sforza 2, Muntaser E. Ibrahim 1. (2008).
Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese:
Restricted gene flow, concordance with language,
geography, and history. Am J Phys Anthropology,
2008.
Volume 137 Issue 3, Pages 316 - 323)


Older research notes the physical makeup of the
original Copts, now confirmed by recent DNA data
above:

"In Libya, which is mostly desert and oasis, there is a
visible Negroid element in the sedentary populations,
and at the same is true of the Fellahin of Egypt,
whether Copt or Muslim. Osteological studies have
shown that the Negroid element was stronger in
predynastic times than at present, reflecting an early
movement northward along the banks of the Nile,
which were then heavily forested." (Encyclopedia
Britannica 1984 ed. "Populations, Human")


Haplogroup E3A and E3B represent more than 70%
of the Y-chromosones on the African continent, with
varying proportions found in different parts of the
continent. In some African populations for example,
E3B exceeds 80%. Migrations out of Africa, are
responsible for the spread of E3b to Europe.
Non-Africans thus acquired a sub-set f African genes
through this migration.


"In Europe, the overall frequency pattern of
haplogroup E-M78 does not support the hypothesis
of a uniform spread of people from a single parental
Near Eastern population... The Y chromosome
specific biallelic marker DYS271 defines the most
common haplogroup (E3a) currently found in
sub-Saharan Africa. A sister clade, E3b (E-M215), is
rare in sub-Saharan Africa, but very common in
northern and eastern Africa. On the whole, these two
clades represent more than 70% of the Y
chromosomes of the African continent. A third clade
belonging to E3 (E3c or E-M329) has been recently
reported to be present only in eastern Africa, at low
frequencies.. The new topology of the E3 haplogroup
is suggestive of a relatively recent eastern African
origin for the majority of the chromosomes presently
found in sub-Saharan Africa."

"In conclusion, we detected the signatures of several
distinct processes of migration and/or recurrent gene
flow associated with the dispersal of haplogroup E3b
lineages. Early events involved the dispersal of
E-M78d chromosomes from eastern Africa into and
out of Africa, as well as the introduction of the
E-M34 subclade into Africa from the Near East.
Later events involved short-range migrations within
Africa (E-M78? and E-V6) and from northern Africa
into Europe (E-M81 and E-M78ß), as well as an
important range expansion from the Balkans to
western and southern-central Europe (E-M78a). This
latter expansion was the main contributor to the
present distribution of E3b chromosomes in Europe."

(Cruciani, F, et. al. (2004) Phylogeographic Analysis
of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes
Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out
Of Africa, Am J Hum Genet. 74(5): 1014-1022.)


Somalis link much more heavily with African
populations such as those in Kenya and Ethiopia than
Middle Eastern or European ones according to DNA
evidence. Eurasian genes only accounted for about
15% of the mix among Somalis, typically associated
with recent Arab influence. On such key common
DNA markers as E3b1, Europeans only weighed in at
5%, and Middle Easterners at approximately 6%.
The overwhelming link of Somalis- over 85% of the
total is with Africans. Kenya and Ethiopia are located
in "sub-Saharan" Africa.


"The high frequency (77.6%) of haplogroup E3b1
was characteristic of male Somalis. The frequency of
E3b1 was significantly lower in Ethiopian Oromos
(35.9%), Ethiopian Amharas (22.9%), Egyptians
(20.0%), Sudanese (17.5%), Kenyans (15.1%),10
Iraqis (6.3%), Northern Africans (6.1%), Southern
Europeans (0.5-5.1%) and sub-Saharan populations."
(Sanchez et al.,(2005) High frequencies of Y
chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1,
DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males, Eu J of
Hum Genet (2005) 13, 856-866)



Simplistic "race percentage" models
are dubious in Africa which has the
highest genetic diversity in the world.
That diversity proceeded from deeper
sub-Saharan Africa, to East and N.E.
Africa, then to the rest of the globe. All
other populations, including Europeans
and "Middle easterners" carry this
diversity which was built into Africa to
begin with. Africans thus don't need any
"race mix" to look different. Their
diversity is built-in and supplied the
whole globe. Any returnees or
"backflow" to Africa looked like
Africans. (Brace 2005, Hanihara 1996,
Holliday 2003).


"These studies suggest a recent and
primary subdivision between African and
non-African populations, high levels of
divergence among African populations,
and a recent shared common ancestry of
non-African populations, from a
population originating in Africa. The
intermediate position, between African
and non-African populations, that the
Ethiopian Jews and Somalis occupy in
the PCA plot also has been observed in
other genetic studies (Ritte et al. 1993;
Passarino et al. 1998) and could be due
either to shared common ancestry or to
recent gene flow. The fact that the
Ethiopians and Somalis have a subset of
the sub-Saharan African haplotype
diversity and that the non-African
populations have a subset of the diversity
present in Ethiopians and Somalis makes
simple-admixture models less likely;
rather, these observations support the
hypothesis proposed by other
nuclear-genetic studies (Tishkoff et al.
1996a, 1998a, 1998b; Kidd et al. 1998)
that populations in northeastern Africa
may have diverged from those in the rest
of sub-Saharan Africa early in the history
of modern African populations and that a
subset of this northeastern-African
population migrated out of Africa and
populated the rest of the globe. These
conclusions are supported by recent
mtDNA analysis (Quintana-Murci et al.
1999)."
[Tishkoff et al. (2000) Short
Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism/Alu
Haplotype Variation at the PLAT Locus:
Implications for Modern Human Origins.
Am J Hum Genet; 67:901-925]


Data on Ethiopian peoples like the
Oromo are underreported even though
they make up the largest group
percentage wise in the Ethiopian
population, (50%) and are often pooled
with others, hiding and obscuring their
overall contribution to the Ethiopian
gene pool.


"This difference, not revealed in the
study by Passarino et al. (1998), in which
the Oromo were underrepresented, might
reflect distinct population histories."
(--Semino, et al. (2002). Ethiopians and
Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the
Human Y..")

"These data, together with those
reported elsewhere (Ritte et al. 1993a,
1993b; Hammer et al. 2000) suggest that
the Ethiopian Jews acquired their religion
without substantial genetic admixture
from Middle Eastern peoples and that
they can be considered an ethnic group
with essentially a continental African
genetic composition." (Cruciani, et. al
Am J Hum Genet. 2002 May; 70(5):
1197-1214. "A Back Migration from
Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human
Y-Chromosome Haplotypes)

"An earlier generation of anthropologists
tried to explain face form in the Horn of
Africa as the result of admixture from
hypothetical “wandering Caucasoids,”..
but that explanation founders on the
paradox of why that supposedly potent
“Caucasoid” people contributed a
dominant quantity of genes for nose and
face form but none for skin color or limb
proportions." --CL Brace, 1993

[Afrocentric critic Mary Leftokwitz
says Egypt was peopled by persons from
sub-Saharan Africa:


"Recent work on skeletons and DNA
suggests that the people who settled in
the Nile valley, like all of humankind,
came from somewhere south of the
Sahara; they were not (as some
nineteenth-century scholars had
supposed) invaders from the North. See
Bruce G. Trigger, "The Rise of
Civilization in Egypt," Cambridge
History of Africa (Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 1982), vol
I, pp 489-90; S. O. Y. Keita, "Studies
and Comments on Ancient Egyptian
Biological Relationships," History in
Africa 20 (1993) 129-54.

(Mary Lefkotitz (1997). Not Out of
Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an
Excuse to Teach Myth as History. Basic
Books. pg 242) [/QB][/QUOTE]


In Black Athena Revisited, Lefkowitz
finds similarity between Egyptians and
Sudanics and recommends the work of
conservative anthropologist Nancy
Lovell for more research on the
subject.


Quote:
"not surprisingly, the Egyptian skulls
were not very distance from the Jebel
Moya [a Neolithic site in the southern
Sudan] skulls, but were much more
distance from all others, including those
from West Africa. Such a study suggests
a closer genetic affinity between peoples
in Egypt and the northern Sudan, which
were close geographically and are known
to have had considerable cultural contact
throughout prehistory and pharaonic
history... Clearly more analyses of the
physical remains of ancient Egyptians
need to be done using current techniques,
such as those of Nancy Lovell at the
University of Alberta is using in her
work.."



Lefkotitz cites Keita 1993 in Not Out
of Africa. Here is Keita on the Jebel
Moya studies?


"Overall, when the Egyptian crania
are evaluated in a Near Eastern (Lachish)
versus African (Kerma, Jebel Moya,
Ashanti) context) the affinity is with the
Africans. The Sudan and Palestine are
the most appropriate comparative
regions which would have 'donated'
people, along with the Sahara and
Maghreb. Archaeology validates looking
to these regions for population flow (see
Hassan 1988)... Egyptian groups showed
less overall affinity to Palestinian and
Byzantine remains than to other African
series, especially Sudanese." [/img]
S. O. Y. Keita, "Studies and Comments
on Ancient Egyptian Biological
Relationships," History in Africa 20
(1993) 129-54



Hereis the work of the anthropologist
so strongly recommended by Lefkowitz,
Nancy Lovell:



"There is now a sufficient body of
evidence from modern studies of skeletal
remains to indicate that the ancient
Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians,
exhibited physical characteristics that are
within the range of variation for ancient
and modern indigenous peoples of the
Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general,
the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and
Nubia had the greatest biological affinity
to people of the Sahara and more
southerly areas." (Nancy C. Lovell, "
Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in
Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of
Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and
Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and
New York: Routledge, 1999) pp
328-332)

and

"must be placed in the context of
hypotheses informed by archaeological,
linguistic, geographic and other data. In
such contexts, the physical
anthropological evidence indicates that
early Nile Valley populations can be
identified as part of an African lineage,
but exhibiting local variation. This
variation represents the short and long
term effects of evolutionary forces, such
as gene flow, genetic drift, and natural
selection, influenced by culture and
geography." ("Nancy C. Lovell, "
Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in
Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of
Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and
Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and
New York: Routledge, 1999). pp
328-332)


Obviously, this shows that the Egyptians
were completely white, and how foolish
the Afrocentrists are to reject this notion.
After all Afrocentric critic Mary
Lefkowitz recommends Lovell's
research..


The same Nancy Lovell recommended
by Lefkowitz studied dental traits among
some high status persons of the key
Egyptian Naqada group and found that
they resembled the peoples of Nubia.


T. Prowse, and N. Lovell "Concordance
of cranial and dental morphological traits
and evidence for endogamy in ancient
Egypt"
American journal of physical
anthropology. 1996, vol. 101, no2, pp.
237-246 (2 p.1/4)


A biological affinities study based on
frequencies of cranial nonmetric traits in
skeletal samples from three cemeteries at
Predynastic Naqada, Egypt, confirms the
results of a recent nonmetric dental
morphological analysis. Both cranial and
dental traits analyses indicate that the
individuals buried in a cemetery
characterized archaeologically as high
status are significantly different from
individuals buried in two other,
apparently non-elite cemeteries and that
the non-elite samples are not significantly
different from each other. A comparison
with neighboring Nile Valley skeletal
samples suggests that the high status
cemetery represents an endogamous
ruling or elite segment of the local
population at Naqada, which is more
closely related to populations in northern
Nubia than to neighboring populations in
southern Egypt.



Lefkowitz warns against Eurocentric
"racial" analysis as to the Egyptians and
Nubians.


Quote:
"The Nubian tribute-bearers are painted
in two skin tones, black and dark brown.
These tones do not necessarily represent
actual skin tones in real life but may
serve to distinguish each tribute-bearer
from the next in a row in which the
figures overlap. Alternatively, the
brown-skinned people may be of Nubian
origin, and the black-skinned ones may
be farther south 9Trigger 1978, 33). The
shading of skin tones in Egyptian tomb
paintings, which varies considerably, may
not be a certain criterion for
distinguishing race. Specific symbols of
ethnic identity can also vary. Identifying
race in Egyptian representational art,
again, is difficult to do- probably because
race (as opposed to ethnic affiliation, that
is, Egyptians versus all non-Egyptians)
was not a criterion for differentiation
used by the ancient Egyptians...



Northern Egypt shows more physical
variation than the south, but not
necessarily as part of any significant 'race'
mix, but local, built-in variation. They
were closer to southerners than any other
peoples. In comparisons with "Middle
Eastern" populations of the same ancient
period, the Egyptians link more closely
with other Africans than the Middle
Easterners. Africans vary in how they
look because they have the highest
built-in molecular diversity to begin
with.


QUOTE(s):
"..sample populations available from
northern Egypt from before the 1st
Dynasty (Merimda, Maadi and Wadi
Digla) turn out to be significantly
different from sample populations from
early Palestine and Byblos, suggesting a
lack of common ancestors over a long
time. If there was a south-north cline
variation along the Nile valley it did not,
from this limited evidence, continue
smoothly on into southern Palestine. The
limb-length proportions of males from
the Egyptian sites group them with
Africans rather than with Europeans."
(Barry Kemp, "Ancient Egypt Anatomy
of a Civilisation. (2005) Routledge. p.
52-60)


"Individuals from different geographical
regions frequently plotted near each
other, revealing aspects of variation at
the level of individuals that is obscured
by concentrating on the most distinctive
facial traits once used to construct
''types.''The high level of African
interindividual variation in craniometric
pattern is reminiscent of the great level of
molecular diversity found in Africa."
(S.O.Y Keita. Exploring northeast
African metric craniofacial variation at
the individual level: A comparative study
using principal component analysis. Am.
J. Hum. Biol. 16:679-689, 2004.)

Quote on northern Egypt analysis- the
Qarunian (Faiyum) remains (c. 7000
BC)

"The body was that of a forty-year old
woman with a height of about 1.6
meters, who was of a more modern racial
type than the classic 'Mechtoid' of the
Fakhurian culture (see pp. 65-6), being
generally more gracile, having large teeth
and thick jaws bearing some resemblance
to the modern 'negroid' type." (Beatrix
Midant-Reynes, Ian Shaw (2000). The
Prehistory of Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell.
pg. 82)



Modern studies show diversity in how
people look is heavily based on distance
from sub-Saharan Africa, not merely
climate. In genetically diverse Africa,
broad-nosed people live on the cool or
cold mountain slopes of East Africa or
the hot, dry Sahara, and narrow-nosed
peoples like many Fulani like in the wet
tropics of West Africa.
Yellowish-skinned San tribes live in the
hot zones of Southern Africa.


"The relative importance of ancient
demography and climate in determining
worldwide patterns of human
within-population phenotypic diversity is
still open to debate. Several
morphometric traits have been argued to
be under selection by climatic factors, but
it is unclear whether climate affects the
global decline in morphological diversity
with increasing geographical distance
from sub-Saharan Africa. Using a large
database of male and female skull
measurements, we apply an explicit
framework to quantify the relative role of
climate and distance from Africa. We
show that distance from sub-Saharan
Africa is the sole determinant of human
within-population phenotypic diversity,
while climate plays no role. By selecting
the most informative set of traits, it was
possible to explain over half of the
worldwide variation in phenotypic
diversity. These results mirror those
previously obtained for genetic markers
and show that 'bones and molecules' are
in perfect agreement for humans."
(Distance from Africa, not climate,
explains within-population phenotypic
diversity in humans. (2008) by: Lia Betti,
François Balloux, William Amos,
Tsunehiko Hanihara, Andrea Manica,
Proceedings B: Biological Sciences,
2008/12/02)


Analysis of skeletal and cranial
remains reveals that the ancient
Egyptians of the early Dynastic and
pre-Dynastic phases, link closer to
nearby Saharan, Sudanic and East
African populations than Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern peoples. Greeks,
Romans, Hyskos, Arabs and others were
to appear later in Egyptian history.
Craniometric studies generally place
ancient Upper Egyptian populations
closer to the range of tropical Africans in
the Nile Valley and East Africa than to
Mediterraneans, or Middle
Easterners.


QUOTE(s):
S. O. Y. Keita, "Studies and Comments
on Ancient Egyptian Biological
Relationships," History in Africa 20
(1993) 129-54


"Overall, when the Egyptian crania are
evaluated in a Near Eastern (Lachish)
versus African (Kerma, Kebel Moya,
Ashanti) context) the affinity is with the
Africans. The Sudan and Palestine are
the most appropriate comparative
regions which would have 'donated'
people, along with the Sahara and
Maghreb. Archaeology validates looking
to these regions for population flow (see
Hassan 1988)... Egyptian groups showed
less overall affinity to Palestinian and
Byzantine remains than to other African
series, especially Sudanese." (Keita
1993)

"When the unlikely relationships [Indian
matches] and eliminated, the Egyptian
series are more similar overall to other
African series than to European or Near
Eastern (Byzantine or Palestinian)
series." (Keita 1993)

"Populations and cultures now found
south of the desert roamed far to the
north. The culture of Upper Egypt,
which became dynastic Egyptian
civilization, could fairly be called a
Sudanese transplant."(Egypt and
Sub-Saharan Africa: Their Interaction.
Encyclopedia of Precolonial Africa, by
Joseph O. Vogel, AltaMira Press, Walnut
Creek, California (1997), pp. 465-472 )

"Analysis of crania is the traditional
approach to assessing ancient population
origins, relationships, and diversity. In
studies based on anatomical traits and
measurements of crania, similarities have
been found between Nile Valley crania
from 30,000, 20,000 and 12,000 years
ago and various African remains from
more recent times (see Thoma 1984;
Brauer and Rimbach 1990; Angel and
Kelley 1986; Keita 1993). Studies of
crania from southern predynastic Egypt,
from the formative period (4000-3100
B.C.), show them usually to be more
similar to the crania of ancient Nubians,
Kushites, Saharans, or modern groups
from the Horn of Africa than to those of
dynastic northern Egyptians or ancient or
modern southern Europeans."
(S. O. Y and A.J. Boyce, "The
Geographical Origins and Population
Relationships of Early Ancient
Egyptians", in Egypt in Africa, Theodore
Celenko (ed), Indiana University Press,
1996, pp. 20-33)


"There is no archaeological, linguistic, or
historical data which indicate a European
or Asiatic invasion of, or migration to,
the Nile Valley during First Dynasty
times. Previous concepts about the origin
of the First Dynasty Egyptians as being
somehow external to the Nile Valley or
less native are not supported by
archaeology... In summary, the Abydos
First Dynasty royal tomb contents reveal
a notable craniometric heterogeneity.
Southerners predominate. (Kieta, S.
(1992) Further Studies of Crania From
Ancient Northern Africa: An Analysis of
Crania From First Dynasty Egyptian
Tombs, Using Multiple Discriminant
Functions. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
87:245-254)"

"The predominant craniometric pattern in
the Abydos royal tombs is 'southern'
(tropical African variant), and this is
consistent with what would be expected
based on the literature and other results
(Keita, 1990). This pattern is seen in
both group and unknown analyses...
Archaeology and history seem to provide
the most parsimonious explanation for
the variation in the royal tombs at
Abydos.. Tomb design suggests the
presence of northerners in the south in
late Nakada times (Hoffman, 1988) when
the unification probably took place. Delta
names are attached to some of the tombs
at Abydos (Gardiner, 1961; Yurco, 1990,
personal communication), thus perhaps
supporting Petrie's (1939) and Gardiner's
contention that north-south marriages
were undertaken to legitimize the
hegemony of the south. The courtiers of
northern elites would have accompanied
them.

Given all of the above, it is probably not
possible to view the Abydos royal tomb
sample as representative of the general
southern Upper Egyptian population of
the time. Southern elites and/or their
descendants eventually came to be buried
in the north (Hoffman, 1988). Hence
early Second Dynasty kings and Djoser
(Dynasty 111) (Hayes, 1953) and his
descendants are not buried in Abydos.
Petrie (1939) states that the Third
Dynasty, buried in the north, was of
Sudanese origin, but southern Egypt is
equally likely. This perhaps explains
Harris and Weeks' (1973) suggested
findings of southern morphologies in
some Old Kingdom Giza remains, also
verified in portraiture (Drake, 1987).
Further study would be required to
ascertain trends in the general population
of both regions. The strong Sudanese
affinity noted in the unknown analyses
may reflect the Nubian interactions with
upper Egypt in predynastic times prior to
Egyptian unification (Williams,
1980,1986)..." (S. Keita (1992) Further
Studies of Crania From Ancient Northern
Africa: An Analysis of Crania From First
Dynasty Egyptian Tombs, Using Multiple
Discriminant Functions. AMERICAN
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL
ANTHROPOLOGY 87:245-254)


"When the Elephantine results were
added to a broader pooling of the
physical characteristics drawn from a
wide geographic region which includes
Africa, the Mediterranean and the Near
East quite strong affinities emerge
between Elephantine and populations
from Nubia, supporting a strong
south-north cline. (Barry Kemp. (2006)
Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a
Civilization. p. 54)

 -

Gene flow into the Nubian area during
the Neolithic was not from reputed
"wandering Caucasoids" but from
tropical, Sub-Saharan types.


"Prior to the Neolithic, populations of
the Nile Valley in Nubia are very robust,
and, because of a gap in the fossil record,`
it is difficult to connect them to later
populations. Some have postulated a
local evolution, due to diet change, while
others postulated migrations, especially
from the Sahara area. But between 5000
and 1000 BC, many cemeteries have
supplied a large amount of skeletons, and
the anatomical characters of Nubian
populations are easier to follow-up.
Twenty-seven archaeological samples (4
at 5000 BC, 5 at 4000 BC, 10 at 3000
BC, 3 at 2000 BC, 5 at 1000 BC), and
10 craniofacial measurements, have been
considered. While cerebral skull is fairly
stable, facial skull displays several regular
modifications, and specially a reduction
of facial and nasal heights, a broadening
of the nose, and an increase of
prognathism, while bizygomatic breadth
is unchanged. These features illustrate a
trend towards a growing resemblance
with populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
living in wet environments. However,
paleoclimatological studies show that
Nubia experienced an increasing
aridification during that period. It is then
unlikely that such a morphological
change could be related to any local
adaptive evolution to environment.
Random drift is also unlikely, because the
anatomical trend is relatively uniform
during these millennia. It then seems
more plausible that these changes
correspond to the increasing presence of
Southern populations migrating
northward."
-- Froment, A. (2002) Morphological
micro-evolution of Nubian Populations
from, A-Group to Christian Epochs:
gene flow, not local adaptation. Am J
Phys Anthropol [Suppl] 34:72.

Afrocentric critic Froment also notes:
"Black populations of the Horn of Africa
(Tigré and Somalia) fit well into
Egyptian variations." (Froment, Alain,
Origines du peuplement de l’Égypte
ancienne: l’apport de l’anthropobiologie,
Archéo-Nil 2 (Octobre 1992), 79-98)

Afrocentric critic C. Loring Brace's
2005 study groups ancient Egyptian
populations like the Naqada closer to
Nubians and Somalis than European,
Mediterranean or Middle Eastern
populations. Brace's study shows that the
closest European linking with Africans in
Egypt or Nubia are Middle Stone Age
Portugese and Neolithics, OLDER
populations more closely resembling
AFRICANS than modern Europeans.
Early Neolithic populations, like the
Nautifians, in what is now Israel, show
sub-Saharan 'negroid' affinities. (Brace,
et al. The questionable contribution of
the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to
European craniofacial form, Proc Natl
Acad Sci U S A. 2006 January 3; 103(1):
p. 242-247.)





"The Niger-Congo speakers, Congo,
Dahomey and Haya, cluster closely with
each other and a bit less closely with the
Nubian sample, both the recent and the
Bronze Age Nubians, and more remotely
with the Naqada Bronze Age sample of
Egypt, the modern Somalis, and the
Arabic-speaking Fellaheen (farmers) of
Israel. When those samples are separated
and run in a single analysis as in Fig. 1,
there clearly is a tie between them that is
diluted the farther one gets from
sub-Saharan Africa" (Brace, 2005)

"The surprise is that the Neolithic
peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age
successors are not closely related to the
modern inhabitants, although the
prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat
more apparent in southern Europe. It is a
further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic
Natufian of Israel from whom the
Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has
a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa...
Interestingly enough, however, the small
Natufian sample falls between the
Niger-Congo group and the other
samples used. Fig. 2 shows the plot
produced by the first two canonical
variates, but the same thing happens
when canonical variates 1 and 3 (not
shown here) are used. This placement
suggests that there may have been a
Sub-Saharan African element in the
make-up of the Natufians (the putative
ancestors of the subsequent Neolithic), ..
When canonical variates are plotted,
neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon
as was once suggested. The data treated
here support the idea that the Neolithic
moved out of the Near East into the
circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe
by a process of demic diffusion but that
subsequently the in situ residents of those
areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene
inhabitants, absorbed both the
agricultural life way and the people who
had brought it." (Brace, 2005)


Both skeletal/cranial and DNA studies
by other authors confirm that some
Neolithics did not derive from the Near
East. They most likely resembled African
populations. Hence comparisons using
older European Neolithics versus
Africans are comparisons with older
prehistoric Europeans who looked more
like Africans, than modern 'white'
Europeans, as shown by Brace (2005),
and Hanihara (1996) also, who states
"Early West Asians looked like
Africans."


