The Beti-Pahuin are a group of related peoples who inhabit the rain forest regions of Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. Though they separate themselves into several individual ethnic groups, they all share a common history and culture.
They were numbered at an estimated 3,320,000 individuals in the late 20th century. Their languages, from the Bantu subgroup of the Niger–Congo language family, are mutually intelligible and are thus sometimes considered to be dialects of a single tongue, called Beti.
One of these groups are the Fang people
R1b1c (formerly R1b1a) is defined by the presence of SNP marker V88, the discovery of which was announced in 2010 by Cruciani et al. Apart from individuals in southern Europe and Western Asia, the majority of R-V88 was found in northern and central Africa.
R1b1c (formerly R1b1a) is defined by the presence of SNP marker V88, the discovery of which was announced in 2010 by Cruciani et al. Apart from individuals in southern Europe and Western Asia, the majority of R-V88 was found in northern and central Africa:
"Further analyses in an extended group of Central African populations (including Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Sudan) might be pivotal to shed light on this poorly known demographic event in the region. It is noteworthy that the Fang population is the Bantu-agriculturalist group presenting the highest frequency of R1b1*. The presence of the Fang in west Central Africa appears to be recent, and they are thought to have entered the region from the north-eastern open grassland plateau during the 17th and 18th centuries (Perrois 2006).
Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages. 2009
Fang people population 147,000 Introduction / History The Fang people of Equatorial Guinea are part of the Beti-Fang continuum of Bantu languages, related to the Ewondo and Bulu of Cameroon. There are some significant numbers also in Cameroon and in Gabon. Their traditional territory is the interior rainforest. They are known as the jungle fighters. Their knowledge of the jungle and their ability to survive and function in the lush tropical vegetation is legendary.
As a result of Spanish colonization, the large majority of Fang people are nominally Roman Catholic. But few have personally accepted the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Scripture has never been translated into Fang of EG, although translations exist in Bulu of Cameroon and in a related Fang language in Gabon. One of these could probably be adapted to Fang.
One of the main Bantu tribes in central Africa is represented by the Fangs, who inhabit Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon and Gabon. The Fangs came from Nigeria recently, during the Bantu expansion. Fang legends speak about terrible battles their ancestors fought against warriors covered by long clothes and riding horses. The legends say that the Fang people were expelled from their former territories by red giants; fleeing from them, they reached a river they could not cross, but an enormous snake formed an arch with its body and family after family could move to the other bank.
But a woman killed the snake and the other Fangs could not cross the river.The legends bear a beat of truth: the Fangs were forced out of Nigeria by the Islamized tribes of Hausa, which wear long clothes and are skilled riders; on their way, the Fangs had to cross the Sanaga River, which poses serious difficulties, and one Fang fraction, the Beti, still live on the other bank of the river. The Fangs came from a savanna area and had to adapt to the rain forest.
The Fang population live on a plateau having an average altitude of 600 m (2,000 ft), separated from the coast by a chain of low mountains. The clime has two seasons: wet and dry. The forest is made of giant trees, including ebony, mahogany, okoume, bamboo and others.
Fang villages are located in forest clearings. They consist in a small number of huts made of trunks, branches and straw; the roof is conic or in two slopes and the greatest part of the daily activity (cooking, cereal grinding, banana paste making in large mortars) is performed outside, as the interior of the huts is dark, small, badly aerated and it is only used for sleeping sheltered against rains.
Each village has one larger hut, built away of the others, called the "House of the Word". There men gather for chatting, smoking, changing impressions and solving issues of the village; women are forbidden even to approach this house. This house harbors the bones of the most important ancestors of the clans that formed the settlement. Usually, each village is made of 2 or more clans (social unities made of individuals considered to descend from a common ancestor, who can be a great chief, a hero, a deified character or even an animal).
The Fangs believe in the existence of a mighty and eternal god, called Mebe'e, who created the world and all living creatures, but, disgusted with the evilness of his creation, he pretended not to know about the world and left Ndzame, the common father and ancestor of all the clans, to rule the world. Each person considers his/her life is determined by the influence of the spirits of the ancestors. To achieve their mediation for solving the daily life hardships, the Fangs practice the cult of the ancestors. The focus of the cult was in other times the bieri, a box made of tree bark in which they preserved the bones of an important person, and over which they placed a figurine representing his spirit. This figurine and the masks used during the ritual dances represented Fang art works.
Like most of the Bantu people, the Fangs belong to the Congo racial type of the Black African race, with some Sudanese contributions. The Fangs are rather tall, well built, with dark brown skin. The face has a marked prognathism, the lips are very thick and turned outside; the nose is very wide and flattened; the hair is curly and woolly.
The Fang men are mainly hunters, while the women are those charged with farming; men only do agricultural tasks requiring power, like burning new forest patches and plowing and clearing them for new plots. This task can be realized quite often, as the fields are not fertilized.
The Fang people practice polygamy, and each wife lives in an independent hut with her sons under the strict rule of the husband, his male relatives, the members of his clan and her mother in law. The women farms the fields of the husband (by having more wives, the men has more work power), and beside this, they gather wild fruits and fish in the rivers. Women also take care of and educate the children, fix the huts, make ceramics, raffia fabrics and fishing nets.