"The absence of mtDNA haplogroup J in
the ancient Portuguese Neolithic sample
suggests that this population was not
derived directly from Near Eastern
farmers. The Mesolithic and Neolithic
groups show genetic discontinuity
implying colonisation at the Neolithic
transition in Portugal." (CHANDLER,
H.; SYKES, B.; ZILHÃO, J. (2005) -
Using ancient DNA to examine genetic
continuity at the Mesolithic-Neolithic
transition in Portugal, in ARIAS, P.;
ONTAÑÓN, R.; GARCÍA-MONCÓ, C.
(eds.) - «Actas del III Congreso del
Neolítico en la Península Ibérica»,
Santander, Monografías del Instituto
Internacional de Investigaciones
Prehistóricas de Cantabria 1, p.
781-786.)

"Early Europeans still resembled modern
tropical peoples - some resemble modern
Australian and Africans, more than
modern Europeans.. Nor does the picture
get any clearer when we move on to the
Cro-Magnons, the presumed ancestors of
modern Europeans. Some were more like
present-day Australians or Africans,
judged by objective anatomical
observations." (Christopher Stringer,
Robin McKie (1998). African Exodus.
Macmillan, p. 162)


Early Europeans, as recently as
6,000-9000 years ago, looked somewhat
like Africans in terms of retained
'tropical' characteristics. Cold adaptation
was to bring about several physical
changes over time from the initial Out of
Africa migrations to Europe. Retained
traces of 'tropical' characteristics,
indicate a "large African role in the
origins of anatomically modern
Europeans." (Holliday and Churchill
2003).


"Body proportions covary with climate,
apparently as the result of climatic
selection. Ontogenetic research and
migrant studies have demonstrated that
body proportions are largely genetically
controlled and are under low selective
rates; thus studies of body form can
provide evidence for evolutionarily
short-term dispersals and/or gene flow.
Replacement predicts that the earliest
modern Europeans will possess
"tropical" body proportions (assuming
Africa is the center of origin), while
Regional Continuity permits only minor
shifts in body shape, due to climatic
change and/or improved cultural
buffering. .. results refute the hypothesis
of local continuity in Europe, and are
consistent with an interpretation of
elevated gene flow (and population
dispersal?) from Africa, followed by
subsequent climatic adaptation to colder
conditions." (Holliday, Trenton (1997)
Body proportions in Late Pleistocene
Europe and modern human origins.
Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 32,
Issue 5, 1997, Pages 423-447)


".. while the Late Upper Paleolithic and
Mesolithic humans have significantly
higher (i.e., tropically-adapted) brachial
and crural indices than do recent
Europeans, they also have shorter (i.e.,
cold-adapted) limbs. The somewhat
paradoxical retention of "tropical"
indices in the context of more
"cold-adapted" limb length is best
explained as evidence for Replacement in
the European Late Pleistocene, followed
by gradual cold adaptation in glacial
Europe." (Holliday, Trenton (1999)
Brachial and crural indices of European
Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic
humans. Journal of Human Evolution.
Volume 36, Issue 5, May 1999, Pages
549-566)


"Stature, body mass, and body
proportions are evaluated for the
Cheddar Man (Gough's Cave 1) skeleton.
Like many of his Mesolithic
contemporaries, Gough's Cave 1 evinces
relatively short estimated stature (ca.
166.2 cm [5' 5']) and low body mass (ca.
66 kg [146 lbs]). In body shape, he is
similar to recent Europeans for most
proportional indices. He differs,
however, from most recent Europeans in
his high crural index and tibial
length/trunk height indices. Thus, while
Gough's Cave 1 is characterized by a
total morphological pattern considered
'cold-adapted', these latter two traits may
be interpreted as evidence of a large
African role in the origins of anatomically
modern Europeans." (TRENTON W.
HOLLIDAY a1 and STEVEN E.
CHURCHILL. (2003). Gough's Cave 1
(Somerset, England): an assessment of
body size and shape, Bulletin of the
Natural History Museum: Geology,
58:37-44 Cambridge University Press)


More data showing early Europeans
were tropically adapted types like
Africans

"Body proportions are under strong
climatic selection and evince remarkable
stability within regional lineages. As
such, they offer a viable and robust
alternative to cranio-facial data in
assessing hypothesised continuity and
replacement with the transition to
agro-pastoralism in central Europe.
Humero-clavicular, brachial and crural
indices in a large sample (n=75) of
Linienbandkeramik (LBK), Late
Neolithic and Early Bronze Age
specimens from the middle
Elbe-Saale-Werra valley (MESV) were
compared with Eurasian and African
terminal Pleistocene, European
Mesolithic and geographically disparate
recent human specimens. Mesolithic
Europeans display considerable variation
in humero-clavicular and brachial indices
yet none approach the extreme
"hyper-polar" morphology of LBK
humans from the MESV. In contrast,
Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age
peoples display elongated brachial and
crural indices reminiscent of terminal
Pleistocene and "tropically adapted"
recent humans. These marked
morphological changes likely reflect
exogenous immigration during the
terminal Fourth millennium cal BC.
Population expansion and diffusion is a
function of increased mobility and
settlement dispersal concomitant with
significant technological and subsistence
changes in later Neolithic societies during
the late fourth millennium cal BCE."
-- Gallagher et al. "Population continuity,
demic diffusion and Neolithic origins in
central-southern Germany: the evidence
from body proportions." Homo.
2009;60(2):95-126. Epub 2009 Mar 4.




Early West Asians looked like
Africans. Thus any ancient returnees or
"backflow" from West Asia back to
Africa is by people who look like
Africans to begin with. Brace 2005
shows this as to Europeans. Hanihara
1996, demonstrates this below as to
West Asians (i.e. 'Middle easterners').
Also see above.


quote:
"Distance analysis and factor analysis,
based on Q-mode correlation
coefficients, were applied to 23
craniofacial measurements in 1,802
recent and prehistoric crania from major
geographical areas of the Old World. The
major findings are as follows: 1)
Australians show closer similarities to
African populations than to Melanesians.
2) Recent Europeans align with East
Asians, and early West Asians resemble
Africans. 3) The Asian population
complex with regional difference
between northern and southern members
is manifest. 4) Clinal variations of
craniofacial features can be detected in
the Afro-European region on the one
hand, and Australasian and East Asian
region on the other hand. 5) The
craniofacial variations of major
geographical groups are not necessarily
consistent with their geographical
distribution pattern. This may be a sign
that the evolutionary divergence in
craniofacial shape among recent
populations of different geographical
areas is of a highly limited degree.
Taking all of these into account, a single
origin for anatomically modern humans is
the most parsimonious interpretation of
the craniofacial variations presented in
this study."
(Hanihara T. Comparison of craniofacial
features of major human groups. Am J
Phys Anthropol. 1996
Mar;99(3):389-412.)



Older studies often show
misclassification or exclusion of Nile
Valley remains deemed 'negroid'.
Although clearly of the "African" type,
such remains were frequently relabeled
"Mediterranean."


"Analyses of Egyptian crania are
numerous. Vercoutter (1978) notes that
ancient Egyptian crania have frequently
all been lumped (implicitly or explicitly)
as Mediterranean, although Negroid
remains are recorded in substantial
numbers by many workers... "Nutter
(1958), using the Penrose statistic,
demonstrated that Nagada I and Badari
crania, both regarded as Negroid, were
almost identical and that these were most
similar to the Negroid Nubian series from
Kerma studied by Collett (1933).
[Collett, not accepting variability,
excluded "clear negro" crania found in
the Kerma series from her analysis, as did
Morant (1925), implying that they were
foreign..." (S. Keita (1990) Studies of
Ancient Crania From Northern Africa.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
83:35-48)


Different features among Africans,
particularly EAST AFRICANS, like
narrow noses are not due to different
"race" mixes but are part of the built-in
physical diversity and variation of
African peoples. Narrow noses appear in
the oldest African populations for
example, in Kenya's Gamble Cave
complex. East Africans like Somalians or
Kenyans do not need any outside race
"mix" or migration to make them look
the way they do.


QUOTE(s):
".. all their features can be found in
several living populations of East Africa,
like the Tutsi of Rwanda and Burundi,
who are very dark skinned and differ
greatly from Europeans in a number of
body proportions.. There is every reason
to believe that they are ancestral to the
living 'Elongated East Africans'. Neither
of these populations, fossil and modern,
should be considered to be closely
related to the populations of Europe and
western Asia.. In skin colour, the Tutsi
are darker than the Hutu, in the reverse
direction to that leading to the
caucasoids. Lip thickness provides a
similar case: on an average the lips of the
Tutsi are thicker than those of the Hutu."
[Jean Hiernaux, The People of Africa
(1975), pgs 42-43, 62-63)

"In sub-Saharan Africa, many
anthropological characters show a wide
range of population means or
frequencies. In some of them, the whole
world range is covered in the
sub-continent. Here live the shortest and
the tallest human populations, the one
with the highest and the one with the
lowest nose, the one with the thickest
and the one with the thinnest lips in the
world. In this area, the range of the
average nose widths covers 92 per cent
of the world range: only a narrow range
of extremely low means are absent from
the African record. Means for head
diameters cover about 80 per cent of the
world range; 60 per cent is the
corresponding value for a variable once
cherished by physical anthropologists,
the cephalic index, or ratio of the head
width to head length expressed as a
percentage....."
- Jean Hiernaux, "The People of Africa"
1975 p.53, 54

"Prehistoric human crania from
Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, Makalia
Burial Site, Nakuru, and other localities
in the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya are
reassessed using measurements and a
multivariate statistical approach.
Materials available for comparison
include series of Bushman and Hottentot
crania. South and East African Negroes,
and Egyptians. Up to 34 cranial
measurements taken on these series are
utilized to construct three multiple
discriminant frameworks, each of which
can assign modern individuals to a
correct group with considerable
accuracy. When the prehistoric crania are
classified with the help of these
discriminants, results indicate that several
of the skulls are best grouped with
modern Negroes. This is especially clear
in the case of individuals from
Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, and
Nakuru, and the evidence hardly suggests
post-Pleistocene domination of the Rift
and surrounding territory by
"Mediterranean" Caucasoids, as has been
claimed. Recent linguistic and
archaeological findings are also
reviewed, and these seem to support
application of the term Nilotic Negro to
the early Rift populations." (Rightmire
GP. New studies of post-Pleistocene
human skeletal remains from the Rift
Valley, Kenya. Am J Phys Anthropol.
1975 May;42(3):351-69. )

"....inhabitants of East Africa right on the
equator have appreciably longer,
narrower, and higher noses than people
in the Congo at the same latitude. A
former generation of anthropologists
used to explain this paradox by invoking
an invasion by an itinerant "white"
population from the Mediterranean area,
although this solution raised more
problems than it solved since the East
Africans in question include some of the
blackest people in the world with
characteristically wooly hair and a body
build unique among the world's
populations for its extreme linearity and
height.... The relatively long noses of
East Africa become explicable then when
one realizes that much of the area is
extremely dry for parts of the year." (C.
Loring Brace, "Nonracial Approach
Towards Human Diversity," cited in The
Concept of Race, Edited by Ashley
Montagu, The Free Press, 1980, pp.
135-136, 138)

"The .... excavations at Gogoshiis Qabe
(Somalia) uncovered eleven virtually
complete and articulated primary
burials...Closest morphological affinities
are with early Holocene skeletons from
Lake Turkana, Kenya...and Lake Besaka,
Ethiopia.."
(S. Brandt, (1986) The Upper
Pleistocene and early Holocene
prehistory of the Horn of Africa. Journal
African Archaeological Review. Volume
4, Number 1, Pages 41-82 )

"The role of tall, linearly built
populations in eastern Africa's prehistory
has always been debated. Traditionally,
they are viewed as late migrants into the
area. But as there is better
palaeoanthropological and linguistic
documentation for the earlier presence of
these populations than for any other
group in eastern Africa, it is far more
likely that they are indigenous eastern
Africans. ... prehistoric linear populations
show resemblances to both Upper
Pleistocene eastern African fossils and
present-day, non-Bantu-speaking groups
in eastern Africa, with minor differences
stemming from changes in overall
robusticity of the dentition and skeleton.
This suggests a longstanding tradition of
linear populations in eastern Africa,
contributing to the indigenous
development of cultural and biological
diversity from the Pleistocene up to the
present."
(L . A . SCHEPARTZ, "Who were the
later Pleistocene eastern Africans?" The
African Archaeological Review, 6
(1988), pp. 57- 72)


 -

Africa is the most genetically diverse
region in the world with the original man
being from East Africa according to
conservative scholars:


"Africa contains tremendous cultural,
linguistic and genetic diversity, and has
more than 2,000 distinct ethnic groups
and languages.. Studies using
mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear
DNA markers consistently indicate that
Africa is the most genetically diverse
region of the world." (Tishkoff SA,
Williams SM., Genetic analysis of
African populations: human evolution
and complex disease. Nature Reviews
Genetics. 2002 Aug (8):611-21.)

" In other words, all non-Africans carry
M168. Of course, Africans carrying the
M168 mutation today are the
descendants of the African subpopulation
from which the migrants originated....
Thus, the Australian/Eurasian Adam (the
ancestor of all non-Africans) was an East
African Man." (Linda Stone, Paul F.
Lurquin, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Genes,
Culture, and Human Evolution: A
Synthesis, Wiley-Blackwell: 2006, pg
108)


The Natufians, early inhabitants of the
Sinai - Israel- Palestine area, and reputed
pioneers of several Neolithic agricultural
and technological developments, appear
to have had "Negroid" affinities.
Important Natufian sites include Mt.
Carmel, Jericho and several others.



"Against this background of disease,
movement and pedomorphic reduction of
body size one can identify Negroid
(Ethiopic or Bushmanoid?) traits of nose
and prognathism appearing in Natufian
latest hunters (McCown, 1939) and in
Anatolian and Macedonian first farmers,
probably from Nubia via the unknown
predecesors of the Badarians and
Tasians....". (Biological Relations of
Egyptians and Eastern Mediterranean
Populations during pre-Dynastic and
Dynastic Times. J. Lawrence Angel.
Journal of Human Evolutiom. 1972:1, 1,
Pg 307)

"The Mushabians moved into Sinai from
the Nile Delta, bringing North African
lithic chipping tecniques."
("Pleistocene connections between Africa
and Southwest Asia: an archaeological
perspective. O. Bar-Yosef. African
Archaeological Review. 5 (1987) Pg 29)

"It is a further surprise that the
Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from
whom the Neolithic realm was assumed
to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan
Africa... Interestingly enough, however,
the small Natufian sample falls between
the Niger-Congo group and the other
samples used... This placement suggests
that there may have been a Sub-Saharan
African element in the make-up of the
Natufians (the putative ancestors of the
subsequent Neolithic.." (C.L Brace, et.
al. 2005. The Questionable contribution
of the Neolithic...)


Early inhabitants of the general
Natufian Israel area show limb
proportions suited to tropical peoples-
similar to sub-Saharan's homeland


"However, the real revelation came when
Erik [Trinkhaus] inserted his data on the
Cro-Magnons of Europe and the
Skhul-Qafzeh skeletons from Israel into
the equations. In this case, he got a
figure of 85 percent for the
shinbone-thighbone ratio. Not only were
they unlike the Neanderthals, but these
people actually fell at the other extreme
in their readings on the limb
thermometer. The predicted average
temperature of origin for folk with an
85% shin-thigh fraction, indicating much
longer extremities relative to trunk length
- was about 20 degrees higher than the
Neanderthals', suggesting a subtropical-
if not tropical- homeland!" (African
Exodus By Christopher Stringer, Robin
McKie, McMillan: pg 79-83)

Recent study shows ancient Egyptians
physically more like tropically adapted
Black Americans than White Americans,
confirming older studies that show
today's Egyptians in general are closer to
US blacks than Northern Europeans, and
Southern Europeans as well.



QUOTE(s):
"We also compare Egyptian body
proportions to those of modern
American Blacks and Whites... Long
bone stature regression equations were
then derived for each sex. Our results
confirm that, although ancient Egyptians
are closer in body proportion to modern
American Blacks than they are to
American Whites, proportions in Blacks
and Egyptians are not identical...
Intralimb indices are not significantly
different between Egyptians and
American Blacks. ..brachial indices are
definitely more 'African'... There is no
evidence for significant variation in
proportions among temporal or social
groupings; thus, the new formulae may
be broadly applicable to ancient Egyptian
remains." ("Stature estimation in ancient
Egyptians: A new technique based on
anatomical reconstruction of stature."
Michelle H. Raxter, Christopher B. Ruff,
Ayman Azab, Moushira Erfan,
Muhammad Soliman, Aly El-Sawaf, (Am
J Phys Anthropol. 2008,
Jun;136(2):147-55

The 1993 'Clines and Clusters' study
by C.L. Brace, et. al. has been used to
minmize or downplay the realtionship
between Egypt and its African neighbors.
For example it:


--Created an "African" or "sub-Saharan"
group, but excluded the Maghreb
(including parts of the Sahara and Sahel),
the Sudan and the Horn area (Ethiopia
and Somalia) even though these latter
two are BELOW the Sahara, and thus
"sub-Saharan".

--Excluded the Badari, and Naqada I and
II, key Egyptian groups, thus obscuring
the Sudanic/Saharan character of
numerous early samples, noted in several
earlier analyses.
Ignored the formative range of the
Saharans on Egypt, from the megaliths
and cattle cults of the Nabta Playa to
early mummification practices was
ignored.

--Excluded the Nubian population of the
Badari and early Naqada period,
including the rich remains of the well
documented Qustul culture, near the
present Sudanese-Egyptian border, again
obscuring the close relationship between
the two peoples.

--Created a vague "Bronze Age"
grouping of Nubians, and a "modern"
group of medieval samples, an era long
after the dynasties and when Nubia had
experienced more gene flow of that and
the later Arab incursions, beginning in
the 700s. Sampling thus ignored the early
Badari/Naqada Nubians, jumped the 25th
Dynasty era, and shifted to the medieval
era in the age range of the Arab
conquests.
Used Somalian samples that were
modern, and thus within the range of
recent gene flow (such as the Arab era),
particularly on the coast.

--The result was a "comparison" finding
that the ancient Egyptians had no
relationship "at all" to other
"sub-Saharan" peoples and were
relatively distant from the Nubians and
Somalians. peoples. This finding has been
undermined by the subsequent research
of several scholars, including limb
proportion studies.

QUOTE(s):


"However, Brace et al. (1993) find that a
series of upper Egyptian/Nubian
epipalaeolithic crania affiliate by cluster
analysis with groups they designate
"sub-Saharan African" or just simply
"African" (from which they incorrectly
exclude the Maghreb, Sudan, and the
Horn of Africa), whereas post-Badarian
southern predynastic and a late dynastic
northern series (called "E" or Gizeh)
cluster together, and secondarily with
Europeans. In the primary cluster with
the Egyptian groups are also remains
representing populations from the ancient
Sudan and recent Somalia. Brace et al.
(1993) seemingly interpret these results
as indicating a population relationship
from Scandinavia to the Horn of Africa,
although the mechanism for this is not
clearly stated; they also state that the
Egyptians had no relationship with
sub-Saharan Africans, a group that they
nearly treat (incorrectly) as monolithic,
although sometimes seemingly including
Somalia, which directly undermines
aspects of their claims. Sub-Saharan
Africa does not define/delimit authentic
Africanity." (S.O.Y. Keita. "Early Nile
Valley Farmers from El-Badari:
Aboriginals or "European"
Agro-Nostratic Immigrants?
Craniometric Affinities Considered With
Other Data". Journal of Black Studies,
Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 191-208 (2005)


Brace carefully excluded the Badari- a
key native pre-dynastic group that led
into the dynasties, and suggested possible
European immigration to ancient Egypt.
Keita put this to the test and found that
the excluded group matched up more
closely with Africans than Europeans.


"An examination of the distance
hierarchies reveals the Badarian series to
be more similar to the Teita in both
analyses and always more similar to all of
the African series than to the Norse and
Berg groups (see Tables 3A & 3B and
Figure 2). Essentially equal similarity is
found with the Zalavar and Dogon series
in the 11-variable analysis and with these
and the Bushman in the one using 15
variables. The Badarian series clusters
with the tropical African groups no
matter which algorithm is employed (see
Figures 3 and 4).. In none of them did
the Badarian sample affiliate with the
European series."(S.O.Y. Keita. Early
Nile Valley Farmers from El-Badari:
Aboriginals or "European"
Agro-Nostratic Immigrants?
Craniometric Affinities Considered With
Other Data. Journal of Black Studies,
Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 191-208 (2005)

More on the biased and skewed 'true
negro' model


"Another example of the use of a socially
constructed typological paradigm is in
studies of the Nile Valley populations in
which the concept of a biological African
is restricted to those with a particular
craniometric pattern (called in the past
the 'True Negro' though no 'True White'
was ever defined). Early Nubians,
Egyptians, and even Somalians are
viewed essentially as non-Africans, when
in fact numerous lines of evidence and an
evolutionary model make them a part of
African biocultural/biogeographical
history. The diversity of 'authentic'
Africans is a reality. This diversity
prevents biogeographical/biohistorical
Africans from clustering into a single
unit, no matter the kind of data." (The
Persistence of Racial Thinking and the
Myth of Racial Divergence, S. O. Y.
Keita, Rick A. Kittles, American
Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 99,
No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 534-544)

"..presents all tropical Africans with
narrower noses and faces as being related
to or descended from external, ultimately
non-African peoples. However,
narrow-faced, narrow-nosed populations
have long been resident in
Saharo-tropical Africa... and their origin
need not be sought elsewhere. These
traits are also indigenous. The variability
in tropical Africa is expectedly naturally
high. Given their longstanding presence,
narrow noses and faces cannot be
deemed `non-African."(S.O.Y. Keita,
"Studies and Comments on Ancient
Egyptian Biological Relationships,"
History in Africa 20 (1993), page 134 )

"Another example of the use of a socially
constructed typological paradigm is in
studies of the Nile Valley populations in
which the concept of a biological African
is restricted to those with a particular
craniometric pattern (called in the past
the 'True African' though no 'True White'
was ever defined). Early Nubians,
Egyptians, and even Somalians are
viewed essentially as non-Africans, when
in fact numerous lines of evidence and an
evolutionary model make them a part of
African biocultural/biogeographical
history. The diversity of 'authentic'
Africans is a reality. This diversity
prevents biogeographical/biohistorical
Africans from clustering into a single
unit, no matter the kind of data."
---Keita and Kittles. "The Persistence of
Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial
Divergence." American Anthropologist
99, no. 3 (September 1997): 534-544

Hair and the 'true negro'
"Strouhal (1971) microscopically
examined some hair which had been
preserved on a Badrarian skull. The
analysis was interpreted as suggesting a
stereotypical tropical African-European
hybrid (mulatto). However this hair is
grossly no different from that of Fulani,
some Kanuri, or Somali and does not
require a gene flow explanation any more
than curly hair in Greece necessarily
does. Extremely "wooly" hair is not the
only kind native to tropical Africa.." (S.
O. Y. Keita. (1993). "Studies and
Comments on Ancient Egyptian
Biological Relationships," History in
Africa 20 (1993) 129-54)


Sampling bias and the true negro. In
some Nile Valley research sampling bias
persists such as drawing samples from
the far north of Egypt, boscuring the
region's genetic complexity. The
stereotypical "true negro" type is still
used to artifically separate related
peoples and obscure a fuller, more
accurate picture of African genetic
diversity. Sampling bias appears both in
DNA studies (noted by Keita) and in
cranial studies (noted by Egyptologist
Barry Kemp).


QUOTE(s):


Keita on DNA studies drawing samples
from the far north, an area with more
foreign settlement and gene flow

"However, in some of the studies, only
individuals from northern Egypt are
sampled, and this could theoretically give
a false impression of Egyptian variability
(contrast Lucotte and Mercier 2003a
with Manni et al. 2002), because this
region has received more foreign settlers
(and is nearer the Near East). Possible
sample bias should be integrated into the
discussion of results." (S.O.Y. Keita,
A.J. Boyce, "Interpreting Geographical
Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation1,"
History in Africa 32 (2005) 221-246 )

Egyptologist Barry Kemp on the
worldwide CRANID database that used
northern samples near the Mediterranean
as "representative" of the ancient
Egyptians, and classifying them in a
"European" direction, while excluding
key historic sites further south..


"If, on the other hand, CRANID had
used one of the Elephantine populations
of the same period, the geographic
association would be much more with the
African groups to the south. It is
dangerous to take one set of skeletons
and use them to characterize the
population of the whole of Egypt."
(Barry Kemp, Ancient Egypt Anatomy of
a Civilisation, Routledge: 2005, p. 55)




Modern anthropology shows that the
ancient Egyptians are well within the
range of tropical Africa, contradicting
older research in the 1990s that sought to
deny any relationship. The anthropologist
below, Nancy Lovell was recommended
by Mary lefkowitz in Black Athena
Revisted.



"There is now a sufficient body of
evidence from modern studies of skeletal
remains to indicate that the ancient
Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians,
exhibited physical characteristics that are
within the range of variation for ancient
and modern indigenous peoples of the
Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general,
the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and
Nubia had the greatest biological affinity
to people of the Sahara and more
southerly areas." (Nancy C. Lovell, "
Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in
Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of
Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and
Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and
New York: Routledge, 1999) pp
328-332)


One of the oldest remains from Upper
Egypt, shows strong sub-Saharan
affinities, and early northern Egypt also
shows sub-Saharan affinities through
cultural traits- the 'Nubian complex' of
technology and production.


"The morphometric affinities of the
33,000 year old skeleton from Nazlet
Khater, Upper Egypt are examined using
multivariate statistical procedures.. The
results indicate a strong association
between some of the sub-Saharan Middle
Stone Age (MSA) specimens, and the
Nazlet Khater mandible. Furthermore,
the results suggest that variability
between African populations during the
Neolithic and Protohistoric periods was
more pronounced than the range of
variability observed among recent
African and Levantine populations."
(PINHASI Ron, SEMAL Patrick (2000).
The position of the Nazlet Khater
specimen among prehistoric and modern
African and Levantine populations.
Journal of human evolution. 2000, vol.
39, no3, pp. 269-288 )

"..Middle Paleolithic and the transition to
the Upper Paleolithic in the Lower Nile
Valley are described... the Middle
Paleolithic or, more appropriately,
Middle Stone Age of this region starts
with the arrival of new populations from
sub-Saharan Africa, as evidenced by the
nature of the Early to Middle Stone Age
transition in stratified sites. Throughout
the late Middle Pleistocene technological
change occurs leading to the
establishment of the Nubian Complex by
the onset of the Upper Pleistocene."
(Van Peer, Philip. Did middle stone age
moderns of sub-Saharan African descent
trigger an upper paleolithic revolution in
the lower nile valley? Anthropologie. vol.
42, no3, pp. 215-225)


Dental studies provide evidence that
the ancient Egyptian population
maintained a high degree of continuity
into the early, mid and late Dynastic
periods. A key ancient group, the Badari,
found to link to tropical African metrics,
was excluded by such studies as Brace
(1993) but dental research shows they
link well with later pre and Dynastic
populations. J. Irish's 2006 dental study
examined the ancient Badarian people
excluded by Brace and found that they
were a "good representative of what the
common ancestor to all later predynastic
and dynastic Egyptian peoples would be
like." His dental results show that:


QUOTE:

"Despite the difference, Gebel Ramlah
[the Western Desert- Saharan region] is
closest to predynastic and early dynastic
samples from Abydos, Hierakonpolis,
and Badari.."

the Badarians were a "good
representative of what the common
ancestor to all later predynastic and
dynastic Egyptian peoples would be like"

"A comparison of Badari to the Naqada
and Hierakonpolis samples .. contradicts
the idea of a foreign origin for the
Naqada (Petrie, 1939; Baumgartel,
1970)"

Evidence in favor of continuity is also
demonstrated by comparison of
individual samples. "Naqada and
especially Hierakonpolis share close
affinities with First-Second Dynasty
Abydos.. These findings do not support
the concept of a foreign dynastic ''race''"

"Thus, despite increasing foreign
influence after the Second Intermediate
Period, not only did Egyptian culture
remain intact (Lloyd, 2000a), but the
people themselves, as represented by the
dental samples, appear biologically
constant as well."

(Joel D. Irish (2006). Who Were the
Ancient Egyptians? Dental Affinities
Among Neolithic Through Postdynastic
Peoples. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006
Apr;129(4):529-43.)


Africans have the highest dental
diversity

"Previous research by the first author
revealed that, relative to other modern
peoples, sub-Saharan Africans exhibit the
highest frequencies of ancestral (or
plesiomorphic) dental traits... The fact
that sub-Saharan Africans express these
apparently plesiomorphic characters,
along with additional information on
their affinity to other modern
populations, evident intra-population
heterogeneity, and a world-wide dental
cline emanating from the sub-continent,
provides further evidence that is
consistent with an African origin model."
(Irish JD, Guatelli-Steinberg D.(2003)
Ancient teeth and modern human origins:
an expanded comparison of African
Plio-Pleistocene and recent world dental
samples. Hum Evol. 2003
Aug;45(2):113-44. )


 -


Ancient Egyptian civilization was
indigenous with continuity among its
peoples, not an influx of Middle
Easterners, Europeans or other outsiders
like Arabs until relatively late in
history


QUOTE(s):
"Some have argued that various early
Egyptians like the Badarians probably
migrated northward from Nubia, while
others see a wide-ranging movement of
peoples across the breadth of the Sahara
before the onset of desiccation. Whatever
may be the origins of any particular
people or civilization, however, it seems
reasonably certain that the predynastic
communities of the Nile valley were
essentially indigenous in culture, drawing
little inspiration from sources outside the
continent during the several centuries
directly preceding the onset of historical
times..." (Robert July, Pre-Colonial
Africa, 1975, p. 60-61)


"overall population continuity over the
Predynastic and early Dynastic, and high
levels of genetic heterogeneity, thereby
suggesting that state formation occurred
as a mainly indigenous process."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2007). "Population
continuity or population change:
Formation of the ancient Egyptian state".
American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 132 (4): 501-509)

"the peoples of the steppes and
grasslands to the immediate south of
Egypt domesticated cattle, as early as
9000 to 8000 B.C. They included
peoples from the Afroasiastic linguistic
group and the second major African
language family, Nilo-Saharan (Wendorf,
Schild, Close 1984; Wendorf, et al.
1982). Thus the earliest domestic cattle
may have come to Egypt from these
southern neighbors, circa 6000 B.C., and
not from the Middle East.[148] Pottery,
another significant advance in material
cultural may also have followed this
pattern, initiatied "as early as 9000 B.C.
by the Nilo-Saharans and Afrasians who
lived to the south of Egypt. Soon
thereafter, pots spread to Egyptian sites,
almost 2,000 years before the first
pottery was made in the Middle East."
(Christopher Ehret, "Ancient Egyptian as
an African Language, Egypt as an
African Culture," in Egypt in Africa,
Theodore Celenko (ed), Indiana
University Press, 1996, pp. 25-27)


X-ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies
show some to be linked physically to
Nubian types, and some documented
royal officials are clearly "Negroid' like
Pepi-seneb, an eminent scribe c. 2745
BC. Some royal New Kingdom mummies
also show melanin frequencies consistent
with Negroid origin.



"In terms of head shape, the XVIV and
XX dynasties look more like the early
Nubian skulls from the mesolithic with
low vaults and sloping, curved
foreheads.The XVII and XVIII dynasty
skulls are shaped more like modern
Nubians with globular skulls and high
vaults."
(An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies.
Edited by J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente.
(The University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, 1980.) Review: Michael R.
Zimmerman, American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, Volume 56,
Issue 2 , (1981) Pages 207 - 208)

"While the Upper Nile Egyptians show
phenotypic features that occur in higher
frequencies in the Sudan and southward
into East Africa (namely, facial
prognathism, chamaerrhiny, and
paedomorphic cranial architecture with
specific modifications of the nasal
aperature), these so-called Negroid
features are not universal in the region of
Thebes, Karnak, and Luxor."
(Kennedy, Kenneth A.R., T. Plummer, J.
Chinment, "Identification of the Eminent
Dead: Pepi, A Scribe of Egypt," In
Katherine J. Reichs (ed.), Forensic
Osteology, 1986.)


German Institute for Archaeology
-excavation of the tombs of the nobles in
Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. In several of
the noble specimens:

"The basal epithelial cells were packed
with melanin as expected for specimens
of Negroid origin."
(Determination of optimal rehydration,
fixation and staining methods for
histological and immunohistochemical
analysis of mummified soft tissues",
Biotechnic & Histochemistry 2005,
80(1): 7_/13)
Nubians are no "prequisite" for dark skin
in ancient Egypt.

Nubians were ethnically the closest
people to the Egyptians. Conflict
between the two were typical clashes
between kingdoms without the simplistic
"racial" models drawn by some 20th
century writers.


Quote 1:
"The ancient Egyptians referred to a
region, located south of the third cataract
the Nile River, in which Nubians dwelt as
Kush.. Within such context, this phrase is
not a racial slur. Throughout the history
of ancient Egypt there were numerous,
well documented instances that celebrate
Nubian-Egyptian marriages. A study of
these documents, particularly those dated
to both the Egyptian New Kingdom
(after 1550 B.C.E.) and to Dynasty XXV
and early Dynasty XXVI (about 720-640
BCE), reveals that neither spouse nor
any of the children of such unions
suffered discrimination at the hands of
the ancient Egyptians. Indeed such
marriages were never an obstacle to
social, economic, or political status,
provided the individuals concerned
conformed to generally accepted
Egyptian social standards. Furthermore,
at times, certain Nubian practices, such
as tattooing for women, and the unisex
fashion of wearing earrings, were
wholeheartedly embraced by the ancient
Egyptians." (Bianchi, 2004: p. 4)


'It is an extremely difficult task to
attempt to describe the Nubians during
the course of Egypt's New Kingdom,
because their presence appears to have
virtually evaporated from the
archaeological record.. The result has
been described as a wholesale Nubian
assimilation into Egyptian society. This
assimilation was so complete that it
masked all Nubian ethnic identities
insofar as archaeological remains are
concerned beneath the impenetrable
veneer of Egypt's material; culture.. In
the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled
as Pharaohs in their own right, the
material culture of Dynasty XXV (about
750-655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian
in character.. Nubia's entire landscape up
to the region of the Third Cataract was
dotted with temples indistinguishable in
style and decoration from contemporary
temples erected in Egypt. The same
observation obtains for the smaller
number of typically Egyptian tombs in
which these elite Nubian princes were
interred. (Bianchi, 2004, p. 99-100)

- Robert Bianchi ( 2004). Daily Life of
the Nubians. Greenwood Publishing
Group


One of Egypt's greatest dynasties, the
12th, originated from dark-skinned
Nubian stock, according to conservative
Egyptologist F. Yurco (1989). The 12th
Dynasty ruled approximately 1000 years
BEFORE the well known "black" 25th
Dynasty.

Quote 2:

"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region.4 As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne.
Especially interesting, it was a member of
this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy
(riverine Nubian of the principality of
Kush), except such as came for trade or
diplomatic reasons, should pass by the
Egyptian fortress at the southern end of
the Second Nile Cataract. Why would
this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban
other Nubians from coming into
Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian
rulers of Nubian ancestry had become
Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they
exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and
adopted typical Egyptian policies."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)


"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were
closest ethnically to the Egyptians. In the
late predynastic period (c. 3700-3150
B.C.E.), the Nubians shared the same
culture as the Egyptians and even
evolved the same pharaonic political
structure."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)


Ancient Egyptian religion closer to the
religion of African regions than to
Mesopotamia, Europe or the Middle
East


QUOTE(s):
Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed.
Macropedia Article, Vol 6: "Egyptian
Religion" , pg 506-508
"A large number of gods go back to
prehistoric times. The images of a cow
and star goddess (Hathor), the falcon
(Horus), and the human-shaped figures
of the fertility god (Min) can be traced
back to that period. Some rites, such as
the "running of the Apil-bull," the
"hoeing of the ground," and other
fertility and hunting rites (e.g., the
hippopotamus hunt) presumably date
from early times.. Connections with the
religions in southwest Asia cannot be
traced with certainty."
"It is doubtful whether Osiris can be
regarded as equal to Tammuz or Adonis,
or whether Hathor is related to the
"Great Mother." There are closer
relations with northeast African religions.
The numerous animal cults (especially
bovine cults and panther gods) and
details of ritual dresses (animal tails,
masks, grass aprons, etc) probably are of
African origin. The kinship in particular
shows some African elements, such as
the king as the head ritualist (i.e.,
medicine man), the limitations and
renewal of the reign (jubilees, regicide),
and the position of the king's mother (a
matriarchal element). Some of them can
be found among the Ethiopians in Napata
and Meroe, others among the Prenilotic
tribes (Shilluk)."
(Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed.
Macropedia Article, Vol 6: "Egyptian
Religion" , pg 506-508)


Egyptian dynastic civilization based
from the 'darker' south (Upper Egypt)
not the north (Lower Egypt)


QUOTE(s):
"While not attempting to underestimate
the contribution that Deltaic political and
religious institutions made to those of a
united Egypt, many Egyptologists now
discount the idea that a united prehistoric
kingdom of Lower Egypt ever existed."


"While communities such as Ma'adi
appear to have played an important role
in entrepots through which goods and
ideas form south-west Asia filtered into
the Nile Valley in later prehistoric times,
the main cultural and political tradition
that gave rise to the cultural pattern of
Early Dynastic Egypt is to be found not
in the north but in the south.":
The Cambridge History of Africa:
Volume 1, From the Earliest Times to c.
500 BC, (Cambridge University Press:
1982), Edited by J. Desmond Clark pp.
500-509

"..the early cultures of Merimde, the
Fayum, Badari Naqada I and II are
essentially African and early African
social customs and religious beliefs were
the root and foundation of the ancient
Egyptian way of life." (Source: Shaw,
Thurston (1976) Changes in African
Archaeology in the Last Forty Years in
African Studies since 1945. p. 156-68.
London.)




Egyptian state founded from the
south, and indigenous in character.
Egyptians dominated Palestine in some
eras.


"What is truly unique about this state is
the integration of rule over an extensive
geographic region, in contrast to other
contemporaneous Near Easter polities in
Nubia, Mesopotamia, Palestine and the
Levant. Present evidence suggests that
the state which emerged by the First
Dynasty had its roots in the Nagada
culture of Upper Egypt, where grave
types, pottery and artifacts demonstrate
an evolution of form from the
Predynastic to the First Dynasty, This
cannot be demonstrated for the material
culture of Lower Egypt, which was
eventually displaced by that which
originated in Upper Egypt. Hierarchical
society with much social and economic
differentiation, as symbolized in the
Nagada II cemeteries of Upper Egypt,
does not seem to have been present,
then, in Lower Egypt, a fact which
supports an Upper Egyptian origin for
the unified state. Thus archaeological
evidence cannot support earlier theories
that the founders of Egyptian civilization
were an invading Dynastic race from the
east.."

"Egyptian contact in the 4th millennium
B.C. with SW Asia is undeniable, but the
effect of this contact on state formation
is Egypt is less clear... The unified state
which emerged in Egypt in the 3rd
millenium B.C. however, was unlike the
polities in Mesopotamia, the Levant,
northern Syria, or Early Bronze Age
Palestine- in sociopolitical organization,
material culture, and belief system. There
was undoubtedly heightened commercial
contact with SW Asia in the 4th
millennium B.C., but the Early Dynastic
state which emerged in Egypt is unique
and religious in character."
(Bard, Kathryn A. 1994 The Egyptian
Predynastic: A Review of the Evidence.
Journal of Field Archaeology
21(3):265-288.)

"From Petrie onwards, it was regularly
suggested that despite the evidence of
Predynastic cultures, Egyptian
civilization of the 1st Dynasty appeared
suddenly and must therefore have been
introduced by an invading foreign 'race'.
Since the 1970s however, excavations at
Abydos and Hierakonpolis have clearly
demonstrated the indigenous, Upper
Egyptian roots of early civilization in
Egypt.

Contact between northern Egypt and
Palestine was overland, as evidence in
northern Sinai demonstrates.. Israeli
archealogists suggest that this evidence
represents a commercial network
established and controlled by the
Egyptians as early as EBA Ia, and that
this network was a major factor in the
rise of the urban settlements found later
in Palestine EBA II. Naomi Porat's
technological study of ceramics from
EBA sites in southern Palestine clearly
demonstrates that in EBA Ib strata many
of the pottery vessels used for food
preparation were probably manufactured
by Egyptian potters using Egyptian
technology but local Palestinian clays. In
EBA Ib strata there are also many
storage jars made from Nile silt and marl
wares, which must have been imported
from Egypt. Not only did the Egyptians
establish camps and way stations in
northern Sinai, but the ceramic evidence
also suggests that they established a
highly organized network of settlements
in southern Palestine where an Egyptian
population was in residence."
(Ian Shaw ed. (2003) The Oxford
History of Ancient Egypt By Ian Shaw.
Oxford University Press, page 40-63)



Much older scholarship shows cultural
similarities between ancient Egypt and
the rest of Africa, contradicting claims of
Middle Eastern inspiration.


--Specific central African tool designs
found at the well known Naqada, Badari
and Fayum archaeological sites in Egypt
(de Heinzelin 1962, Arkell and Ucko,
1956 et al). Shaw (1976) states that "the
early cultures of Merimde, the Fayum,
Badari Naqada I and II are essentially
African and early African social customs
and religious beliefs were the root and
foundation of the ancient Egyptian way
of life."
Pottery evidence first seen in the Saharan
Highlands then spreading to the Nile
Valley (Flight 1973).
Art motifs of Saharan rock paintings
showing similarities to those in pharaonic
art. A number of scholars suggest that
these earlier artistic styles influenced
later pharaonic art via Saharans leaving
drier areas and moving into the Nile
Valley taking their art styles with them
(Mori 1964, Blanc 1964, et al)

--Earlier pioneering mummification
outside Egypt. The oldest mummy in
Africa is of a black Saharan child
(Donadoni 1964, Blanc 1964) Frankfort
(1956) suggests that it is thus possible to
understand the pharaonic worldview by
reference to the religious beliefs of these
earlier African precursors. Attempts to
suggest the root of such practices are
due to Caucasoid civilizers from
elsewhere are thus contradicted by the
data on the ground.

--Several cultural practices of Egypt
show strong similarities to an African
totemic clan base. Childe (1969, 1978),
Aldred (1978) and Strouhal (1971)
demonstrate linkages with several
African practices such as divine kingship
and the king as divine rainmaker.

--Physical similarities of the early Nile
valley populations with that of tropical
Africans. Such connections are
demonstrated in the work of numerous
scholars such as Thompson and Randall
Mclver 1905, Falkenburger 1947, and
Strouhal 1971. The distance diagrams of
Mukherjee, Rao and Trevor (1955) place
the ancient Badarians genetically near
'black' tribes such as the Ashanti and the
Taita. See also the "Issues of lumping
under Mediterranean clusters" section
above for similar older analyses.

--Serological (blood) evidence of genetic
linkages. Paoli 1972 for example found a
significant resemblance between ABO
frequencies of dynastic Egyptians and the
black northern Haratin who are held to
be the probable descendants of the
original Saharans (Hiernaux, 1975).

--Language similarities which include
several hundred roots ascribable to
African elements (UNESCO 1974)

--Ancient Egyptian origin stories
ascribing origins of the gods and their
ancestors to African locations to the
south and west of Egypt (Davidson
1959)

--Advanced state building and political
unity in Nubia, including writing,
administrative apparatus and insignia
some 300 years before dynastic Egypt,
and the long demonstrated interchange
between Nubia and Egypt (Williams
1980)

--Newer studies (Wendorf 2001,
Wilkinson 1999, et al.) confirm these
older analyses. Excavations from Nabta
Playa, located about 100km west of Abu
Simbel for example, suggest that the
Neolithic inhabitants of the region were
migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, based
on cultural similarities and social
complexity which is thought to be
reflective of Egypt's Old Kingdom

--Other scholars (Wilkinson 1999)
present similar material and cultural
evidence- including similarities between
predynastic Egypt and traditional African
cattle-culture, typical of Southern
Sudanese and East African pastoralists of
today, and various cultural and artistic
data such as iconography on rock art
found in both Egypt and in the Sudan.



Assorted demic diffusion theories
holding a mass influx of Europeans or
Middle Easterners to Africa bringing
cattle and agriculture to the natives is not
supported by credible evidence.
Indigenous development is most
likely.


"Furthermore, the archaeology of
northern Africa DOES NOT SUPPORT
demic diffusion of farming from the Near
East. The evidence presented by
Wetterstrom indicates that early African
farmers in the Fayum initially
INCORPORATED Near Eastern
domesticates INTO an INDIGENOUS
foraging strategy, and only OVER TIME
developed a dependence on horticulture.
This is inconsistent with in-migrating
farming settlers, who would have
brought a more ABRUPT change in
subsistence strategy. "The same
archaeological pattern occurs west of
Egypt, where domestic animals and,
later, grains were GRADUALLY
adopted after 8000 yr B.P. into the
established pre-agricultural Capsian
culture, present across the northern
Sahara since 10,000 yr B.P. From this
continuity, it has been argued that the
pre-food-production Capsian peoples
spoke languages ancestral to the Berber
and/or Chadic branches of Afroasiatic,
placing the proto-Afroasiatic period
distinctly before 10,000 yr B.P."

Source: The Origins of Afroasiatic
Christopher Ehret, S. O. Y. Keita, Paul
Newman;, and Peter Bellwood
Science 3 December 2004: Vol. 306. no.
5702, p. 1680


When claims of massive European or
'Mediterranean' migrant influx to ancient
Egypt before the Hyskos/Greek/Roman
era are analyzed research data
conclusively debunks them.
Quote from "Early Nile Valley Farmers
From El-Badari"



Male Badarian crania were analyzed
using the generalized distance of
Mahalanobis in a comparative analysis
with other African and European series
from the Howells?s database. The study
was carried out to examine the affinities
of the Badarians to evaluate, in
preliminary fashion, a demic diffusion
hypothesis that postulates that
horticulture and the Afroasiatic language
family were brought ultimately from
southern Europe. (The assumption was
made that the southern Europeans would
be more similar to the central and
northern Europeans than to any
indigenous African populations.) The
Badarians show a greater affinity to
indigenous Africans while not being
identical. This suggests that the
Badarians were more affiliated with local
and an indigenous African population
than with Europeans.
(S.O.Y. Keita. "Early Nile Valley
Farmers from El-Badari: Aboriginals or
"European" Agro-Nostratic Immigrants?
Craniometric Affinities Considered With
Other Data". Journal of Black Studies,
Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 191-208 (2005)







The Sahara and the Sudan seem to
have provided a major source for the
genesis of Egyptian civilization
contributing many of its unique
elements.


QUOTE(s):
"a critical factor in the rise of social
complexity and the subsequent
emergence of the Egyptian state in Upper
Egypt (Hoffman 1979; Hassan 1988). If
so, Egypt owes a major debt to those
early pastoral groups in the Sahara; they
may have provided Egypt with many of
those features that still distinguish it from
its neighbors to the east."
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
17, 97-123 (1998), "Nabta Playa and Its
Role in Northeastern African Prehistory,"
Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild.