The women work the land using hoes. They sow, weed out and harvest. Once the woman has covered the needs of the family, she can use the fruits of her work with some degree of freedom. The main Fang crops are manioc, corn, banana and oil palm. Europeans also introduced plantations of coffee and cacao.
Men fish using traps and large nets. Women too can fish using rods and hooks. In streams, men use bag nets, manipulated by long sticks, for fishing. The Fang people also use traps for hunting all kind of animals, from birds to elephants. Before the introduction of the fire arms, the Fangs hunted using crossbows, machetes, spears, arrows with iron tips, from forest buffalo to antelopes, chimps, gorillas and elephants. One of the most appreciated dishes by the Fangs are the Goliath frogs (Conraua goliath), world's largest living frogs (30 cm or one foot in body length, weighing 3 kg or 7 pounds). Coastal Fangs also fish in the sea from their fragile canoes, and sea turtles are considered an exquisite dish.
In a thickly wooded area in southwestern Gabon, the increasing iboga (scientifically «Tabernanthe iboga») - the cult psychedelic plant Equatorial Africa. This shrub with yellow flowers, resembling coffee, officially declared a national treasure of Gabon. While the iboga grows, in addition to Gabon and southern Cameroon, and in the mainland of Equatorial Guinea. A cult of Aborigines practiced yet - Pygmies, long time ago. Iboga - a stimulant that some type of amphetamine, but without chemistry and weaker. Small doses of iboga causes sexual arousal, and in general energetically braced. Fang people used it as a means for maintaining the building and for themselves in a tone during the night hunting. All the buzz in the roots, which are pounded in a special mortar, then brewed and drank. When, as expected, comes "coming", and then again in scientifically speaking, the manifestation of instinctive aspects of the psyche. At iboge grown whole religion, which is called "Bwiti". The process of initiation lasts from Thursday to Sunday, people drink ibogoy Insanely, then wildly dancing. Taking this as an axiom, you can safely expect glitches. And they will come. All will take reasonable "in the form of ancestral spirits.
In Europe the main plant of a witch of fang was brought in 1867 by the French. Its extract sold gullible man in the street under the guise of a universal panacea. Thus, this type of ginseng. Research on the chemical composition came to a logical conclusion in 1901, when he was selected ibogaine, the main psychoactive alkaloid. Completely chemical structure was described only in the late 1960's, and then the plant has been subjected to official ostracism by the United States. Therefore, it is not too popular now. But for the money white may participate in the ritual lawless extract ibogi. The most safe and debugged in terms of infrastructure is here, Gabon. They say, passing the initiation, you can get rid of heroin addiction. Iboga is just the opposite of heroin on the nature of action. The official, strongly untwisted "Global center of religion Bwiti"- Panga. The village with hundreds of people, full environmental cleanliness, pleasant climate at an altitude of 800 m above sea level. "Tourist Center and Temple Bwiti" is currently under construction. A tour can buy now. Stay in Panga within 15 days of initiation of cost 1350 Euro (excluding airfare). Tour begins with a week of rest (visit waterfalls, walking through the woods, gradual distraction from the hustle and bustle), continues with two days of mental preparation, three days of bliss (ie initiation) and is crowned by three days of adaptation to the post of trance. After that, restored to new life sent from Gabon to Europe, I mean back in the bustle and noise. To make it more fun to iboge relies musical accompaniment. And so for three days, happy fun.
In addition, so you can update your Wikipedia page.
A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa Fulvio Cruciani et al (2011)
quote: The deepest branching separates A1b from a monophyletic clade whose members (A1a, A2, A3, B, C, and R) all share seven mutually reinforcing derived mutations (five transitions and two transversions, all at non-CpG sites). To retain the information from the reference MSY tree13 as much as possible, we named this clade A1a-T (Figure 1).Within A1a-T, the transversion V221 separates A1a from a monophyletic clade (called A2-T) consisting of three branches: A2, A3, and BT, the latter being supported by ten mutations (Figure 1).
How does the present MSY tree compare with the backbone of the recently published “reference” MSY phylogeny?13 The phylogenetic relationships we observed among chromosomes belonging to haplogroups B, C, and R are reminiscent of those reported in the tree by Karafet et al.13 These chromosomes belong to a clade (haplogroup BT) in which chromosomes C and R share a common ancestor (Figure 2).
quote:Originally posted by the lioness,: the sub clade is R-V88, not in common
Duh, ...see my previous posts.
quote: The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.
--Zhong H1, Shi H, Qi XB, Xiao CJ, Jin L, Ma RZ, Su B.
Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.
quote:Originally posted by zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova: Like most of the Bantu people, the Fangs belong to the Congo racial type of the Black African race, with some Sudanese contributions.
What is the "Congo racial type", and how would the Sudanese contribute?
This the new Eurocentric view, on how they are looking at African populations, trying to explain their theory on "racial types" in Africa.
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