"Over the last two decades, numerous
contemporary (Khartoum Neolithic) sites
and cemeteries have been excavated in
the Central Sudan.. The most striking
point to emerge is the overall similarity
of early neolithic developments
inhabitation, exchange, material culture
and mortuary customs in the Khartoum
region to those underway at the same
time in the Egyptian Nile Valley, far to
the north." (Wengrow, David (2003)
"Landscapes of Knowledge, Idioms of
Power: The African Foundations of
Ancient Egyptian Civilization
Reconsidered," in Ancient Egypt in
Africa, David O'Connor and Andrew
Reid, eds. Ancient Egypt in Africa.
London: University College London
Press, 2003, pp. 119-137)


"Sub-Saharan" genetic elements found
as far afield as the Turkish and Greek
regions


F. X. Ricaut, M. Waelkens. (2008).
Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine
Population and Eastern Mediterranean
Population Movements Human Biology -
Volume 80, Number 5, October 2008,
pp. 535-564

"A late Pleistocene-early Holocene
northward migration (from Africa to the
Levant and to Anatolia) of these
populations has been hypothesized from
skeletal data (Angel 1972, 1973; Brace
2005) and from archaeological data, as
indicated by the probable Nile Valley
origin of the "Mesolithic"
(epi-Paleolithic) Mushabi culture found
in the Levant (Bar Yosef 1987). This
migration finds some support in the
presence in Mediterranean populations
(Sicily, Greece, southern Turkey, etc.;
Patrinos et al.; Schiliro et al. 1990) of the
Benin sickle cell haplotype. This
haplotype originated in West Africa and
is probably associated with the spread of
malaria to southern Europe through an
eastern Mediterranean route (Salares et
al. 2004) following the expansion of both
human and mosquito populations
brought about by the advent of the
Neolithic transition (Hume et al 2003;
Joy et al. 2003; Rich et al 1998). This
northward migration of northeastern
African populations carrying sub-Saharan
biological elements is concordant with
the morphological homogeneity of the
Natufian populations (Bocquentin 2003),
which present morphological affinity with
sub-Saharan populations (Angel 1972;
Brace et al. 2005). In addition, the
Neolithic revolution was assumed to
arise in the late Pleistocene Natufians and
subsequently spread into Anatolia and
Europe (Bar-Yosef 2002), and the first
Anatolian farmers, Neolithic to Bronze
Age Mediterraneans and to some degree
other Neolithic-Bronze Age Europeans,
show morphological affinities with the
Natufians (and indirectly with
sub-Saharan populations; Angel 1972;
Brace et al 2005), in concordance with a
process of demic diffusion accompanying
the extension of the Neolithic revolution
(Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994)."

"Following the numerous interactions
among eastern Mediterranean and
Levantine populations and regions,
caused by the introduction of agriculture
from the Levant into Anatolia and
southeastern Europe, there was,
beginning in the Bronze Age, a period of
increasing interactions in the eastern
Mediterranean, mainly during the Greek,
Roman, and Islamic periods. These
interactions resulted in the development
of trading networks, military campaigns,
and settler colonization. Major changes
took place during this period, which may
have accentuated or diluted the
sub-Saharan components of earlier
Anatolian populations. The second
option seems more likely, because even
though the population from Sagalassos
territory was interacting with
northeastern African and Levantine
populations [trade relationships with
Egypt (Arndt et al. 2003), involvement
of thousands of mercenaries from Pisidia
(Sagalassos region) in the war around
300 B.C. between the Ptolemaic
kingdom (centered in Egypt) and the
Seleucid kingdom
(Syria/Mesopotamia/Anatolia), etc.], the
major cultural and population
interactions involving the Anatolian
populations since the Bronze Age
occurred with the Mediterranean
populations form southeastern Europe,
as suggested from historical and genetic
data."

""In this context it is likely that Bronze
Age events may have facilitated the
southward diffusion of populations
carrying northern and central European
biological elements and may have
contributed to some degree of admixture
between northern and central Europeans
and Anatolians, and on a larger scale,
between northeastern Mediterraneans
and Anatolians. Even if we do not know
which populations were involved,
historical and archaeological data
suggest, for instance, the 2nd millennium
B.C. Minoan and later Mycenaean
occupation of Anatolian coast, the arrival
in Anatolia in the early 1st millennium
B.C. of the Phrygians coming from
Thrace, and later the arrival of settlers
from Macedonia in Pisidia and in the
Sagalassos territory (under Seleucid
rule). The coming of the Dorians from
Northern Greece and central Europe (the
Dorians are claimed to be one of the
main groups at the origin of the ancient
Greeks) may have also brought northern
and central European biological elements
into southern populations. Indeed, the
Dorians may have migrated southward to
the Peloponnese, across the southern
Aegean and Create, and later reached
Asia Minor."


 -

Ancient Egyptian language is part of
the Afrasian or Afroasiatic group which
has its origins in Africa, and together
with other archaeological evidence firmly
makes it an African culture. Acording to
mainstream research:


QUOTE(s):

"Ancient Egyptian civilization was, in
ways and to an extent usually not
recognized, fundamentally African. The
evidence of both language and culture
reveals these African roots. The origins
of Egyptian ethnicity lay in the areas
south of Egypt. The ancient Egyptian
language belonged to the Afrasian family
(also called Afroasiatic or, formerly,
Hamito-Semitic). The speakers of the
earliest Afrasian languages, according to
recent studies, were a set of peoples
whose lands between 15,000 and 13,000
B.C. stretched from Nubia in the west to
far northern Somalia in the east. They
supported themselves by gathering wild
grains. The first elements of Egyptian
culture were laid down two thousand
years later, between 12,000 and 10,000
B.C., when some of these Afrasian
communities expanded northward into
Egypt, bringing with them a language
directly ancestral to ancient Egyptian.
They also introduced to Egypt the idea
of using wild grains as food."
(Christopher Ehret (1996) "Ancient
Egyptian as an African Language, Egypt
as an African Culture." In Egypt in
Africa Egypt in Africa, Theodore
Celenko (ed), Indiana University Press)


"Ancient Egypt belongs to a language
group known as 'Afroasiatic' (formerly
called Hamito-Semitic) and its closest
relatives are other north-east African
languages from Somalia to Chad. Egypt's
cultural features, both material and
ideological and particularly in the earliest
phases, show clear connections with that
same broad area. In sum, ancient Egypt
was an African culture, developed by
African peoples, who had wide ranging
contacts in north Africa and western
Asia." (Morkot, Robert (2005) The
Egyptians: An Introduction. Routledge.
p. 10)

>>>>>>>>>
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>>>>>


ANCIENT EGYPTIANS AND HAIR
----------


Mummification actices and dyeing of
hair

Hair studies of mummies note that color
is often influenced by environmental
factors at burial sites. Brothwell and
Spearman (ref in Fletcher's works-1963)
point out that reddish-brown ancient
color hair is usually the result of partial
oxidation of the melanin pigment. Other
causes of hair color "blonding" involve
bleaching, caused by the alkaline in the
mummification process. Color also varies
due to the Egyptian practice of dyeing
hair with henna. Other samples show
individuals lightening the hair using
vegetable colorants. Thus variations in
hair color among mummies do not
necessarily suggest the presence of blond
or red-haired Europeans or Near
Easterners flitting about Egypt before
being mummified, but the influence of
environmental factors.
--------

Egyptian practice of putting locks of
hair in mummy wrappings.


Racial analysis is also made problematic
by the Egyptian practice of burying hair,
in many "votive or funerary deposits
buried separately from the body, a
practice found from Predynastic to
Roman times despite its frequent
omission from excavation reports."
(Fletcher 2002) In examining hair
samples Fletcher (2004) notes that care is
needed to determine what is natural scalp
hair, versus hair from a wig, versus hair
extensions to natural locks. Tracking the
exact source of hair is also critical since
the Egyptians were known to have
placed locks of hair from different
sources among mummy wrappings. (The
Search for Nefertiti, By Joann Fletcher,
HarperCollins, 2004, p. 93-94, 96; Joann
Fletcher, ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAIR
AND WIGS, THE OSTRACON THE
JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN
STUDY SOCIETY, VOLUME 13,
NUMBER 2; SUMMER 2002)
------------------------------------------------
-------------


Hair for wigs often obtained through
trade not mass waves of "Caucasoid"
migrants.


The use of wigs made of varying hair
also complicates attempts at 'racial'
analysis. Fletcher (2002) shows that
many Egyptian wigs have been found
with what is defined as straighter
'cynotrichous' hair. This however is
hardly a marker of massive European or
Near Eastern presence or admixture.
Fletcher notes that the Egyptians often
eschewed their own personal hair,
shaving carefully and using wigs widely.
The hair for these wigs was often
obtained through trade. Indeed, "hair
itself being a valuable commodity ranked
alongside gold and incense in account
lists from the town of Kahun." Egyptian
trading links with other regions is well
known, and a prized commodity like
straighter 'cynotrichous' hair could have
been easily obtained via the Sahara,
Levant, the Maghreb, Mediterranean
contacts, or even the hair of Asiatic war
captives or casulaties from Egypt's
numerous conflicts.
------------------------------------------------
-------------


Red-headed Ramses- routine for
genetic variability in Africa not
"whiteness"


Rameses came along comparatively late
in Egyptian history, when outsiders
toEgypt like the Hyskos were increasing
in the region. Detailed microscopic
analysis during the 1980s (Balout 1985)
identified some of the hair of Egyptian
Pharoah Rameses II as being a
yellowish-red. Such a finding should not
be surprising given the wide range of
physical variability in Africa, the most
genetically diverse region on earth, out
of which flowed other population
groups. Indeed, blondism and various
other hair shades are not unknown in
East Africa or Nubia, particularly in
children, nor are such hair color variants
uncommon in dark-haired or dark
skinned populations like the Australians.
(Hrdy 1978) Given the range of genetic
variability in Africa, a red-haired
Rameses is hardly unusual. Rameses'
reign, in the 19th Dynasty, came over
1,500 years after the Egyptian state had
been established, and after the Hyskos
interlude. Such latecomers to Egypt, like
the Hyskos, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans,
Arabs etc would add their own genetic
strands to the nation's mix. Whatever the
blend of genes that occurred with
Rameses, his hair offers little supposed
"proof" of a "white" or "Nordic" Egypt.
If anything, X-rays of several royal
mummies by mainstream scientists show
that the Egyptians pharoahs and other
royals had several uncomfortable
'Negroid' leanings.
(http://www.geocities.com/nilevalleypeo
ples/xraymummies1.htm)
------------------------------------------------
-------------


Red hair can be readily produced by
dark-skinned populations- just check out
Australia and pheomelanin


The finding of Rameses "red" hair also
deserves further scrutiny. The analysis
found evidence of dyeing to make the
hair yellowish-red, but some elements
were untouched by the dye. These
elements of yellowish-red hair in Balout's
study, were established on the basis of
the presence of pheomelanin, a
red-brown polymeric pigment in the skin
and hair of humans. However,
pheomelanin can also be found in persons
with dark brown or even black hair as
well, which gives it a reddish hue. Most
natural melanins contain sulfur, which is
typically associated with pheomelanin. In
scientific tests of melanin, black hair
contained as much as 5% sulfur, 3%
lower than the 8.8% found in Irish red
hair, but exceeding the 2.3% found in
Scandinavian blond hair. (Jolles, et al.
1996) Thus the yellowish-red hair
discovered on Rameses is well within the
range of human variation for dark haired
people, whatever the exact gene
combination that led to the condition.

As noted above, such variation began
with ancient African populations. Most
red hair is found in northern and western
Europe, especially in the British Isles,
and even then it appears in minor
frequencies in Europe- some 4% of the
population. It is unlikely such
populations had any major contact or
influence in the ancient Nile Valley. The
analysis on Rameses also did not show
classic "European" red hair but hair of a
light red to yellowish tinge. Black haired
or dark-skinned populations are quite
capable of producing such yellowish-red
color variants on their own, as can be
seen in today's east and northeast Africa
(see child's photo above). Nor is such
color variation unusual to Africa. Native
dark-skinned populations in Australia,
routinely produce people witn blond or
reddish hair. .

The analysis also found Rameses' hair to
be cymotrich or wavy, again a
characteristic quite within the range of
overall African or Nile valley physical
and genetic diversity. A "pure" Nordic
type of straight hair was thus not
established for Rameses. Hence the
notion of white Europeans or red-headed
Caucasoids from other areas flowing into
ancient Egypt to add hair variation is
dubious. Inflows occurred during the
Greek and Roman eras but reddish or
brown hair is within the range of African
variation. Genetic studies (Tishkoff
2009, 2000) show Africans have the
highest diversity in the world.
Skeletal/cranial studies confirm the
pattern. Relethford (2001) shows that "..
methods for estimating regional diversity
show sub-Saharan Africa to have the
highest levels of phenotypic variation,
consistent with many genetic studies."
(Relethford, John "Global Analysis of
Regional Differences in Craniometric
Diversity and Population Substructure".
Human Biology - Volume 73, Number 5,
October 2001, pp. 629-636) Hanihara
2003 notes that [significant]
"..intraregional diversity are present in
Subsaharan Africans.." While ancient
Egypt had gene flow in various eras, hair
variations easily fall under this pattern of
built-in, indigenous diversity, as well as
the above noted cultural practice of using
wigs with hair from different places
obtained through trade.


-----------------------


Joann Fletcher, ANCIENT EGYPTIAN
HAIR AND WIGS, THE OSTRACON
THE JOURNAL OF THE EGYPTIAN
STUDY SOCIETY, VOLUME 13,
NUMBER 2; SUMMER 2002

The Search for Nefertiti, By Joann
Fletcher, HarperCollins, 2004, p. 93-94,
96

Brothwell. D., and R. Spearman 1963
The hair of earlier peoples. In: Science in
Archaeology. D. Brothwell and E. Higgs,
eds. Thames and Hudeon, London, p.
427-436

Daniel Hrdy 1978- Analysis of Hair
Samples of Mummies from Semna
South, American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, (1978) 49: 277-262)

Studies of Ancient Crania From Northern
Africa," American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, 83:35-48 (1990


Hair Styles and History, by Cyril Aldred,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 15, No. 6
(Feb., 1957), pp. 141-147)

L. Balout, C. Roubet and C.
Desroches-Noblecourt, and was titled La
Momie de Ramsès II: Contribution
Scientifique à l'Égyptologie (1985).

Formation and Structure of Human Hair:
Biology and Structure, By Pierre Jollès,
Helmut Zahn, H. Höcker, Birkhäuser,
1996, pp. 200-225


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NUBIA AND EGYPT- Nubians and
Egyptians were so close in various eras
that they were virtually indistinguishable



“The ancient Egyptians referred to a
region, located south of the third cataract
the Nile River, in which Nubians dwelt as
Kush.. Within such context, this phrase is
not a racial slur. Throughout the history
of ancient Egypt there were numerous,
well documented instances that celebrate
Nubian-Egyptian marriages. A study of
these documents, particularly those dated
to both the Egyptian New Kingdom
(after 1550 B.C.E.) and to Dynasty XXV
and early Dynasty XXVI (about 720-640
BCE), reveals that neither spouse nor
any of the children of such unions
suffered discrimination at the hands of
the ancient Egyptians. Indeed such
marriages were never an obstacle to
social, economic, or political status,
provided the individuals concerned
conformed to generally accepted
Egyptian social standards. Furthermore,
at times, certain Nubian practices, such
as tattooing for women, and the unisex
fashion of wearing earrings, were
wholeheartedly embraced by the ancient
Egyptians." (Bianchi, 2004: p. 4)


'It is an extremely difficult task to
attempt to describe the Nubians during
the course of Egypt's New Kingdom,
because their presence appears to have
virtually evaporated from the
archaeological record.. The result has
been described as a wholesale Nubian
assimilation into Egyptian society. This
assimilation was so complete that it
masked all Nubian ethnic identities
insofar as archaeological remains are
concerned beneath the impenetrable
veneer of Egypt's material; culture.. In
the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled
as Pharaohs in their own right, the
material culture of Dynasty XXV (about
750-655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian
in character.. Nubia's entire landscape up
to the region of the Third Cataract was
dotted with temples indistinguishable in
style and decoration from contemporary
temples erected in Egypt. The same
observation obtains for the smaller
number of typically Egyptian tombs in
which these elite Nubian princes were
interred. (Bianchi, 2004, p. 99-100)


- Robert Bianchi ( 2004). Daily Life of
the Nubians. Greenwood Publishing
Group


Integration of Nubian and egyptian
elites in some eras



"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region.4 As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne.
Especially interesting, it was a member of
this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy
(riverine Nubian of the principality of
Kush), except such as came for trade or
diplomatic reasons, should pass by the
Egyptian fortress at the southern end of
the Second Nile Cataract. Why would
this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban
other Nubians from coming into
Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian
rulers of Nubian ancestry had become
Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they
exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and
adopted typical Egyptian policies."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)


The pharaohs that forbid the
movement of certain Nubian tribes into
Egypt were themselves of negroid origin
according to conservative mainstream
Egyptologist Frank Yurco..


Quote:

"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region. As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne.
Especially interesting, it was a member of
this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy
(riverine Nubian of the principality of
Kush), except such as came for trade or
diplomatic reasons, should pass by the
Egyptian fortress at the southern end of
the Second Nile Cataract. Why would
this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban
other Nubians from coming into
Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian
rulers of Nubian ancestry had become
Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they
exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and
adopted typical Egyptian policies."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)
No, it wasn't a "cheap racial slur." That's Wilkinson's
interpretation. It was a slur against an enemy, but
"race" in the sense we know it today, has nothing
to do with it. It was a reference to ethnicity, but
ethnicity is not "race" as we know it today. Romans condemned
"perfidious Punics"- referring to their Phonecian opponents
in Carthage, but both peoples are in today's parlance, white.

Nubians anyway are the closest people ethnically to the ancient egyptians, contradicting attempts
to spin some sort of "racial conflict" in the Nile Valley.


 -


If we are going to start putting "Racial" interpretations
on ancient Egypt, then using that approach, Egyptians
also used "Racial slurs" against white people- Even, Steven.
QUOTES:


Applying a consistent 'race' model that
interprets war between Egyptians and
Nubians as 'racial' the Egyptians also
pursued 'racial' wars against whites from
the Middle East.



[IMG]http://digital.library.upenn.edu/wo
men/edwards/pharaohs/207.gif[/IMG]
RAMESES II. SLAYING THE "whites"
BEFORE RA, THE TUTELARY
DEITY OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF
ABÛ-SIMBEL..


THE DISCOURSE OF AMEN-RA,
LORD OF THRONES agaimst "whites".


Thou hast struck off the heads of the
Asiatics, and their children cannot escape
from thee. Every land illuminated by thy
diadem is encircled by thy might; and in
all the zone of the heavens there is not a
rebel to rise up against thee. The enemy
bring in their tribute on their backs,
prostrating themselves before thee, their
limbs trembling and their hearts burned
up within them."


Campaign against "white" Mittani in
parts of Lebanon:


"He is a king valiant ... Naharin which its
lord had deserted out of fear ... I hacked
up its towns and villages and I set fire to
them ... I carried off their inhabitants ...
also their herds of cattle ... I felled all
their plantations and their fruit trees ...I
had many vessels ... built on the
mountains of God's Land in the
neighborhood of the Lady of Byblos ...
then on that mountain of Naharin, my
Majesty erected my stela, carved out of
the mountain on the western side of the
Euphrates.."

Conquest against and tribute from
"white" Palestine:


"Tribute of the princes of Retenu, who
came to do obeisance ... to the souls of
his majesty... Now every harbor at which
his majesty arrived was supplied with
loaves and with assorted loaves, with oil,
incense, wine, f[ruit] ---- abundant were
they beyond everything ...


Tribute from 'white' Lebanon:

The chieftains, lord of Lebanon,
construct the royal ships in order that
people may sail south in them to bring all
the marvels of the "Garden" to the
palace. LPH. ... The chieftains of Retjenu
(Retenu) who drag the flagpoles by
means of oxen to the shore, it is they
who come with their dues to the place
where his majesty is, to the Residence in
...... bearing all the fine products brought
as marvels of the south and being taxed
for tribute annually as (with) all
bondsmen of his Majesty."


Operations against more 'white'
'Troglodytes':



"Then my Majesty made them take their
oaths of allegiance as follows: never
again shall we do anything evil against
Menkheperre (another name for
Thutmose III), may he live forever ...
Then my Majesty had them set free on
the road to their cities*). They went off
on donkeys for I had seized their
chariotry. I captured their inhabitants for
Egypt and their property likewise." [W.
Helck transl. by B. Cummings (1982),
`Urkunden der 18. Dynastie', `Egyptian
Historical Records of the Later 18th
Dynasty']

"His majesty proceeded northward, to
overthrow the Asiatics (Mntyw-Stt). His
majesty arrived at a district, Sekmem
(Skmm) was its name. His majesty led
the good way in proceeding to the palace
of `Life, Prosperity, and Health (L.P.H.,'
when Sekmen had fallen, together with
Retenu (Rtnw) the wretched, while I was
acting as rearguard." [Breasted,
`Records', Vol. I, Sec. 680]
Time of Seti the Great - Presentation of
Syrian Prisoners and Precious Vessels to
Amon

"Smiting the Troglodytes, beating down
the Asiatics (Mn·t·yw), making his
boundary as far as the `Horns of the
Earth', as far as the marshes of Naharin
(N-h-r-n)." [Ibid., Vol. III, Sec. 118;]

"Slaying of the Asiatic Troglodytes
(Ynw-Mn·t·yw [Menate, Manasseh]), all
inaccessible countries, all lands, the
Fenkhu of the marshes of Asia, the Great
Bend of the sea (w'd-wr)."


Booty seized from "white"
Caananites:


".... 340 living prisoners; 83 hands; 2,401
mares; 191 foals; 6 stallions; ... young ...;
a chariot, wrought with gold, (its) pole
of gold, belonging to the chief of
`M-k-ty' (as the land around Jerusalem
was called); .... 892 chariots of his
wretched army; total, 924 (chariots); a
beautiful suit of bronze armor, belonging
to the chief of Jerusalem; .... 200 suits of
armor, belonging to his wretched army;
502 bows; 7 poles of (mry) wood,
wrought with silver, belonging to the tent
of that foe. Behold, the army of his
majesty took ...., 297 ...., 1,929 large
cattle, 2,000 small cattle, 20500 white
small cattle." [JBRE, `Records', Vol. II,
Sec. 435; See also the following
sections.]


Tribute from "white"
Assur/Assyria

"The tribute of the chief of Assur
(Ys-sw-r): genuine lapis lazuli, a large
block, making 20 deben, 9 kidet; genuine
lapis lazuli, 2 blocks; total, 3; and pieces,
[making] 30 deben; total, 50 deben and 9
kidet; fine lapis lazuli from Babylon
(Bb-r); vessels of Assur of hrrt- stone in
colors, ---- very many." "Tribute of the
chief of Assur: horses ---. A ---- of skin
of the M-h-w as the [protection] of a
chariot, of the finest of --- wood;
190(+x) wagons --- --- wood, nhb wood,
343 pieces, carob wood, 50 pieces; nby
and k'nk wood, 206 pieces; olive oil,
------.." [BREASTED, Vol. II, Sec. 446,
449]


"Whites" put to slave labor in
Egypt.


from Project Guttenberg full text of:
A HISTORY OF EGYPT FROM THE
EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PERSIAN
CONQUEST
BY JAMES HENRY BREASTED,
II, 760-1, 773. 2 II, 761.

Inscription
"the Asiatics of all countries came with
bowed head, doing obeisance to the fame
of his majesty."


book text:

"Thutmose's war-galleys moored in the
harbour of the town; but at this time not
merely the iceaUh of Asia was unloaded
from the ships; the Asiatics themselves,
bound one to another in long lines, were
led down the gang planks to begin a life
of slave- labour for the Pharaoh (Fig.
119). They wore long matted beards, an
abomination to the Egyptians ; their hair
hung in heavy black masses upon their
shoulders, and they were clad in gaily
coloured woolen stuffs, such as the
Egyptian, spotless in his white linen robe,
would never put on his body.

Their arms were pinioned behind them at
the elbows or crossed over their heads
and lashed together ; or, again, their
hands were thrust through odd pointed
ovals of wood, which served as
hand-cuffs. The women carried their
children slung in a fold of the mantle
over their shoulders. With their strange
speech and uncouth postures the poor
wretches were the subject of jibe and
merriment on the part of the multitude ;
while the artists of the time could never
forbear caricaturing them. Many of them
found their way into the houses of the
Pharaoh's favourites, and his generals
were liberally rewarded with gifts of such
slaves; but the larger number were
immediately employed on the temple
estates, the Pharaoh's domains, or in the
construction of his great monuments and
buildings."

Ancient Egyptians warn against
cowardly, treacherous "whites"
comparing them to destructive thieves
and reptiles.



"The Instruction for King, Merikare
takes a similar tone for peoples in the
north (Lichtheim 1973: 10404):

Lo the miserable Asiatic (white),
He is wretched because of the place he's
in:
Short of water, bare of wood,
Its paths are many and painful because of
mountains.
He does not dwell in one place,
Food propels his legs,
He fights since the time of Horus..
He does not announce the day of combat,
Like a thief who darts about a group.."

"Asiatics (whites) are both cowardly and
pitiful, leading a marginal existence,
constantly fighting but with nothing ever
settled. They are also sly and ultimately
treacherous, attacking without warning.
This passage characterizes Asiatics as
both primitive and threatening.. In this
case, the passage reflects Egypt's
combination of colonial domination and
outright military conflict.."

Merikare goes on (Lichtheim 1976:
103-104)

"The Asiatic [white] is a crocodile on its shore
It snatches from a lonely road,
It cannot seize a populous town."

Along the same lines, the Prophecy of
Neferti (c. 1950 BC) portrays Asiatic
immigrants as a flock of rapacious birds
descending on Egypt, taking advantage
of civil wars of the First Intermediate
Period (c. 2150 - 2050 BC) to infiltrate
parts of the rich Egyptian delta
(Lichtheim 1973: 141):


A strange bird will breed in the delta
marsh,
having made its nest besides the people..
All happiness is vanished,
The land is bowed down in distress,
Owing to those feeders,
Asiatics [whites] who roam the land..

From: --Stuart Tyson Smith. (2003)
Wretched Kush: ethnic identities and
boundaries in Egypt's Nubian empire.
Routledge, pp. 28-31
=========================

Recent DNA study shows Berber roots foundational in
africa and African populations with deep-rooted African
DNA lineages not merely migration from the outside/


"Our objective is to highlight the age of sub-Saharan gene
flows in North Africa and particularly in Tunisia...
The results show that the most ancient haplogroup is L3*,
which would have been introduced to North Africa from eastern
sub-Saharan populations around 20,000 years ago. Our
results also point to a less ancient western sub-Saharan
gene flow to Tunisia, including haplogroups L2a and L3b.
This conclusion points to an ancient African gene flow to
Tunisia before 20,000 years BP. These findings parallel
the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics
on the prehistory of Africa. The present work suggests that
sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced
several complex population processes after the occupation
of the region by anatomically modern humans. Our results
reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic
root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued
to evolve in supra-Saharan Africa."

-- Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in
Tunisian Berber Populations
Frigi et al. Human Biology (August 2010 (82:4)

"Our findings are in accordance with other studies on
Y-chromosome markers that have shown that the predominant
Y-chromosome lineage in Berber communities is the subhaplogroup
E1b1b1b (E-M81), which emerged in Africa, is specific to North
African populations, and is almost absent in Europe, except in
Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and Sicily. Molecular studies on the
Y chromosome in North Africa are interpreted as indicating that
the southern part of Africa, namely, the Horn/East Africa, was
a major source of population in the Nile Valley and northwest
Africa after the Last Glacial Maximum, with some migration into the
Near East and southern Europe (Bosch et al. 2001; Underhill et al. 2001)."

--Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in
Tunisian Berber Populations Frigi et al., 2010
----------------

Conservative Egyptologist Frank
Yurco, shows that the 12th Dynasty was
of the negroid type, of Upper Egyptian
and Nubian origin. The 12th Dynasty is
one of Egypt's greatest, and was in place
approximately 1000 years before the
25th dynasty. Yurco also shows that the
Nubians were ethnically the closest
people to the Egyptians.



Quote:

"the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region. As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne.
Especially interesting, it was a member of
this dynasty- that decreed that no Nehsy
(riverine Nubian of the principality of
Kush), except such as came for trade or
diplomatic reasons, should pass by the
Egyptian fortress at the southern end of
the Second Nile Cataract. Why would
this royal family of Nubian ancestry ban
other Nubians from coming into
Egyptian territory? Because the Egyptian
rulers of Nubian ancestry had become
Egyptians culturally; as pharaohs, they
exhibited typical Egyptian attitudes and
adopted typical Egyptian policies."


- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)


"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were
closest ethnically to the Egyptians. In the
late predynastic period (c. 3700-3150
B.C.E.), the Nubians shared the same
culture as the Egyptians and even
evolved the same pharaonic political
structure."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)
-----------------------------
Emergence of Haplogroup M
occurred among dark-skinned tropical
peoples

– QUOTE:

"Macaulay's research team analyses the
Orang Asli, the aboriginal inhabitants of
the Malay Penisula, while Thangaraj and
colleagues focused on the Andamese
islanders, called 'Negritos' (for the
characteristic phenotype of dark skin),
both groups performing a large number
of complete mitochondrial sequences in
order to clarify the origin of these
populations. They discovered that both
Orang Asli and Andaman islanders
harboured ancient mtDNA lineages,
belonging to the founder haplogroups M,
N, and R, with coalescence ages of
~44,000 to ~63,000 years, which were
considered the legacy of an early
diffusion of modern humans out of
Africa. Thus, there was a single rapid out
of Africa dispersal (~70,000 years ago)
involving a founding group of
individuals harbouring the L3 mtDNA
haplogroup and starting from the Horn
of Africa towards the Persian Gulf and
further along the tropical coast of the
Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia and
Australasia. During this coastal
migration, haplogroups M, N and R
evolved and the ancestral L3 was lost.
Moreover, this scenario is strongly
supported by palaeoenvironmental
evidence, confirming that a northern
migration would have been impossible
during the glacial period extending from
~70,000 to 50,000 years ago."


Haplogroup M not found much in
Europe or the Middle East, but in Africa,
M1 appears

- QUOTE.

"The richest basal variation in the
founder haplogroups , N and R is found
among the southern stretch of Eurasia,
particularly in the Indian subcontinent
(Figure 1), suggesting a rapid
colonization along the southern coast of
Asia.. Western Eurasians, in contrast
with Southern Asians, eastern Eurasians,
and Australasians, have a high level of
haplogroup diversity within the
haplogroup N and R, but lack
haplogroup M also entirely (Figure 1)...
Although Haplogroup M differentiated
soon after the out of Africa exit and it is
widely distributed in Asia (east Asia and
India) and Oceania, there is an
interesting exception for one of its more
than 40 sub-clades: M1.. Indeed this
lineage is mainly limited to the African
continent with peaks in the Horn of
Africa."
--Paola Spinozzi, Alessandro Zironi .
(2010). Origins as a Paradigm in the
Sciences and in the Humanities.
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 48-50


Misleading "Eurasian" label flagged
by some scholars

- QUOTE:
"The historical linguistic data reported
earlier would apply in the case of
maternal lineages as well.. it is not likely
that the "northern" genetic profile is
simply due to "Eurasians" having
colonized supra-Saharan regions from
external African sources. It might be
likely that the greater percentage of
haplotypes called "Eurasian" are
predominantly, although not solely, of
indigenous African origin. As a term
"Eurasian" is likely misleading, since it
suggests a single locale of geographical
origins. This is because it can be
postulated that differentiation of the L3*
haplogroup began before the emigration
out of Africa, and that there would be
indigenous supra-Saharan/Saharan or
Horn-supra-Saharan haplotypes. More
work and careful analysis of mtDNA and
the archeological data and likely
probabilities is needed. Early hunting
and gathering paleolithic populations can
be modeled as having roamed between
northern Africa and Eurasia, leaving an
asymmetrical distribution of various
derivative variants over a wide region,
giving the appearance of Eurasian
incursion."
--Keita, A, Boyce, A. (2005) Genetics,
Egypt, and History... History in Africa,
32, 221-246

------------------------------------------
------

“..the M1 presence in the Arabian
peninsula signals a predominant East
African influence since the Neolithic
onwards.“ -- Petraglia, M and Rose, J
(2010). The Evolution of Human
Populations in Arabia:


Conservative mainstream Oxford
Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt shows
ancient Egypt derived from an African
cultural sub-stratum


[QUOTE:]

"The evidence also points to linkages to
other northeast African peoples, not
coincidentally approximating the modern
range of languages closely related to
Egyptian in the Afro-Asiatic group
(formerly called Hamito-Semetic). These
linguistic similarities place ancient
Egyptian in a close relationship with
languages spoken today as far west as
Chad, and as far south as Somalia.


Archaeological evidence also strongly
supports an African origin. A widespread
northeastern African cultural assemblage,
including distinctive multiple barbed
harpoons and pottery decorated with
dotted wavy line patterns, appears during
the early Neolithic (also known as the
Aqualithic, a reference to the mild
climate of the Sahara at this time).
Saharan and Sudanese rock art from this
time resembles early Egyptian
iconography. Strong connections
between Nubian (Sudanese) and
Egyptian material culture continue in
later Neolithic Badarian culture of Upper
Egypt. Similarities include black-topped
wares, vessels with characteristic
ripple-burnished surfaces, a special
tulip-shaped vessel with incised and
white-filled decoration, palettes, and
harpoons...

Other ancient Egyptian practices show
strong similarities to modern African
cultures including divine kingship, the
use of headrests, body art, circumcision,
and male coming-of-age rituals, all
suggesting an African substratum or
foundation for Egyptian civilization.."

-- Source: Donald Redford (2001) The
Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt,
Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p.28

Ancient "Middle Easterners" lack the tropical body proportions of ancient Egyptians

QUOTE:

"There is long-standing disagreement regarding
Upper Pleistocene human evolution in Western
Asia, particularly the Levant. Some argue that
there were two different populations, perhaps
different species, of Upper Pleistocene Levantine
hominids. The first, from the Israeli sites of
Qafzeh and Skhul, is anatomically modern. The
second, from sites such as Amud, Kebara, and
Tabun, is archaic, or "Neandertal" in morphology.
Others argue that this is a false dichotomy and
that all of these hominids belong to a single,
highly variable population. In this paper I
attempt to resolve this issue by examining
postcranial measures reflective of body shape.
Results indicate that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids
have African-like, or tropically adapted,
proportions, while those from Amud, Kebara,
Tabun, and Shanidar (Iraq) have more
European-like, or cold-adapted, proportions. This
suggests that there were in fact two distinct
Western Asian populations and that the
Qafzeh-Skhul hominids were likely African in
origin - a result consistent with the
"Replacement" model of modern human origins.

"What we can say, however, is that in
the Holocene, humans from southwest
Asia do not exhibit tropically adapted
body shape (Crognier 1981; Eveleth and
Tanner 1976; Schreider 1975). In
addition, while Levantine winters today
are generally characterized as mild
(Henkin et al. 1998), they are
nonetheless quite often cold, with
frequent snowfall—for example, the
winter of 1992 was particularly cold and
snowy in Israel (Vishnevetsky and
Steinberger 19%). Given that the
Holocene is a warm phase, yet recent
Levantine humans do not exhibit a
tropically adapted morphology, there is
little reason to assume that in the
(generally colder) Pleistocene epoch,
natural selection alone could result in
tropically adapted morphology in the
region.

Thus, the discovery of tropically adapted
hominids in the region would therefore
likely indicate population dispersal from
the TROPICS, and the most logical
geographic source for such an influx is
Africa. In this regard, Trinkaus (1981,
1984, 1995) and Ruff (1994) have
argued that the high brachial and crural
indices, narrow biiliac breadths, and
small relative femoral head sizes of the
Qafzeh-Skhul hominids suggest an
influx of African genes associated with
the emergence of modern humans in the
region."

---Trenton Holliday (2000) Evolution at the
Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western
Asia. American Anthropologist. New Series,
Vol. 102, No. 1, 54-68


---Trenton Holliday (2000) Evolution at the
Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western
Asia. American Anthropologist. New Series,
Vol. 102, No. 1, 54-68
Holliday, T. 2000. Evolution at the Crossroads. Amr Anthr, 102. 54-68
==========================


"Limb length proportions in males from Maadi and
Merimde group them with African rather than
European populations. Mean femur length in males
from Maadi was similar to that recorded at Byblos
and the early Bronze Age male from Kabri, but
mean tibia length in Maadi males was 6.9cm longer
than that at Byblos. At Merimde both bones were
longer than at the other sites shown, but again,
the tibia was longer proportionate to femurs
than at Byblos (Fig 6.2), reinforcing the
impression of an African rather than Levantine
affinity."

-- Smith, P. (2002) The palaeo-biological
evidence for admixture between populations in the
southern Levant and Egypt in the fourth to third
millennia BCE. in E.C.M van den Brink and TE Levy, eds.
Egypt and the Levant: interrelations from the 4th through the
3rd millenium, BCE. Leicester Univ Press: 2002, 118-28
--------------------------------------------------------------

vvv

SUMMARY OF BODY PROPORTIONS, LIMB PROPORTIONS BODY MASS DATA


 -

Body proportions have a strong genetic component, and are distinct
even in the fetal stage. They are more resistant to nutritional problems or
disease, and are more stable and less changeable over millennia. Tropical
body proportions characterize the ancient Egyptians and other Africans.
Body/limb proportions have strong genetic element - don’t change quickly
over millennia- QUOTE:


"Human body proportions also appear to have a substantial genetic
component. Differences in body proportions between Eskimos and
non-Eskimos, for example, appear early in ontogeny.. The low sitting
height/stature ratio of Australian aborigines is present early in
development.. Schultz (1923, 1926) found significant differences between
African–American and Euroamerican fetuses in brachial and crural
indices, length of the legs relative to the trunk, and relative pelvic width.
The fact that these ‘‘racial’’ features are manifested early in fetal life
indicates strong genetic encoding of body and limb proportions.
In addition, body shape in human appears to be more resistant to
nutritional deficiency or disease than is body size .. Body proportions of
human migrants, for example, are conservative; despite often exhibiting a
marked increase in stature, children of migrants tend to retain the body
proportions of their ancestral homeland, and do not develop the
proportions of their new neighbors.. Also, while secular trends in body
shape have been documented, they do not negate the value of body
proportions as short-term phylogenetic markers... nutritional differences
alone cannot explain all of the global variability in body shape. Rather,
they note that much of the difference seen today in body shape between
broad geographic groups is genetically-driven.
Migration within a larger time framework took place ca. 15,000–18,000
BP, .., ultimately founding the modern Amerindian population. Despite
having as much as 18,000 years of selection in environments as diverse as
those found in the Old World, body mass and proportion clines in the
Americas are less steep than those in the Old World.. Amerindians,. This
suggests that body proportions tend not to be very plastic under natural
conditions, and that selective rates on body shape are such that evolution
in these features is long-term."

--Holliday T. (1997). Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe..human
origins. Jrnl Hum Evo. 32: 423-447


Holocene Middle Easterners didn’t have tropical body plan like
Egyptians – QUOTE:

“Results indicate that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids have African-like, or
tropically adapted, proportions, while those from Amud, Kebara, Tabun,
and Shanidar (Iraq) have more European-like, or cold-adapted,
proportions. This suggests that there were in fact two distinct Western
Asian populations and that the Qafzeh-Skhul hominids were likely African
in origin - a result consistent with the "Replacement" model of modern
human origins.. What we can say, however, is that in the Holocene,
humans from southwest Asia do not exhibit tropically adapted body
shape..”

--Holliday, T. 2000. Evolution at the Crossroads. Amr Anthr, 102. 54-68


Northern Egyptians group with Africans: QUOTE – Smith 2002:
"Limb length proportions in males from Maadi and Merimde group them
with African rather than European populations. Mean femur length in
males from Maadi was similar to that recorded at Byblos and the early
Bronze Age male from Kabri, but mean tibia length in Maadi males was
6.9cm longer than that at Byblos. At Merimde both bones were longer
than at the other sites shown, but again, the tibia was longer proportionate
to femurs than at Byblos (Fig 6.2), reinforcing the impression of an
African rather than Levantine affinity.“

-- Smith, P. (2002) The palaeo-biological evidence for admix.. In: Egypt &
the Levant.. Leicester Univ. 118-28


Egyptians group with tropical Africans and African-Americans QUOTE
– Holliday 2010:

"These same log shape variables were subjected to two forms of cluster
analysis: neighbor-joining (NJ) and unweighted pair-group method using
averages (UPGMA) tree analysis. Figure 8 is the NJ tree. It has two main
branches—a long and linear body build branch that includes the Egyptians,
Sub-Saharan Africans (except for the Pygmies), and African-Americans
and a second, less linear body form branch that includes the Inuit,
Europeans, Euro-Americans, Puebloans, Nubians, and Pygmies. Note that
the Nubians used in this study are thought by some to represent an
immigrant population from Europe or Western Asia [see Holliday (1995)."
--Holliday, T. (2010) Body proportions of circumpolar peoples.. skeletal
data. AmJrPhyAntr, 142: 2. 287-302

“Previously estimated intralimb indices for ancient Egyptians are generally
quite similar to ours, and are more similar to US Blacks than to US
Whites… Intralimb indices are not significantly different between
Egyptians and American Blacks... Many of those who have studied ancient
Egyptians have commented on their characteristically ''tropical'' or
''African'' body plan..” - Raxter & Ruff, et al. (2008) Stature estimation in
ancient Egyptians. Amer J. Phy Anthro 136 (2), 147-55.


Modern tropical humans came to Europe – QUOTE:
“Among recent humans brachial and crural indices are positively
correlated with mean annual temperature, such that high indices are found
in tropical groups. However, despite inhabiting glacial Europe, the Upper
Paleolithic Europeans possessed high indices, prompting Trinkaus (1981)
to argue for gene flow from warmer regions associated with modern
human emergence in Europe.”
--Holiday, T. 1999. Brachial and cural indices of Euro.. JrHuEvo
36:5,549-66


Tropical Africans are the most diverse people in the world whether
genes, phenotype, skin color or dental traits are considered. African
diversity does not depend on simplistic “race” checkbox formulas, but is
based on modern humans originating in sub-Saharan Africa (in the
tropics), and then expanding out to the rest of the globe. All non-African
populations are more limited subsets of original African diversity.


Most phenotypic variation – Quote:
"Both methods for estimating regional diversity show sub-Saharan Africa
to have the highest levels of phenotypic variation, consistent with many
genetic studies."
--- Relethford, John 2001. Global Analysis of Regional Differences..
Human Biology - V73, n5, pp. 629-636)

Most genetic diversity – Quote:
"Africa contains tremendous cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity, and
has more than 2,000 distinct ethnic groups and languages.. Studies using
mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear DNA markers consistently indicate
that Africa is the most genetically diverse region of the world."
---Tishkoff SA, Williams SM., Genetic analysis of African populations..
Nature Reviews Genetics. 2002 (8):611-21.)

Most skin color diversity – Quote:
"This study examines regional differences in within-population diversity
of human skin color. Published data on skin reflectance were collected for
98 male samples from eight geographic regions: sub-Saharan Africa,
North Africa, Europe, West Asia, Southwest Asia, South Asia,
Australasia, and the New World. Regional differences in local
within-population diversity were examined using two measures of
variability: the sample variance and the sample coefficient of variation.
For both measures, the average level of within-population diversity is
higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other geographic regions. This
difference persists even after adjusting for a correlation between
within-population diversity and distance from the equator. Though
affected by natural selection, skin color variation shows the same pattern
of higher African diversity as found with other traits."
-- Relethford JH.(2000). Human skin color diversity is highest in
sub-Saharan African populations. Hum Biol. 72(5):773-80.)

Most dental diversity – Quote:
"Previous research by the first author revealed that, relative to other
modern peoples, sub-Saharan Africans exhibit the highest frequencies of
ancestral (or plesiomorphic) dental traits.. The fact that sub-Saharan
Africans express these apparently plesiomorphic characters, along with
additional information on their affinity to other modern populations,
evident intra-population heterogeneity, and a world-wide dental cline
emanating from the sub-continent, provides further evidence that is
consistent with an African origin model."
--Irish JD, Guatelli-Steinberg D.(2003) Ancient teeth and modern human
origins.. Hum Evol. 45(2):113-44

 -

Tropical African have variation in body breadth in numerous ways:


a) Millennia of adaptation in the cool, monsoon-swept Sahara
when it was a lush greenbelt before its arid phase, AND millennia
of adaptation in the cool subtropical Medit zone of Egypt

b) Millennia as pioneers and operators advanced food production
and forms of agriculture.

These factors cover the bases. No "Mediterraneans"
or "Middle Easterners" are needed to give the natives
diversity in body mass. in addition Africa's built in diversity
also more than covers all bases:

(c) The vast built-in genetic diversity of Africa
home of modern humanity- with the most genetic diversity on the planet

(d) Continual movement of numerous variants and blends
of tropical African peoples and tribes out of the
Saharan zone, East Africa etc into the Nile Valley.
Mass influxes of "Middle Easterners" or bogus "Mediterraneans"
are not needed to give tropical Africans diversity.
Such outsiders were always present, particularly in the later
stages but did not significantly affect the fundamental,
overall core population for millennia.


QUOTES:
[i]
"Furthermore bi-iliac breadth appears to change slowly over time,
likely due to multiple factors (thermoregulation, obstetrics,
locomotion) influencing its shape (Ruff 1994; Auerback 2007).."

"Generally narrower body breaths of the foragers contrast markedy
with the wider-bodied agriculturalists. Although bi-iliac breadth
has been argued to be stable over long periods of time (Auerbach,
2007), this shift in mean body breath may be indicative of changes
correlated with subsistence economy."

"Any use of the bi-iliac breath/stature body mass estimations
would inherently reflect changes in stature.."


"In this study, skeletal measures of body size were analysed to
evaluate the long-term impact of the transition to agriculture in the Nile
Valley.. Here we demonstrate that this transition is also associated
with a modest reduction and subsequent improvement in stature and
body mass. This trend could be broadly interpreted in the context
of models of relationship between body size and nutrition."
-- Pinhasi & Stock. 2011. Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to
Agriculture


Pre-Dynastic Badari, who cluster with tropical Africans were
ALREADY farming and stock-raising with some hunting/
foraging on the side. In other words, tropical
African variants were ALREADY engaging in the
agricultural practices that are correlated with greater
bi-iliac ranges. "Diffusion" from the Middle East
of plants such as wheat, is just that, diffusuion
that was adopted by the indigenous tropical variants
on their own terms. They could grow wheat or peas,
on their own ground, without needing any "wandering Caucasoids"
to be present.


QUOTE:
Furthermore, the archaeology of northern Africa does not
support demic diffusion of farming from the Near East.
The evidence presented by Wetterstrom indicates that early
African farmers in the Fayum initially incorporated Near
Eastern domesticates into an INDIGENOUS foraging strategy,
and only over time developed a dependence on horticulture.
This is inconsistent with in-migrating farming settlers,
who would have brought a more abrupt change in subsistence
strategy. "The same archaeological pattern occurs west of
Egypt, where domestic animals and, later, grains were
gradually adopted after 8000 yr B.P. into the established
pre-agricultural Capsian culture, present across the northern
Sahara since 10,000 yr B.P. From this continuity, it has been
argued that the pre-food-production Capsian peoples spoke
languages ancestral to the Berber and/or Chadic branches of
Afroasiatic, placing the proto-Afroasiatic period distinctly
before 10,000 yr B.P."

--Source: The Origins of Afroasiatic
Christopher Ehret, S. O. Y. Keita, Paul Newman;, and Peter Bellwood
Science 3 December 2004: Vol. 306. no. 5702, p. 1680

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------

US Blacks as a tropical people were used as a stand-in
to estimate height of Ancient Egyptians. In those studies
Black AMericans were found to cluster closer to Ancient Egyytians
than EUropeans. Raxter's 2011 study.againconfirms that tropical
peoples have similar limb proportions- hence Egyptians and Nubians
cluster thereby. Estimates of stature make little difference

Over-estimation of stature using US Black limb proportions,
or the use of no estimations at all makes little difference because
in limb to limb comparison, the AE's are closer to the US blacks.
Throw out the stature estimation task and this central result STILL stands.


Limb proportions don;t quickly change but vary very slowly,
and are heavily genetically embedded- quote


"Human body proportions also appear to have a substantial genetic
component. Differences in body proportions between Eskimos and
non-Eskimos, for example, appear early in ontogeny.. The low sitting
height/stature ratio of Australian aborigines is present early in
development.. Schultz (1923, 1926) found significant differences between
African–American and Euroamerican fetuses in brachial and crural
indices, length of the legs relative to the trunk, and relative pelvic width.
The fact that these ‘‘racial’’ features are manifested early in fetal life
indicates strong genetic encoding of body and limb proportions.
In addition, body shape in human appears to be more resistant to
nutritional deficiency or disease than is body size .. Body proportions of
human migrants, for example, are conservative; despite often exhibiting a
marked increase in stature, children of migrants tend to retain the body
proportions of their ancestral homeland, and do not develop the
proportions of their new neighbors.. Also, while secular trends in body
shape have been documented, they do not negate the value of body
proportions as short-term phylogenetic markers... nutritional differences
alone cannot explain all of the global variability in body shape. Rather,
they note that much of the difference seen today in body shape between
broad geographic groups is genetically-driven.
Migration within a larger time framework took place ca. 15,000–18,000
BP, .., ultimately founding the modern Amerindian population. Despite
having as much as 18,000 years of selection in environments as diverse as
those found in the Old World, body mass and proportion clines in the
Americas are less steep than those in the Old World.. Amerindians,. This
suggests that body proportions tend not to be very plastic under natural
conditions, and that selective rates on body shape are such that evolution
in these features is long-term."

--Holliday T. (1997). Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe..human
origins. Jrnl Hum Evo. 32: 423-447


Agriculture and use of outside animals and plants not accompanied
by mass demic diffusion, but gradually adopted on the own terms of
the native farmers, according to their own preferences, without the
need for any huge influxes of outside immigrants


Ovacaprines appear in the western desert before the Nile valley
proper (Wendorf and Schild 2001). However, it is significant that
ancient Egyptian words for the major Near Eastern domesticates -
Sheep, goat, barley, and wheat - are not loans from either Semitic,
Sumerian, or Indo-European. This argues against a mass settler
colonization (at replacement levels) of the Nile valley from the Near
East at this time. This is in contrast with some words for domesticates
in some early Semitic languages, which are likely Sumerian loan
words (Diakonoff 1981).. This evidence indicates that northern Nile
valley peoples apparently incorporated the Near Eastern domesticates
into a Nilotic foraging subsistence tradition on their own terms
(Wetterstrom 1993).
There was apparently no “Neolithic revolution” brought by settler
colonization,
but a gradual process of neolithicization (Midant-Reynes 2000).

-- Keita and Boyce, Genetics, Egypt, And History: Interpreting
Geographical
Patterns Of Y Chromosome Variation,
History in Africa 32 (2005) 221-246
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------


Body mass changes due primarily to agriculture and food production
changes and local adaptation not mass immigrant influxes. - QUOTE:
:

"Generally narrower body breaths of the foragers contrast markedy
with the wider-bodied agriculturalists. Although bi-iliac breadth has
been argued to be stable over long periods of time (Auerbach, 2007),
this shift in mean body breath may be indicative of changes correlated
with subsistence economy."


"In this study, skeletal measures of body size were analysed to
evaluate the long-term impact of the transition to agriculture in the
Nile Valley.. Here we demonstrate that this transition is also
associated with a modest reduction and subsequent improvement
in stature and body mass. This trend could be broadly interpreted
in the context of models of relationship between body size and nutrition."


-- Pinhasi & Stock. 2011 The Bioarchaeology of the Transition to
Agriculture

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the lioness,
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yeah but if one is not Egyptian what is the big deal about being "similar to" an Egyptian or "more similar to" tha some other group.
Can you pay the rent with "similar to" ?

Can we say we are descendants of the ancient Egyptians or just "more similar to" them than a Frenchman?

And what about somebody living today who really is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptians, great gradpappy was Imhotep? What good is it? Something you can brag about at parties? It's feelings
Either you're doing something productive with your life or you are not

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Actually it is quite relevant to set the record straight
where tropical African peoples are concerned, and correct the
distortions that so often seek to slight the heritage
and legacy
of said peoples. These ancients were rooted in the Sahara
and the Sudan. They are the true sons of the soil of
the Nile Valley.
Has nothing to do with "feelings." Hard data is what counts.

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typeZeiss
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
Actually it is quite relevant to set the record straight
where tropical African peoples are concerned, and correct the
distortions that so often seek to slight the heritage
and legacy
of said peoples. These ancients were rooted in the Sahara
and the Sudan. They are the true sons of the soil of
the Nile Valley.
Has nothing to do with "feelings." Hard data is what counts.

Hard data counts, but WHY? What difference does it make?

I will tell you. See, this person lioness is either a Afro European who only knows European culture and has adapted that OR the person is white, so they wont get what I am about to say. If the person is black per say then they are definitely a mental slave, and will never grasp what i am saying.

Now, if it wasn't important to understand who the ancient Egyptians or the Phoenician were for that matter, then whites would not have gone through such great pains to hide the truth. They wouldn't have gone through and knocked off noses, out right lied and repainted monuments to make the people lighter. That is a hell of a lot of work and lying to do, for something which isn't "important".

so now, why is it important? It boils down to the saying "know thy self". When a population has no sense of self worth, when they feel people who are like them are incapable of producing science, art and civilization, then they in turn act a certain way. Because again, they feel incapable. This is true the world over.

Imagine if whites truly knew they contributed little if anything to the foundations of civilization. Imagine if it came out that western science is very deficient. That our fathers in Africa knew more 5,000 years ago than what these people know today. Imagine if it came out that before any white man set foot in Africa, we enslaved them in different parts of African for hundreds or thousands of years. what affect would that have on these people?

Once the true picture of African history is pieced together, taught in schools and hammered home through out the African child's formal education; I assure you, the material culture of the African/Diaspora will change with in one generation. THIS is why in 2010 with all the overwhelming evidence you still have savages like Toby Wilkinson lying about who and what the ancient Egyptians were and their relation to other African kingdoms at the time. That is why to this day they will refer to other African emperors and kings through Africa at the time as "rulers" and "chiefs" instead of calling them what they were, KINGS and EMPERORS.

But at the end of the day this is the usual eurocentric response. When whites are over whelmed with the evidence of Egypt then they attempt to marginalize it by saying "what does it really matter" or the one I really like "Egypt belong to the world". Ummm no it didn't. Egyptians were very insular and didn't seem to like non Africans to much. Yeah whites love to talk about how the Egyptians called the so called "Nubians" as "wretched Nubians" which is a lie, because Egyptians NEVER used the word Nubian to refer to ANYONE! Secondly at the time the two kingdoms were at war. At piece time, you don't see the hostility between the two kingdoms. However in relation to the Semite they considered them savages. Egypt was a African kingdom, with African people and a African world view, period, and it is important the youth know this.

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the lioness,
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typeZeiss, we are now living in a world that has electrical appliances, we are here thousands of miles apart communicating on computers over satellite links. We have cars, airplanes, central heating, refrigeration, electric lights, heart transplants, cell phones, power tools, television, trains, submarines, cameras moon landings,
and unlike in ancient times most people are not farmers or hunters

The Greeks, the Egyptians, the Chinese, the Incas all the ancient people did not have anything remotely comparable to modern civilization so what happened in ancient times is interesting but doesn't matter. Either you have the engineering skills to design solar electrical cells or a helicopter or you don't

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typeZeiss
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness:
typeZeiss, we are now living in a world that has electrical appliances, we are here thousands of miles apart communicating on computers over satellite links. We have cars, airplanes, central heating, refrigeration, electric lights, heart transplants, cell phones, power tools, television, trains, submarines, cameras moon landings,
and unlike in ancient times most people are not farmers or hunters

The Greeks, the Egyptians, the Chinese, the Incas all the ancient people did not have anything remotely comparable to modern civilization so what happened in ancient times is interesting but doesn't matter. Either you have the engineering skills to design solar electrical cells or a helicopter or you don't

you mistake progress for advancement. What we have now is nothing more or less than shiny barbarism. A concept I do not expect you to understand. In all this technical progress, they still can not replicate a pyramid on the scale and precision of the great pyramid with modern technology. They still do not have a theory that outlines string theory on the level the Dogon have outlined it. Also, there has been scientific evidence that shows electricity wasn't a foreign concept to the ancients.

So while I understand your sophomoric and under development opinion, I also understand it (your opinion) is based on materialism. TRY to understand one thing, life is greater than your simpleton approach to it.

Lastly, you and your simplistic approach to research will never grasp one fact. EVERYTHING you see today is based off of the research and material culture of the ancients. Specifically the ancient Africans. However, what we have now is a very dumbed down and barbaric approach to ancient science.

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the lioness,
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nothing can compare in decadance to the Egyptian Kings.
The Kings had their whole society primarily focused on building huge sculptures of themsleves and giant useless tombs called pyramids for them to bury themselves in with their jewels and gold stolen from Kush.
The Egyptian Pharoahs invented decadent imperialism

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typeZeiss
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness:
nothing can compare in decadance to the Egyptian Kings.
The Kings had their whole society primarily focused on building huge sculptures of themsleves and giant useless tombs called pyramids for them to bury themselves in with their jewels and gold stolen from Kush.
The Egyptian Pharoahs invented decadent imperialism

*lol* oh
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beyoku
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Anyone here want to work on editing wikipedia pages?
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typeZeiss
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quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
Anyone here want to work on editing wikipedia pages?

wouldn't it be a fruitless undertaking though? you change it, then some idiot comes and changes it again etc. etc.? Where will it end?
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beyoku
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quote:
Originally posted by typeZeiss:
quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
Anyone here want to work on editing wikipedia pages?

wouldn't it be a fruitless undertaking though? you change it, then some idiot comes and changes it again etc. etc.? Where will it end?
Well you can always find out.
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the lioness,
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can I help out with the wiki editing?

I come from the perspective that Egypt may have been multi-ethnic, from the earliest period possibly having input from all the surrounding areas. I'm not sure if this is racist or not
or I should go wit the racial purity thing?

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Doug M
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quote:
Originally posted by typeZeiss:
quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
Anyone here want to work on editing wikipedia pages?

wouldn't it be a fruitless undertaking though? you change it, then some idiot comes and changes it again etc. etc.? Where will it end?
It is not fruitless. You simply have to overwhelm them with consistent verifiable sources, stay on topic and flag unverifiable, POV and purely weasel worded nonsense. Unfortunately most of the problem comes from folks semi-protecting articles which cuts both ways. It keeps out nonsense but makes editing a nightmare in many cases. The examples you pointed out earlier can be easily rectified with proper flags. In other words, call them on their bull sh*t.

For example, once the fact that the whole idea of "race" in ancient Egypt originated with early white anthropologists like Samuel Morton as part of an American and European system of scientific racism, the ancient Egyptian race controversy article pretty much got split into two parts and the current article has stayed pretty stable. Of course some folks want to try and beat a dead horse and pretend that it is "afrocentrics" who were racists, but the facts of scientific racism trumps that point (not to mention the Jim Crow laws and racism in the U.S. itself).

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typeZeiss
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness:
can I help out with the wiki editing?

I come from the perspective that Egypt may have been multi-ethnic, from the earliest period possibly having input from all the surrounding areas. I'm not sure if this is racist or not
or I should go wit the racial purity thing?

As long as you can prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that some mythical Semitic people mixed in with the Africans in the area then sure, contribute. Other wise keep the wiki fantasy free.
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Some have argued that that
African-Americans Should not “interfere”
with Nile Valley history, and have “no
connection” to said history, and
self-styled “concerned” Egyptians, both
bogus and real sometimes put in an
apparent appearance to lecture said
‘African Americans.” or “Black
Americans.” But if the conservative
mainstream references below themselves shows that
numerous ancient Egyptian cultural links
and similarities to other parts of “Black
Africa”, including MODERN African
cultures, how come African Americans
are supposed to sit quietly and say
nothing?

“African Americans" are not obsessively
tracing their history back to Egypt as
alleged by assorted blowhards and pundits.
They don't need to any such tracing, nor do
they need "permission" from self-styled
Arab nativists, alleged "Egyptian"
natives/nativists, or white people to study
and comment on Egypt.

The Sahara was once a lush greenbelt
extending across one-third of Africa,
allowing the easy movement of peoples.
Its climatic cycles - the famous Saharan
"pump" - was to create conditions for the
movement of peoples into the Nile
Valley, the Sahelian zone and elsewhere.
But it remains the foundation.

Informed African-Americans thus do not
conceive of Egypt as being created out of
thin air. Nor do they rely on the truism
that "Egypt is in Africa."
They begin at the Saharan zone, which
provided the main source for the
peopling of the Nile Valley, and laid the
foundation, and was the genesis of the
Nile Valley Civilization.

As far as peopling:
The Sahara is the key, the starting point,
the genesis, the fundamental force. Egypt
follows AFTER and derives from that broad Saharan
foundation, not before. There is no need to seek
"inspiration" from latecomers like Rameses or Cleopatra.
The "inspiration" springs from the starting point,
the African cultures that gave rise to the Egyptian
dynastic civilization. It is from that genesis, that
launching point, that other developments are appreciated,
in all their continuity.

---------------------------------------------------------------
Quote by another conservative scholar
[QUOTE:]

"The evidence also points to linkages to
other northeast African peoples, not
coincidentally approximating the modern
range of languages closely related to
Egyptian in the Afro-Asiatic group
(formerly called Hamito-Semetic). These
linguistic similarities place ancient
Egyptian in a close relationship with
languages spoken today as far west as
Chad, and as far south as Somalia.
Archaeological evidence also strongly
supports an African origin. A widespread
northeastern African cultural assemblage,
including distinctive multiple barbed
harpoons and pottery decorated with
dotted wavy line patterns, appears during
the early Neolithic (also known as the
Aqualithic, a reference to the mild
climate of the Sahara at this time).
Saharan and Sudanese rock art from this
time resembles early Egyptian
iconography. Strong connections
between Nubian (Sudanese) and
Egyptian material culture continue in
later Neolithic Badarian culture of Upper
Egypt. Similarities include black-topped
wares, vessels with characteristic
ripple-burnished surfaces, a special
tulip-shaped vessel with incised and
white-filled decoration, palettes, and
harpoons...

Other ancient Egyptian practices show
strong similarities to modern African
cultures including divine kingship, the
use of headrests, body art, circumcision,
and male coming-of-age rituals, all
suggesting an African substratum or
foundation for Egyptian civilization
(rather than diffusion from sub-Saharan
Africa, as claimed by some Afrocentric
scholars.)"


Source: Donald Redford (2001) The
Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt,
Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p. 28

[Quote by another conservative
mainstream scholar:]


"There is now a sufficient body of
evidence from modern studies of skeletal
remains to indicate that the ancient
Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians,
exhibited physical characteristics that are
within the range of variation for ancient
and modern indigenous peoples of the
Sahara and tropical Africa.." (Nancy C.
Lovell, " Egyptians, physical
anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the
Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed.
Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake
Shubert, ( London and New York:
Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332)
---------------------------------------------------------------

The Sahara was also a key player in the
great West African civilizations that were
to arise as well- Mali, Ghana, Timbuktu
etc., ranging from the Saharan trade, to
the transmission of knowledge, to the
transmission of new methods and
technologies.

The Sahara is the great linking pin and
transmission belt culturally. It is also the
great climate and environmental motor
that shaped one-third of Africa. As one
study notes:

From:
Climate-Controlled Holocene
Occupation in the Sahara: Motor of
Africa's Evolution
by Rudolph Kuper and Stefan Kröpelin*

”Radiocarbon data from 150
archaeological excavations in the now
hyper-arid Eastern Sahara of Egypt,
Sudan, Libya, and Chad reveal close
links between climatic variations and
prehistoric occupation during the past
12,000 years. Synoptic multiple-indicator
views for major time slices demonstrate
the transition from initial settlement after
the sudden onset of humid conditions at
8500 B.C.E. to the exodus resulting from
gradual desiccation since 5300 B.C.E.
Southward shifting of the desert margin
helped trigger the emergence of
pharaonic civilization along the Nile,
influenced the spread of pastoralism
throughout the continent, and affects
sub-Saharan Africa to the present
day.”



Informed African Americans place Egypt
in its proper context as a tropical
civilization. They don’t begin any
exploration of African civilizations with
Egypt, they start with AFRICA ITSELF,
from which the genesis, the foundational
elements sprung, that provided the
basis or substratum for that civilization.
The Sahara is one such central
foundational element. It is in that broad
Saharan zone for example that the ancients
created theih huge megaliths of stone, and
designed calendars and other astonomical alignments.
It is from that broad zone that the cattle cults of
NE Africa developed- cults that were to figure so
prominently in Egyptian religion. It is from the
African genesis that other concepts such as divine
kingship, and the art iconography of Egypt developed.
It is from the Saharan zone (which extends well into
the Sudan) that patterns of technology in pottery,
toolmaking, mummification, and numerous other influences
emerged that were to distinguish ancient Egypt.
ANy "inspiration" taken by African-American begins
with a foundation based on the ground, in Africa.


There are other “African Americans” who look even
further back than the Saharan mix
mentioned above. They look back to the
dawn of modern humanity, which
emerged from “sub-Saharan” Africa, then
proceeded to Northeast Africa, (also "sub Saharan"
by the way), and from there to the rest of the
globe by various exit routes. Again, the
starting point for any discussion remains AFRICA itself.

[quote]:
“These studies suggest a recent and
primary subdivision between African and
non-African populations, high levels of
divergence among African populations,
and a recent shared common ancestry of
non-African populations, from a
population originating in Africa. ...
populations in northeastern Africa may
have diverged from those in the rest of
sub-Saharan Africa early in the history of
modern African populations and that a
subset of this northeastern-African
population migrated out of Africa and
populated the rest of the globe. These
conclusions are supported by recent
mtDNA analysis (Quintana-Murci et al.
1999)."
[Tishkoff et al. (2000) Short
Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism.. Am J
Hum Genet; 67:901-925]


African-Americans thus don't need
anyone to tell them how they "should"
think about Egypt, the Nile Valley, the
Sahara or any other part of Africa, nor
do they need "clearance" or "approval"
from would be, reputed or alleged
"concerned Egyptians" or presumptuous
white lecturers to place Egypt in its
scientifically documented African context.


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_7661.html

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beyoku
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There are multiple issues. One one hand you have the Euroclowns that are looking to place themselves everywhere in Africa. On the other hand I think people have a mis-understanding of the intra African diversity of the Nile Valley.

This misunderstand comes from a lot of people cutting and pasting old stuff. There is a lot of regurgitation of old data when there is TONS of new data out there. There is some very very good and interesting data that has been sitting around for YEARS that has not even been touched. Screen shots of the same stuff over and over will have this forum stagnant. Posters need to start putting things into their own words.

Here is the perfect example: Zarahan posted some data about Afroasiatic and then some evidence of its influence...the problem is that data reinforces the presence of Nilo-Saharan speakers and Nilotics in the Sahara and Nile Valley, not Afrasians. This is not to say anything bad about Zarahan, but the interpretation of that data has changed based on new evidence or even old but better evidence. The quote does speak of Sudanese but it seems like it gives them a minor role when really its the opposite. You will be very surpised what can be found from very very simple Google searches.

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typeZeiss
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^^

Any suggestions on good places to find this data? (besides telling me google that is)

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beyoku
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quote:
Originally posted by typeZeiss:
^^

Any suggestions on good places to find this data? (besides telling me google that is)

Well one thing I started to do instead of searching for general terms is search for the type of results I am looking for : add "Abstracts" to the search string. That way we can pull up some published sources instead of links that take us Back here, to some Euroclown website, or to Wikipedia.


Google Searching "sudanese neolithic abstracts"
IN this way you can see some of the stuff that people are writing now or have already published. Much of it is quite different from the information that we usually see. Many of the authors are different too....this gives a fresh supply of information.

There are quite a few good reads in the results but there is also this gem:

http://www.saharajournal.com/

quote:
Sahara is an international, yearly journal. Its aim is to spread information and opinions concerning the prehistory and history of the Sahara, the Sahel, and neighbouring regions. It was founded in 1988 with the purpose of acting as a link between scholars and experts of all countries.

Sahara deals mainly with archaeology, anthropology, desert environment, prehistoric rock art, ancient history, pre-Islamic monuments, ancient writings, archaeozoology, geology...

This journal is new to me even if its since 1988.
Pages upon pages upon pages of Abstracts to published articles I am sure some of which can be found on the web for free. Some folks may have a lot on our plate....but an individual with the time could start from the latest journal, Google the abstract and see if it is freely available and published. This alone could keep a person busy for over a year.
Looking at the latest list of Abstracts they are all names we have NOT seen before with VERY interesting topics.

Another thing I have been doing which is much more tedious is strolling through university websites and looking over the abstracts and published articles. I have found specific things everyone wants to know.....but nobody knows....and I know nobody knows about them or else it would be all over the internet. [Wink]

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Here is the perfect example: Zarahan posted some data about
Afroasiatic and then some evidence of its influence...the problem is
that data reinforces the presence of Nilo-Saharan speakers and
Nilotics in the Sahara and Nile Valley, not Afrasians. This is not to
say anything bad about Zarahan, but the interpretation of that data
has changed based on new evidence or even old but better
evidence. The quote does speak of Sudanese but it seems like it
gives them a minor role when really its the opposite. You will be
very surpised what can be found from very very simple Google
searches.


^^Your argument is dubious on several counts. 1- First,
why should not the presence of Nilo-Saharans or
Nilotics people be reinforced in any presentation
on the Nile Valley, alongside Afroasians?
Please elucidate.

2- Second, the quotes above specifically mention the
linkage of Egyptian with Afro-Asiatic languages.
Since this links Egyptians with other Afro-Asiatic
speakers,
how exactly does the data above then "slight" Afroasian speakers
on linkages? Do tell.


3- Third you say "The quote does speak of Sudanese
but it seems like it gives them a minor role."

How so? The data above clearly links ancient Egyptians
with Sudanese on physical and cultural indices. SO
tell us how the Sudanese presence is being "slighted"?


4- Fourth, you speak of "old data" but how exactly is
GOdde 2009, Raxter 2011, Raxter and Ruff 2008, Keita 2008 and
Pinhasi & Stock. 2011 "old data"? What makes it "old" - because
you say so? That's not good enough.


5- Fifth, you speak of "TONS" of "new data" out there
but yourself proffer very little, indeed you have
done very little contribution of "new" data to ES
in the last 2 years, either by way of analysis or
by way of concise summaries to build the database.
If you have this supposed "ton" of new information
how come you post so little of it? In yet another
thread you reference the DNA Tribes data, but it was Bass who
posted the information not you, guru of newness. If you had all this
"current" data at your fingertips, how come you never get around to
posting it, and adding value to the database?


6- Sixth, you yourself have done little re citations
in some instances. Let's take one of your postings for example.
IN one of your most recent postings on ancient Saharan
watercourses for example you reference maps posted at least 3
years ago on ES. Why such "old" information, oh guru of
"newness"? In the same thread you proffer a theory about
Nilo-Saharans saying "This theory has kinks but thus is my story
and I am sticking to it"
, yet fail to provide any credible citation
in support. You merely assert. Where is your vaunted "new data"
in support of the theory you are "sticking" with?


7- Seventh, your assertions re old, new and GOogle searches are
laughable. You say in the Limb thread: ”..start putting things
into our own words and listing sources." There has to be some
NEW research and some NEW hypothesis. What is happening
NOW is when people try to research Africana they see a same list
of stuff on every search engine. It reduces the research pool of
Africana data to an area that is actually QUITE SMALL on the
internet. Anyone trying to learn something new just seems the
SAME STUFF wherever they go.”


But summaries are given both in text, in commentary (see
numerous threads), and in the graphics, with detailed sources
listed. It is up to the reader to further investigate or, gasp, POST
THEIR OWN "NEW" information. You seldom do either.
Furthermore it is nonsensical to say that "when people try to
research Africana they see a same list of stuff on every search
engine.
" SO let me get this straight. If I look up the Badarians,
the ONLY links that will appear is to similar ES posting above?
Nonsense. And how exactly does the information posted on ES,
"reduce the research pool of Africana data"? Simplistic BS. WHat?
The above data somehow, by some magic algorithm, blots out all
other Google search results, so that ONLY what is "approved" by
Zarahan shows up? aha haha ahahahahah haha hah.. Your lack of
elementary logic is astounding. Would that I had such godly
powers to "reduce the research pool of Africana data".. And keep
in mind, if I choose to post an update, or “the listing” to counter
trolls, or illustrate a point for my own purposes, that’s my
prerogative. I don't care who doesn't like it.


8- Eight, even when you come up with “new” info, you fail to follow
up. You did post info on a 2012 African Genetics Conference, but
some of the well known names and authors themselves pack their
work with allegedly "old" references and data. Over half the
references in Tishkoff 2010- Working toward a synthesis- is over
10 years old. including Schwarcz 1988, Stringer 1989, Mercier
1993, Grouble 1986, Greenberg 1972 etc etc..
So is Tishkoff too occupoied with including "old" information?
And since when is something like Redford 2001, or Vogel 1997,
showing clear linkages of Egyptians with allegedly "slighted"
Sudanics "inappropriate" to reference? Notably, and not
surprisingly, you have not yet posted any "new" information on
insights from this conference which you attended. WHat's taking
you so long, "guru of the new"?


9- Ninth, your claims are contradictory. In this thread, typically, you
pass to GOogle, though saying you have all this "new" info at hand,
and you have added this "new" data to few other ES threads in
recent years. You say "go to Google.” But your own advice
contradicts your earlier statements, Earlier you said Google "only"
shows this allegly "limited list of search results", and that
"Africana research" was being "suppressed" or "slighted" as a
result. So why do you recommend TypeZeiss go to Google if he
will "only" get "limited" information?


10- Tenth, You also say: ”I have found specific things everyone wants to
know.....but nobody knows....and I know nobody knows about
them or else it would be all over the internet.
If this is so, why
haven’t you produced this “mystery” knowledge? You speak much
of allegedly "old" information, but have done little to practice what
you preach, "guru of the new"..

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Originally posted by Doug:
It is not fruitless. You simply have to overwhelm them with consistent verifiable
sources, stay on topic and flag unverifiable, POV and purely weasel worded nonsense.


I think yours is a good service Doug. I used to do
it then wondered why I was spending so much time
tied down in their little hovel, bogged down with
endless edit wars and admin sandbagging. I find it
much better to post full data on ES for all to
see, and make their own cross-check. This makes
their attempts to suppress data an utter failure.

Furthermore I have noticed that new Wiki editors
take ES data and attempt to add it to Wiki. Though
they are often stymied via administrator/ race clique sandbagging,
or more subtle means such as protecting weak
article versions that exclude updated data, it
also means that the pages they are so obsessed
with "protecting" are in constant turmoil. The
clique has to hop, skip and jump constantly
because new or veteran editors can see the protection
racket they are running.

But we need people at all ends of the spectrum, hammering
away- whether it be WIki, or in making sure the database
stays current and well represented, or on private
blogs and forums. Its like the extended battle-space
of Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia used so successfully
by the VC and NVA. As I've said before, the disappearance
of ES will not make the hard data disappear. It is
meant to be replicated and repeated on multiple
platforms across the battle-space- a universal pool
of info from many sources, compiled by many people.
I see guys like Bass, Louisville Slugger, Morpheus, and various
vets under diff screen names ES hitting hard with
real data at all comers in the different forums-
from Stormfront to Anthroscape.
Keep up the good work!

 -

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zarahan
My bad if you felt offended but let me break down what I am talking about.

1st in foremost there is NO POINT in posting that long winded image of data you post. Everyone here has read all the sources and any one who has not will just skip past it. it is not in an easy format where individuals can easily find free papers. To address your points individually.

1. The presense of Nilo-Saharans should be reinforced because it seems likely that they are the dominant type in the Nile Valley that came from the Sahara. Period. Its a shame no one seems to talk about them. Lets not project the genetics of the modern people back on the ancients. Lets instead work forward. If most of Egyptians ancestors come from the Sahara........and Nilo Saharans were in the Sahara then why are we talking about Horners that expanded northward via the Red Sea? The results of the Amarna mummies indicate just maybe we should not be talking about Horners and Afroasiatic people REGARDLESS of the Fact Egyptians language is Afro-Asiatic. Maybe Ancient Egyptian was the Nile Valley are Lingua franca as Hausa is the West African lingua franca? Basically in the same that NE African Afriasians PREDATE the now dominant Eurasians in Egypt - Nilo-Saharans and likely NILOTICS predate the the Afroasiatics. None of the "Old Data" that we deal with indicates that. The Amarna results indicate that VERY well with the Horn African affinity being minuscule to the Great Lakes, Southern African and even West African affinity. I will define "Old" later.

2 - I cant see where i said "Slight" but anyway my post was not to "SNUB" Afroasiatic speakers in favor of Nilo-Saharans. My point was to give an alternative view based on data that is not brought up here often. In bavauls book when he talks about "Black Genesis" notice he is not talking about Black Afroasiatic speakers. Instead the Nilo-Saharan Tibbou.

3 - If Egyptians have a recenet ethnogenesis based on the mixture of Different African groups there ARE no "Egyptians" proper where a distinction could be made between them and Sudanese that far back. There is no difference between the Nilo-Saharans coming from Southern Libya into the western Desert to the Egyptian Nile valley..............vs kin to the south that come into the Nubian Desert at Nabta Playa...........vs those even more south that Enter Darfur and Khartoum in geographic Sudan. The same can be said for the Eastern groups.

4 - There is nothing wrong with Goode, Raxter, Keita etc. But we all know that data is "Old" around HERE. There is nothing NEW we can learn from Goode and Keita around HERE - their evidence has been exhausted unless you are re-assessing it under a different hypothesis. That is why we laugh when Lioness post "Old" studies from 2008 around HERE. They have been broken down already and no longer come up. In speaking of "New" data I am talking about things we havent seen before, particularly things published by Africans.

5 - YOu are right, i have not posted too much to egyptsearch of the past few years. Mainly because I have been reading Books instead of PDF. Plus the Euro-Clowns have take over. Best believe though when there are things to be said I chime in. I think you need to go back of the DNA tribes post and see the substance that I contributed.

6 - Yep in the ancient saharan watercourse thread I referenced what was already posted. Sure I should have provided some citations but I am not working from specific short articles that say specific things to site. WHen reading a collection of books overtime sometimes you just have to summarize it in your own words. In the future I will provide sources, thats fair. My data is confidential at this point [Smile] . Soon enough though.

7 - Nope wrong on this. I dont know how many times it has happened. You go to google and look for something and it leads you back to Egyptseach where something is being quoted. That is not good. Or it leads you back to some website with 1000 quotes....that is not good either. People searching for Africana subjects on Google don't want to learn through the repetition and memorization of quotes. It is much better for a person to reach a site where the topic is being discussed in someones OWN words based on the OWN observation of what they have read or know by experience. THAT is the reason why I write long blocks of text with no source. THAT is what makes the discussion of the same idea and evidence DIFFERENT based on the person writing the post. That is what made E.S. great not sitting around Circle Jerking the same data. This is the entire idea of a DISCUSSION board. It should be used to discuss not fight off euro-clown trolls unless there are periodic smackdowns to be laid.

If folks want a source for a specific idea then they need to ask for it otherwise we should assume the reader is already familiar with the idea. I think its past the point on this site where everything needs to be sourced. Why should we have to SOURCE ides on limb proportion data or the migrations of Afrasians from the Horn of Africa north? That is common knowledge from what we have learned. If you look at all the threads on all the different sites talking about the Amarna data (the last big thing) E.S. is the only site that stands out because the discussion went OFF the usual path and studies and ideas unseen before were talked about and referenced. Readers can actually LEARN something from that thread. Endless quotes do no make a reader THINK. Look at Explorers blog, its excellent as were most of his posts here.

8 - Again nothing is wrong with old data. "Stale" data is really the issue around here. Much of the conference data cannot be disclosed because some of it is not published yet. I am waiting on a video. From the video I can see what was is included and taken out. But folks have to take advantage of new research. Oh yeah, We had the largest DNA testing company giving away FREE DNA kits of Black folks and only 1 or 2 people get one - Are you kidding me! Analyzing personal DNA results of people of Afican descent would have added a breatht of fresh air to a dying forum...didnt happen but hey I tried.

9 - I gave one example in google. I gave the specifics of what I find useful, maybe others will to. Lead a horse to water, maybe it will drink. Also there is a website from one of those searches that has over hundreds articles/abstracts all on once site. Most of it hasnt ever been touched. The idea is, instead of searching for subjects search for articles...many of the articles will be unfamiliar to the board.

10 - Well somethings are confidential, you can hope that they will be released but maybe not. if there is an enemy they need to be attacked from a different angle. Euroclowns are like rats and roaches. You can only poison them for so long but after a while that poison is like food to them. "Louisville Slugger" is a perfect example. Cant comment on him personally but his methods of spamming and profanity only exist to get him booted and banned from every website available. There is a certain what to say things and it gets to a point where you cannot just say whatever you want to say, any way you want to say it. If a geneticist or anthropologist was familiar with the posts and content of "Louisville Slugger" what do you think would happen if he sent them an email asking for clarification on a specific point? [Frown] Do you think he represents the best and brightest?

"The Bass" emails scientists and gets answers because he keeps it professional, his web presence is not 'off the chain'. Brandon sends emails and gets results because he is a Student and will publish one day. Real discussions is what got National Geogrphic to refute Egyptsearch. At this point though, I am on old ass man and have real life stuff to deal with. My focus has changed to knowing for the sake of knowing, forget the trolls. People that had genuine opposing ideas are interesting but as for trolls....For the most part why bother.

I will end with this, we can agree to disagree about everything. I will not question YOUR knowledge about anything. But I will say we should not be doing Data Dumps. Sure we can do it but it is not the "Best Answer". It allows readers to cheat. It also allows them to accumulate numbers and facts they may no know the true meaning of. PLUS it gives easy access to the Euroclowns......there are some facts they dont even DESERVE to known. With data dumps the students NEVER become teachers. Notice how the "third generation" of Egyptsearch users never really branched out? They are being handicapped. They are like the butterfly breaking out the cocoon that some human decided to assist by cutting open the cocoon so the butterfly could escape. Sounds good but that butter fly never received the stress of breaking out of the cocoon and the blood was never pushed into the wings...butterfly can now never fly. [Wink]

I want Wikipedia to have good well rounded information but i am against editing it myself. It creates Wiki-scholars.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^Fair enough. I agree that people should understand
the data, if they are going to use it. Agreed that people
should go to the actual studies and read them, and get the
qualifications and different levels of meaning.


<b>If Egyptians have a recenet ethnogenesis based on the mixture of Different African groups
there ARE no "Egyptians" proper where a distinction could be made between them and Sudanese that far back.</b>
^^A good point. CErtain would be "Egyptian nativists" are
too often trying to posture as if ancient Egyptians sprung
up out of thin air- from anything but "Africans." Anywhere else
is acceptable- "MEditerranean", "Middle East", Europe.
That different AFRICAN groups WITHIN Africa make up the
ancient Egytians is something that debunks would be "nativists"
and is truer to history than their "Africa-free" claims.


<b>You go to google and look for something and it leads you back to Egyptseach where
something is being quoted. That is not good. Or it leads you back to some website with 1000 quotes... </b>

^^This is not necessarily a bad thing. Wikipedia is the number
one result in Google worldwide on the average. This means that any
distorted or bogus evidence on WIkipedia is the primary result
people will initially see. SOme never go beyond that.
If ES results with verifiable citations anyone can check
are coming up first before Wikipedia, it could thus be said that
is an excellent thing. It means that the falsifiers and their
admin collaborators have utterly failed, and a more balanced
picture of Nile Valley and African biohistorical diversity
is being placed on the table, worldwide.


<b>"Louisville Slugger" is a perfect example. Cant comment on him personally but his methods of spamming and profanity only exist to get him booted and banned from every website available. There is a certain what to say things and it gets to a point where you cannot just say whatever you want to say, any way you want to say it. If a geneticist or anthropologist was familiar with the posts and content of "Louisville Slugger" what do you think would happen if he sent them an email asking for clarification on a specific point? [Frown] Do you think he represents the best and brightest?</b>

After looking at the battles and opponents The SLugger
has faced, it could be argued he should be commended.
Outnumbered by multiple racists who are themselves hurling
insults and profanity, The SLugger has fought
on vigorously, hitting hard at all comers, who in
several instances vacated the field in defeat. The fact
that The Slugger has been banned from a number of forums I
would say is a badge of honor. They can't deal with the hard
data he brings to bear, so they attempt to rig the game
using "administrative" means. Same cynical tactics used
on Wikipedia with collaborating admins sandbagging legitimate
edits and editors. But the ES search results shows that
these tactics have failed. And the approach one would use
in writing a scholar versus confronting racists on Anthroscape
would obviously be different.

I would say we need The SLugger's hard, aggressive approach.
It is like old time NFL cornerback Fred "the Hammer" Williamson.
Go into his backfield, and there would be a price to pay.
It should be unmistakeable that those who want a more balanced
picture of African bio-history including that of the Nile Valley
are unimpressed and unintimidated by Eurocentrism or certain
modern Egyptian nativist claims. We don't need their approval,
or permission. We don't automatically accept their models.
They have to prove themselves. We have our own thing going-
our own base, consistent with the facts, and are ready and able to
take on all comers to the contrary. Like the old Shakespeare
quote from King John says:
"Come the three corners of the world in arms, and we shall shock them.."


<b>But I will say we should not be doing Data Dumps. Sure we can do it but it is not the "Best Answer". It allows readers to cheat. It also allows them to accumulate numbers and facts they may no know the true meaning of. PLUS it gives easy access to the Euroclowns......there are some facts they dont even DESERVE to known. With data dumps the students NEVER become teachers. Notice how the "third generation" of Egyptsearch users never really branched out? They are being handicapped.</b>

Sure it allows SOME people to not read the actual studies,
but on the flip side it makes it easy for interested people
to actually locate the information and verify it. It works
both ways. ANd precise citations and quotes are critical to
highlighting and exposing distortions and falsehoods. Numerous
bogus claims about Egyptians for example have been exposed
by quoting precisely from Barry Kemp, SMith, Trinkhaus etc
where they show that even northern Egyptians in various eras
show clear tropical African limb proportion patterns. Precise citations
and quotes remove ambiguity about who said what, and force people to
clarify their thinking and chain of logic and evidence.

Data dumps also are sometimes a necessary counter response to "burial"
tactics used by trolls- massive numbers of multiple new threads
rehashing the debunked arguments, hoping to bury real evidence.

The distortions and falsehoods so easily spun in past years
are no longer tenable, thanks to hard-coded citations.
In addition, there is a good deal of popular denial or distortion
of the reality of Egypt's African heritage. Just making an
argument is a weak approach. Hard citations and quotes have
to be laid down, removing all doubt, and embarrasing the deniers,
and enhancing credibility.

If anything I would say we need even more citations and quotes
to be distributed even more widely. Even today for example, one
can observe numerous black history month initiatives where
supporting info has not progressed beyond Diop 1974- CIvilization
or Barbarbism.. Much current data confirms Diop but some also
contradicts him. People need to update their information.

I would say we need EVEN MORE ease of access not less. About
20% of the citations and quotes in the "master listing" above
I typed by hand, poring thru GOogleBooks, and locked PDF articles
that did not allow text harvesting. The rest is pdf articles that
allowed text excerpts to be copied and stuff posted by editors
on ES. This information needs to be out there- made easily accessible.
And so it has.

<b>Multiple approaches- same objective</b>
Bottom line- I would say a mix of approaches are needed-
your softer approach where information is husbanded and more summarized,
and an aggressive full-access citation base where data is harvested
from inaccessible sources and distributed to the masses.
Both can co-exist.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Hypocritical double standards of the European academy in research
on African peoples - C.A. Diop


"But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka,
the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. What if an African
ethnologist were to persist in recognizing as white-only the blond, blue-eyed
Scandinavians, and systematically refused membership to the remaining Europeans,
and Mediterraneans in particular—the French, Italians, Greek, Spanish, and
Portuguese? Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries
must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so
should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in
the reality of the Negro world. To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a
Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be,
to a European, an attitude that maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the
same race."

-- Cheikh Anta Diop, 'Evolution of the Negro world', Presence Africaine (Vol. 23, no. 51, 1964), pp. 5-15.

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Djehuti
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quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:

I don't recall Keita 2008 even using any sub-Saharan populations other than the Somalis. This is why I don't trust Wikipedia on any controversial issues.

Unfortunately that is the price to pay when having an encyclopedia accessable to editing by laymen.

I hate suggest any conspiracies, but I can't help but notice that these editors seem well versed in all these sources which we discuss here on Egyptsearch all the time. Who wants to bet the editors are trolls from either here or the biodiversity b.s. site. [Smile]

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Trollkillah # Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by typeZeiss:
^^

Any suggestions on good places to find this data? (besides telling me google that is)

You have mail.
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Trollkillah # Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
quote:
Originally posted by Truthcentric:

I don't recall Keita 2008 even using any sub-Saharan populations other than the Somalis. This is why I don't trust Wikipedia on any controversial issues.

Unfortunately that is the price to pay when having an encyclopedia accessable to editing by laymen.

I hate suggest any conspiracies, but I can't help but notice that these editors seem well versed in all these sources which we discuss here on Egyptsearch all the time. Who wants to bet the editors are trolls from either here or the biodiversity b.s. site. [Smile]

Well, I spoke / had a discussion with somebody a while ago on YouTube. And he insisted on, me posting sources, on Wiki. I told him that it isn't reliable. During that discussion I did post references to the sources. As rebuttal he gave the ussually rants, by the so-called Hamitic forum and such.


The name of this individual is Mercuyve.


Other ironies, seem to be very supportive of Blogs, which are deemed as eurocentric.


Brenna Henn,


Current Research Interests

Genetic variation outside of Africa is greatly reduced compared to the amount of genetic variation found within Africa. Populations from neighboring regions in Africa, e.g. east vs. south, can be as different genetically as, for example, the Italians differ from the Chinese. I have focused primarily on the demographic history of African hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and Kalahari KhoeSan populations of South Africa. I continue to be interested in topics at the intersection of genetics and anthropology such as the evolution of human longevity and natural selection on skin pigmentation. My current research projects in the Bustamante Lab include the history of migration into North Africa, fieldwork in southern Africa, refining migration models of the Out-of-Africa expansion using full genome sequence data, patterns of selection in populations with different demographic histories and phenotype/genotype associations in diverse populations.


http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/Brenna_Henn/


Bustamante Lab and Co ... In the News


North African History: Gene Expression, Dienekes
African Sub-structure: Nature News
Rare Alleles: NY Times
Southern African Origin: BBC, LA Times, Nature News
Mutation Rates: The Spittoon, Dienekes
Pastoralist Migrations: Stanford Report

http://www.stanford.edu/~sylpha/Brenna_Henn/News.html


http://www.anthro.ucdavis.edu/department-resources/main-office/events/spring-2011-evolutionary-wing-colloquium-series-brenna-henn


Welcome to my blog! For the most part, this page will be an extension of my website, with comments relating to my research. But it will also branch out into more general discussions of human evolution.


-Dienekes' anthro blog


-Mathilda's Anthropology Blog


-Steve Sailer


http://www.evoandproud.blogspot.com/

http://pages.globetrotter.net/peter_frost61z/fwdm7.htm

http://pages.globetrotter.net/peter_frost61z/


The irony continues...

http://sailerfraud.blogspot.com/

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Djehuti
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^ So the wikipedia articles on Egyptian populations run by the cacasoid crazy trolls. What's new? [Embarrassed]
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beyoku
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^
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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lol at the so-called "evo" blog- more like dumbo...
with continual "evolution" towards dumb and dumber..

I am surprised to see the http://sailerfraud.blogspot.com
site.
Never knew it existed. I agree with Sailer on a
number of points such as right to bear arms (that's
how for example the black Deacons of Defense stood down
the Klan in the 1960s civ rights era), but not his
biodiversity race model. I will say this for Sailer. When
I post info to the contrary on his blog, he usually
lets it go through, unlike the "amen corner" or
the racist faithful on other "biodiversity" forums.
Speaking of Sailer, he some time ago repeated James Wilson's
claim that "Black American family patterns" with
high OOW rates was due to "African family patterns"
of "polygamy" carried over to America. A look at
the actual data reveals this claim to be dubious.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

African food production and agriculture practices cause polygamy, with corresponding results in Black American family structure, claim assorted buidiversity proponents Because "tropical agriculture" needed all these extra hands, and women provided most of the agricultural labor force, polygamy took hold in African culture, and is thus reflected in Black American culture with its high OOW rates today.

Assorted evidence put forward includes:

The anthropologists Jack Goody and Ester Boserup first explored how continental differences in raising food affected family structure. Boserup noted in 1970:

"Africa is the region of female farming par excellence. In many African tribes, nearly all the tasks connected with food production continue to be left to women."


and a blurb by James Q. Wilson:
James Q Wilson: {quote):
quote:


"In Europe, where animal-drawn plows were used to farm rich land, intensive agriculture made monogamy important… In these places, men did much of the agricultural work …

In much of Africa, by contrast, farming was done by handheld hoes used to work small plots of land that were often rather infertile. Women were widely used to do the hoeing and carry in the produce.

Many husbands found that they could use extra wives to wield even more hoes, and so marrying several women made sense economically… the conditions they describe may have had important consequences for the kinds of families that had to endure the travails of slavery in the Western Hemisphere."

 -
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Such claims however are weak on several counts:

1- Heavy female participation in African agriculture
on tough soils is documented but is this the PRIMARY
cause for polygamy? Many scholars point to other factors
such as the high child mortality rate, and whether there
was a surplus of females in the populations. Others add
more reasons.


Books such as Demography: Analysis
and Synthesis, (2005, Caselli et al,) see
the chief causes of polygamy as sexual
adn reproductive related rather than
production/economic oriented. Polygamy
they hold allows a man to maximize his
offspring, or engage in sexual activity
forbidden by certain cultures when a
wife is pregnant or nursing a child.

They also note strong political considerations
as reasons for polygamy- such as local
elites consolidating power and exhibiting
prestige over the less powerful.
Polygamy also serves to cement alliances
between tribes, clans and bloodlines.

In short, while extra female labor to farm may
play a part, the main causes of polygamy may have
comparatively little to do with "tropical farming
practices."

-------------------------------------------------------------------


2-- Furthermore women in both cold-climate
Europe and Asia have long had heavy and burdensomne
involvement in agriculture, contradicting attempts
to portray African women as some sore of unique
beasts of burden.


European women have long had heavy
involvement in European agriculture for
centuries, including milking animals, spinning
wool, brewing ale, or turning out en
masse for the harvests. One study of
1400 England for example found them
doing heavy labor, including weeding,
mowing, carrying grain, breaking stone
for road repair, and driving plough oxen.
(M. Mate, Women in medieval English
society). Likewise in Asia, Chinese or Korean
women were valued and exploited for
their ability to engage in the
back-breaking work of rice cultivation
which required stoop labor to tend crops
by hand, even though the plow was in
wide use. It all depends what time
periods are looked at. In European or
Asiatic grain agriculture seasonal cycles
such as planting and harvest time saw
plenty of female labor deployed. The
growth of mechanization in other eras
was to also have its effects.

Data from China, even in the modern era AFTER decades
of progressive communist rule, still shows women as heavy
agricultural beasts of burden, when men monopolizing
less demanding agricultural operations.


quote:


"where machinery was used it was monopolised by men, and that this frequently made nonsense of the supposed distinction between 'heavy' men's work and 'light' women's work. For example, in one instance, Wolf's assistant came across three people working the fields. One was a man whose task it was to turn the switch to a water pump on and off. As a technician, he earned 10.5 work-points a day. The other two were women in their thirties 'wh were rushing back and forth ditching and damming to keep the water moving evenly through the fields. although the evening was cool, they were sweating with the effort it took to move the heavy waterlogged earth onto the banks of the ditches. They were unskilled workers and earned 6.5 workpoints for their day's labor'. Other reports suggest that through the 1980s and 1990s, in villages in which agricukture continued to be collectively managed, divisions of labour and inequalities in remuneration, such as those cited by Wolf, persisted.. Observing the situation at the chicken farm, however, the researcher felt that the women's work was far from beibg lighter than the men's. Men were responsible for carrying bags of feed on their shoulders, and for using a crushing machine to break up the feed. Meanwhile, it was the women's task to mix the feed and give it to the chickens and collect the eggs. Each day each woman had to collect 1,680 eggs, a task which the researcher estimated woud involve them bending down some 280 times a day."

--Women's work in rural China: change and continuity in an era of reform. Tamara Jacka. 1997

In short, African women have never been the
unique continental beasts of burden
some make them out to be.
-------------------------------------------------------------


3- The claim of "carryover" to Black
Americans is dubious. IN fact Black Americans
in some eras, have posted BETTER monogamy rates
than US Whites, and LOWER rates of illegitimacy
than supposed pace-setting northern European
Nordics in both the 19th and 20th centuries.


If these "tropical" practices were the cause of
US Black family instability, why did black folk for
over 50 years after slavery post relatively
low out-of-wedlock rates, and post
higher marriage rates than whites? In
every US census between 1890 and 1940
for example blacks posted higher
marriage rates than whites. The black
OOW rate as late as 1960 weighed in at
19%, less than that of today's US whites,
and much less than the OOW rates for
supposedly more virtuous Nordics in
various areas of the 19th century (white
Vienna -46%, or white Stockholm -49%
for example), or contemporary Nordics
(45% Iceland and Sweden or 40%
Dennmark in the 1980s), and much
lower than the 50% OOW rates posted in
heavily white Irish areas in the 19th
century.
-------------------------------------------------------------


4-- Assorted claims re "tropical patterns"
fail to explain how non tropical Arabs, Jews
and other "Middle Easterners practiced polygamy
for millennia and how some still practice it
today, and fail to explain how these peoples
who strictly subordinated their women from
exposure re agricutural work (such as the
Muslim "purdah" practices) STILL engaged in widespread
polygamy.

If the heavy involvement of women
in farm work is the cause, how come the
Semitic Arabs, who try to keep their
women in strict subordination, and who
are not out in the fields like the African
women, how come they have widespread
polygamy, even today in the 21st century?
This should not be the case under assorted
biodiversity "evolutionary" claims.
-------------------------------------------------------------


5- Europe itself has hardly been a shining
example of monogamy in action historically. Numerous
European peoples practiced polygamy, or its close
equivalent, practices suppressed by a religion
itself derived from Semitic peoples who practiced
polygamy. And ironically, under the new religion,
Europeans themselves continued to practice polygamy.



In is known for example that the
Emperor Justinian had to legilate against
polygamy in his domains in 600AD, an
action that should have been hardly
necessary in supposed areas of
Caucasoid monogamous bliss. And
polygamous practices in all but name
was for example is well documented in
white Europe. Among the Celtic peoples
for example: quote:

"In Ireland .. there were various forms
of marriage. Ten classes were recognized
in the law tract in marriage, of which
only nine are explained. The first three
are regular marriages.. The others are
temporary unions. Comparing a
thirteenth-century Welsh list to its
eighth-century Irish counterpart, T.M.
Charles-Edwards remarks that the
"existence of the Welsh list suggests that
in many respects the Welsh law of
women resembled the Irish until the
gradual progress of Christian ideas on
marriage caused a fundamental
transformation" However,
Charles-Edwards continues, "even in the
thirteenth century, this transformation
was still very incomplete.."

"Marriage and divorce, especially within
the several recognized temporary unions,
were relatively simple matters, and
divorce did not automatically reflect
badly on either party.. And this ""ease
with which marital union was concluded
and the almost equal ease with which it
was dissolved," continues RR Davies,
goes a long way in explaining the
"apparently cavalier attitude toward
so-called illegitimate offspring." To
complicate matters still further, there is
substantial evidence to suggest that
concubinage was legally recognized and
that there may well have been
arrangements which we would now term
polygamy and polyandry."

--C.W. Sullivan. 1996. The Mabinogi: a
book of essays (Garland Medieval
Casebooks) .

and

Polygamy was legal among the Celts,
with multiple wives recognized. Brehon
[Irish law- pre-English conquest 17th
Century) law for example -quote-
"stipulated that any injury sustained by
a second wife in the first day of coming
into the household of an established first
wife was not a convictable offence."


and

"There were ten classifications of
Celtic marriage, each a specific form of
contract, including one that was marriage
for "a year and a day."

--Walking the maze: the enduring
presence of Celtic spirit By Loren
Cruden. 1998


----------------------------------------------------------------

 -

6-- One of the most powerful European religions,
that of Mormonism, not only practiced polygamy until
comparatively recent times, but in its heavenly paradise,
polygamy will be practices and recognized. Ironically even
Nordic Aryan leader Adolf Hitler at times also had a
favorable opinion of polygamy.


Mormon leader Joseph Smith had numerous wives, one only 14
years old, and referred to "spiritual wifery" that would be
"sealed" throughout eternity. Polygamyis part and parcel of
the Mormon paradise.

quote:
:
"After death, while their husbands are creating and ruling
over planets, the women have the questionable honor of bearing
his "spirit children" for eternity. These spirit children
descend to their father's planet to inhabit bodies as mortals,
who are then ruled over by him. Mormon Doctrine states that
these celestially married men and women will live eternally
in the family unit and have spirit children, theus becoming
Eternal fathers and Eternal Mothers." A man who has multiple
wives can beget many more spirit children, making him much
more powerful. Mormon men must beget as many children with
as many wives as possible, for "their glory (in heaven) is
in proportion to the number of their wives and children" (Snowden 11)."

--D. Kirkland. 2008. Mormons and Muslims: A Case of Matching Fingerprints

Other references:
Charles W. Penrose, "Mormon" Doctrine Plain and Simple,
or Leaves from the Tree of Life, 1897, Salt Lake City, p.66
("In the case of a man marrying a wife in the everlasting covenant
who dies while he continues in the flesh and marries another by the
same divine law, each wife will come forth in her order and enter
with him into his glory.");

Joseph Fielding Smith, Bruce R. McConkie, ed., Doctrines of
Salvation, 1956, vol. 2, p. 67
(Smith, who was sealed to two different women, stated,
"[M]y wives will be mine in the eternity.");

Harold B. Lee, Deseret News 1974 Church Almanac, p. 17
("My lovely Joan was sent to me: So Joan joins Fern/That
three might be, more fitted for eternity./'O Heavenly
Father, my thanks to thee'.").



 -

And a mere 70 or so years ago, "Aryan" Nazi German
itself was encouraging polygamy.
QUOTE:

"Although monogamy was the official
marriage from of Nazi Germany, the
society in effect, turned toward
polygamy because Aryan males were
encouraged to beget Aryan children with
as many racially qualified women as
possible- in and out of wedlock."

--Young-Bruehl (2002) The anatomy
of prejudices).


According to The Fuherer in his own words"

"Let's remember that after the Thirty
Years War polygamy was tolerated, so
that it was thanks to the illegitimate
child that the nations recovered its
strength."



And lamenting those Rhine maidens that have
never known man, the Fuherer further argues:

"As long as we have in Germany two and a half
million women vowed to celibacy, we shall be
forbidden to despise the child born out of wedlock."

--L. Pine, 1999, Nazi family Policy


----------------------


 -

^^ And yet, Adolf and Eva Braun may yet be
united spiritually for all eternity. Certain
zealous Mormons pray for their "sealing."


According to one book, a number of Mormons
following their practice of prayers for dead and
eternal marriage have --quote--
"stood proxy for Adolf Hitler's and Eva
Braun's baptisms and eternal marriage."

( --LaTayne Scott. 2010. The Mormon Mirage: A
Former Member Looks at the Mormon Church Today)

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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additional data:

debunking claims based on wilson..
 -


debunking claims based on Tishkoff
 -


debunking claims based on Lovell
 -


'Aryan' claims are undermined by their own citations. Conservatives Cavalli-Sforza et al, show that Africans like Ethiopians cluster more with other darker-skinned Africans rather than Europeans or Middle Easterners


debunking claims about Ethiopians 2
 -


debunking claims about Ethiopians 3
 -


-------------------------------------------------------


debunking claims based on hammer, poloni, bosch et al..
 -


debunking more claims based on hammer
 -

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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tropical adaptation
 -

recap archive-

Tropical African associate with body breadth in numerous ways:

a) Millennia of adaptation in the cool, monsoon-swept Sahara
when it was a lush greenbelt before its arid phase, AND millennia
of adaptation in the cool subtropical Medit zone of Egypt

b) Millennia as pioneers and operators advanced food production
and forms of agriculture.

These two factors cover the bases. No "Mediterraneans"
or "Middle Easterners" are needed to give the natives
diversity in body mass. in addition Africa's built in diversity
also more than covers all bases:

(a) The vast built-in genetic diversity of Africa
home of modern humanity- with the most genetic diversity on the planet

(b) Continual movement of numerous variants and blends
of tropical African peoples and tribes out of the
Saharan zone, East Africa etc into the Nile Valley.
Mass influxes of "Middle Easterners" or bogus "Mediterraneans"
are not needed to give tropical Africans diversity.
Such outsiders were always present, particularly in the later
stages but did not significantly affect the fundamental,
overall core population for millennia.

Some data indicates that the Badari folk and
the earlier Nile Valley folk were WORLD PIONEERS
AND LEADERS in organized food production and some
forms of agriculture, with the HIGHEST POPULATION
DENSITIES ON THE PLANET for their time. If any
people ought to show increases in body mass, they would be Exhibit A.


QUOTE:
"With the onset of the Neolithic, the dietary
diversity of hunter-gatherers is replaced with
dietary specialization on one or a few cereal
crops and the products of domestic animals...
Increasing sedentism and population density are
almost universally associated with increases in
infectious disease.. and may underpin the the
reduction in stature in the Predynastic period.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Badarian
civilization had higher population density than
did any other contemporaneous civilizations
(Gabriel, 1987, Hassan 1988)."

--Pinhasi and Stock 2011. Human Bioarchaelogy of the Transition to Agriculture


“The adoption of this broad adaptive strategy
provided the large food supply needed by a growing
population, but achieving maximum production called
for a good deal of planning and the management of
labour. This marks the beginning of an organized
food-producing system: agriculture.”

“Dating from more than 15,000 years ago, the evidence
from the Nile valley is arguably the earliest comprehensive
instance of an organized food-producing system known
anywhere on Earth.”

--Africa: A Biography of the Continent,
by John Reader, 1998, pp. 120-173


----------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1095643302002945

[i ]Human body size and body proportions are interpreted as markers of ethnicity, ‘race,’ adaptation to temperature, nutritional history and socioeconomic status. Some studies emphasize only one of these indicators and other studies consider combinations of indicators. To better understand the biocultural nature of human size and proportions a new study of the growth of Maya-American youngsters was undertaken in 1999 and 2000. One purpose of this research is to assess changes in body proportion between Maya growing up in the US and Maya growing up in Guatemala. Height and sitting height of 6–12-year-old boys and girls (n=360) were measured and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/height]×100, a measure of proportion, was calculated. These data are compared with a sample of Maya of the same ages living in Guatemala and measured in 1998 (n=1297). Maya-American children are currently 10.24 cm taller, on average, and have a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e. relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm longer) than the Guatemala Maya. Maya-American children have body proportions more like those of white children in the US than like Maya children in Guatemala. Improvements in the environment for growth, in terms of nutrition and health, seem to explain both the trends in greater stature and relatively longer legs for the Maya-Americans. These findings are applied to the problem of modern human origins as assessed from fossil skeletons. It has been proposed that heat adapted, relatively long-legged Homo sapiens from Africa replaced the cold adapted, relatively short-legged Homo neandertalensis of the Levant and Europe [J Hum Evol 32 (1997a) 423]. Skeletal samples of Maya adults from rural Guatemala have body proportions similar to adult Neandertals and to skeletal samples from Europe with evidence of nutritional and disease stress. Just as nutrition and health status explains the differences in the body proportions of living Maya children, these factors, along with adaptation to climate, may also explain much of the differences between the Neandertal and African hominid samples.[/i]
--Boggin, et al. 2002. Rapid Change in Height and Body Proportions of Maya American CHildren. Amer Jour Hum Bio. 14:753-761
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35099/1/10092_ftp.pdf

---------------


What other info from Ehret, Bellwood, etc seems to tell
us is that these people, and their predecessors,
were storing, harvesting and processing grain
for a long time, along with handling domestic animals.
In short, they had millennia to undergo body mass increases
from expanded food bases.
Incorporation of Mid East
domesticates only added to an ALREADY dense population
and rich economic base. They had more than enough time
to see a reduction in earlier foraging morphology
toward more increases in body mass- millennia.

Furthermore they had millennia in the Sahara and
Nile Valley to adjust to the fluctuating climates,
and cooler "Mediterranean" temperatures. That is
why these groups did not all look like stereotypical
(and distorted) "true" broad morphology. WHy should
they after millennia in a more temperate zone, with
increasing animal and plant domestication and sedentism
in that zone?


QUOTE:
"With the onset of the Neolithic, the dietary
diversity of hunter-gatherers is replaced with
dietary specialization on one or a few cereal
crops and the products of domestic animals...
Increasing sedentism and population density are
almost universally associated with increases in
infectious disease.. and may underpin the the
reduction in stature in the Predynastic period.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Badarian
civilization had higher population density than
did any other contemporaneous civilizations
(Gabriel, 1987, Hassan 1988)."

--Pinhasi and Stock 2011. Human Bioarchaelogy of the Transition to Agriculture

and:
if the Nile Valley folks were perhaps the first to
have the most organized food production system
then known on earth, doesn't that say that they had
"the body mass thing" covered a long time ago?

QUOTE:

“The adoption of this broad adaptive strategy
provided the large food supply needed by a growing
population, but achieving maximum production called
for a good deal of planning and the management of
labour. This marks the beginning of an organized
food-producing system: agriculture.”

“Dating from more than 15,000 years ago, the evidence
from the Nile valley is arguably the earliest comprehensive
instance of an organized food-producing system known
anywhere on Earth.”

--Africa: A Biography of the Continent,
by John Reader, 1998, pp. 120-173
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 -

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dana marniche
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quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
quote:
Originally posted by typeZeiss:
quote:
Originally posted by astenb:
Anyone here want to work on editing wikipedia pages?

wouldn't it be a fruitless undertaking though? you change it, then some idiot comes and changes it again etc. etc.? Where will it end?
Well you can always find out.
i was told that is what happens. Why do all the work so that someone without any sense but only nationalist rhetoric can come around and remove it easily. There is too much nonsense on wikipedia nowadays anyway, especially with regard to history.
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Djehuti
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^ LOL Indeed. Wikipedia has become one among the front-lines for the 'battle for history' or rather the battle to control the telling of history by the Eurocentrics. In the meantime actual scientific studies like the gems Zarahan loves to spam continue get ignored. [Embarrassed]
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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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They think they have control, but the joke is on
the Wiki moles ultimately. As Asteb notes, data
from ES keeps appearing near the very top of Google
search results. This means people have a good,
valid, early alternative to the Wiki distortions
that contradicts them directly. Their attempts at
spinning the issues thus is a failure, no matter
how much they guard-dog the distorted articles.

Furthermore ES stuff is credible because of its
careful citations. This research is verifiable and
it means that new editors will continually try to
change the distorted articles, creating even more
work for the moles and their admin collaborators.
They have to scurry back and forth like rats
deleting legit edits and sandbagging new editors.
Their workload will never get any lighter at all.
One can imagine the dweebs, pathetically checking
their "guardpost" articles three of four times a day.
They have to violate their own rules about "verifiable"
content. MEanwhile they have weak articles with
several errors, undermining their credibility. People will
naturally gravitate towards more credible info
posted in ES.

Even more ironic, there is a lot of stuff they
CAN'T put in WIki that we can put on ES and Reloaded.
They are handicapped by their own rules while on
ES we have total freedom, Take your pic posts on
ancient Egyptians Djehuti. I see them now well
represented on the web as a bloc. They cannot put
some of these on Wiki due to copyright restrictions.

While they scurry back and forth- deluding themselves
that they are "guarding" something significant, ES
and Reloaded are pushing ahead with the research.
expanding the display bounds of research in the
field, bringing access to the masses that is MORE
credible.

Speaking of that pic bloc:


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Djehuti
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^ Agreed. Which is why I said wiki is ONE of the front line battles for historiography. Egyptsearch is another one! LOL Yes, I too have noticed that google searches on info about ancient Egyptian population affinities ('race') and cultural affinities (African), yield a lot of Egyptsearch and ES Reloaded threads. No doubt this is the reason why Dienekes and Mathilda have sent their 'agents' to troll up the ES forum. LOL

You can only hide truth for so long. Egypt's African identity has been concealed for centuries by white racism and Eurocentric bias, it is the 21st century now and all the scientific evidence has debunked the racial b.s. of the past centuries.

Sally Ann-Ashton and her museum is a testament to the truth. There are many more scholars and experts who are waking the people up.

The dumbass trolls can attack ES all they want, but this forum is just one among the many arsenal out there for truth. [Embarrassed]

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Indeed. Below is the latest example of their fakery..


FAKE QUOTE and "CITATION"
''Caucasoid gene flow into the Ethiopian gene pool occurred predominantly through males.''
(Poloni et al. 1997)


^^^
 -

^^^Bwa aha hahahahahah.. Hapless buffoons!
This so-called "quote" proffered is totally bogus.

I have the pdf in front of me and it is available
on the web. No such thing is said by Poloni 1997.
This is another example of "biodiversity" and HBD
fakery and deception, and the bogus "citations"
and "references" they insert into Wikipedia and elsewhere.

Idiots.. Don't you know people can check up
on your fakery with a few clicks? And the Wiki
article in which you have been inserting this BS
is riddled with several other errors- but I will not
point them out. Let them sit and serve to continually
undermine the "article" and the further credibility
of "HBD" and assorted "bodiversity" idiots..

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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 -

Recent studies find the ancient Egyptians had a
tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans
and were not cold-adapted like European type
populations. Tropical body plans also indicate
darker-skin.



QUOTE:
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians
had the "super-Negroid" body plan described by
Robins (1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7
(a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths;
data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the
Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the
Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early
Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than
predicted from femoral length. Despite these
differences, all samples lie relatively clustered
together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient
Egyptian stature and body proportions". American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:


QUOTE:
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians
had the "super-Negroid" body plan described by
Robins (1983)..
This pattern is supported by Figure 7
(a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths;
data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the
Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the
Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early
Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than
predicted from femoral length. Despite these
differences, all samples lie relatively clustered
together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient
Egyptian stature and body proportions". American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229. [/QB]

quote:
Predynastic egyptian stature and physical proportions
1986

G. Robins and C. C. D. Shute
Abstract
An attempt has been made to estimate male and female Egyptian stature from long bone length using Trotter & Gleser negro stature formulae, previous work by the authors having shown that these rather than white formulae give more consistent results with male dynastic material. Evidence is presented that the tibia length should include the spine in the later (1958) formulae and should exclude it in the earlier (1952) formulae. It is also shown that better results are obtained if the constants in the stature formulae are modified so as to conform more exactly with the basic data published byTrotter &Gleser. When consistency has been achieved in this way, predynastic, proportions are founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs are even longer in relation to the proximal segments than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions are termed «super-negroid».




^^^ The 2 statements that the ancient Egyptians had super negroid proportions is false



.
 -

Egyptians, Pre Dynastic 84.8
Egyptians, Dynatsic 83.8

Modern Africans 82.8 - 85.8

Pharoahs 82.4
Modern European 78.4 - 83.1

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Trollkillah # Ish Gebor
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 -


 -

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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^^^ The 2 statements that the ancient Egyptians had super negroid proportions is false

^Laughable. So who are they talking about that had
said proportions? Chinese?

 -


a 2008 Study puts the ancient Egyptians closer to
US Blacks than whites:


Quotes:

"Intralimb (crural and brachial) indices are
significantly higher in ancient Egyptians than in
American Whites (except crural index among
females), i.e., Egyptians have relatively longer distal
segments (Table 4). Intralimb indices are not
significantly different between Egyptians and
American Blacks... Many of those who have studied
ancient Egyptians have commented on their
characteristically ''tropical'' or ''African'' body plan
(Warren, 1897; Masali, 1972; Robins, 1983; Robins
and Shute, 1983, 1984, 1986; Zakrzewski, 2003).
Egyptians also fall within the range of modern
African populations (Ruff and Walker, 1993), but
close to the upper limit of modern Europeans as well,
at least for the crural index (brachial indices are
definitely more ''African'').. In terms of femoral and
tibial length to total skeletal height proportions, we
found that ancient Egyptians are significantly
different from US Blacks, although still closer to
Blacks than to Whites.


Comparisons of linear body proportions of Old
Kingdom and non-Old Kingdom period individuals,
and workers and high officials in our sample found
no statistically significant differences among them.
Zakrzewski (2003) also found little evidence for
differences in linear body proportions of Egyptians
over a wider temporal range. In general, recent
studies of skeletal variation among ancient Egyptians
support scenarios of biological continuity through
time. Irish (2006) analyzed quantitative and
qualitative dental traits of 996 Egyptians from
Neolithic through Roman periods, reporting the
presence of a few outliers but concluding that the
dental samples appear to be largely homogeneous
and that the affinities observed indicate overall
biological uniformity and continuity from Predynastic
through Dynastic and Postdynastic periods.

Zakrzewski (2007) provided a comprehensive
summary of previous Egyptian craniometric studies
and examined Egyptian crania from six time periods.
She found that the earlier samples were relatively
more homogeneous in comparison to the later
groups. However, overall results indicated genetic
continuity over the Egyptian Predynastic and Early
Dynastic periods, albeit with a high level of genetic
diversity within the population, suggesting an
indigenous process of state formation. She also
concluded that while the biological patterning of the
Egyptian population varied across time, no consistent
temporal or spatial trends are apparent. Thus, the
stature estimation formulae developed here may be
broadly applicable to all ancient Egyptian
populations.."
("Stature estimation in ancient Egyptians: A new
technique based on anatomical reconstruction of
stature." Michelle H. Raxter, Christopher B. Ruff,
Ayman Azab, Moushira Erfan, Muhammad Soliman,
Aly El-Sawaf, (Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008,
Jun;136(2):147-55

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the lioness,
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quote:


Predynastic egyptian stature and physical proportions
1986

G. Robins and C. C. D. Shute

When consistency has been achieved in this way, predynastic, proportions are founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs are even longer in relation to the proximal segments than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions are termed «super-negroid».

quote:
Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova:
^^^ The 2 statements that the
ancient Egyptians had super negroid proportions is false


^Laughable. So who are they talking about that had
said proportions? Chinese?


quote:
Originally posted by Swenet:
The Egyptians didn't have "super-negroid" limb
proportions. Enough data has come out by now to
show that this is a myth, especially their crural
indices. Their brachial indices, however, are
rather high, and more tending to the African side
of the equation. How tropically adapted their
limbs were doesn't matter (limb length is not a
useful litmus test of recent African ancestry, as
evidenced by the limbs lengths of European
Mesolithic samples). What matters is that the
Ancient Egyptian limb lengths are such that they
cannot be accounted for by Ancient Egypt's ecology
and that they rule out an origin independent of
the tropics.


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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Older limb studies find the same:

"In this regard it is interesting to note that limb
proportions of Predynastic Naqada people in Upper
Egypt are reported to be "Super-Negroid," meaning
that the distal segments are elongated in the fashion
of tropical Africans.....skin color intensification and
distal limb elongation are apparent wherever people
have been long-term residents of the tropics." (C.L.
Brace, 1993. Clines and clusters..")


"An attempt has been made to estimate male and
female Egyptian stature from long bone length using
Trotter & Gleser negro stature formulae, previous
work by the authors having shown that these rather
than white formulae give more consistent results with
male dynastic material... When consistency has been
achieved in this way, predynastic proportions are
founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs
are even longer in relation to the proximal segments
than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions
are termed "super-negroid"...

Robins (1983) and Robins & Shute (1983) have
shown that more consistent results are obtained from
ancient Egyptian male skeletons if Trotter & Gleser
formulae for negro are used, rather than those for
whites which have always been applied in the past. ..
their physical proportions were more like modern
negroes than those of modern whites, with limbs that
were relatively long compared with the trunk, and
distal segments that were long compared with the
proximal segments. If ancient Egyptian males had
what may be termed negroid proportions, it seems
reasonable that females did likewise."
(Robins G, Shute CCD. 1986. Predynastic Egyptian
stature and physical proportions. Hum Evol
1:313-324. Ruff CB. 1994.)

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the lioness,
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^^^^ this is all Robins and Shute, quoted by others,

Robins and Shute who in the 80s revised methodology on Trotter & Gleser data from the 50s

ther term "super negoid" was invented by them:

_______________________________________________________

Predynastic egyptian stature and physical proportions
1986

G. Robins and C. C. D. Shute

When consistency has been achieved in this way, predynastic, proportions are founded to be such that distal segments of the limbs are even longer in relationto the proximal segments than they are in modern negroes. Such proportions are termed «super-negroid».
___________________________________________

assuming Negoid is a valid concept later data refutes the claim that Pre Dynastic Egyptians were, "super Negroid" = more tropical in limb ratios than Negroids,


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the lioness,
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can't post New Topic in Egyptology, WTF?
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Swenet
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^Some threads also seem to have been shortened.
There are a bunch of threads at the top that appear
to have been bumped, but some of the more recent
posts seem to have disappeared.

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