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Author Topic: The Neanderthal and Aterian and Mousterian in North Africa
Ish Gebor
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The Neanderthal specimen was found in Israel, but somehow it couldn't interact with African species. Was the Neanderthal limited? I wonder how come? No wait, the Neanderthal originally came from Africa. And many specimen of species from Africa have been found at the Levant (Qaftzeh). smh


We also know that the Aterian and Mousterian are placed within the same time and region. This especially is important to know. [Big Grin]
quote:
 -

The southern most Neanderthal in the world (Amud Cave, Israel)

http://smnh.tau.ac.il/eng/gallery/anthropoligia

quote:

 -


To the above can be seen the Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Amud 1 skull, discovered in Israel. It is estimated that the owner of this skull would have stood 1.80 meters (5 feet, 11 inch es) tall. Its brain volume is the largest so far encountered for Neanderthals, at 1,740 cubic centimeters.

—HARUN YAHYA.THE NEANDERTHALS:
A HUMAN RACE

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quote:
Age-estimates ranging from 50 to 70 ky were obtained for the Mousterian deposits of Amud Cave in Israel from thermoluminescence measurements performed on 19 burnt flints. The late dates obtained for the stratigraphic layers bearing hominid remains confirm the evidence for the late presence of Neanderthals in the Levant. The dates enable a more effective comparison of the lithic assemblages from Amud Cave with those of other contemporaneous sites and underline the variability within Mousterian lithic industries at the end of the Middle Palaeolithic in the Levant.
—H. Valladas. et al.

TL Dates for the Neanderthal Site of the Amud Cave, Israel
http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/ViktoriyaShchupak.shtml

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Ish Gebor
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Here is the diamond in the rough,

quote:

North Africa is quickly emerging as one of the more important regions yielding information on the origins of modern Homo sapiens. Associated with significant fossil hominin remains are two stone tool industries, the Aterian and Mousterian, which have been differentiated, respectively, primarily on the basis of the presence and absence of tanged, or stemmed, stone tools. Largely because of historical reasons, these two industries have been attributed to the western Eurasian Middle Paleolithic rather than the African Middle Stone Age. In this paper, drawing on our recent excavation of Contrebandiers Cave and other published data, we show that, aside from the presence or absence of tanged pieces, there are no other distinctions between these two industries in terms of either lithic attributes or chronology. Together, these results demonstrate that these two 'industries' are instead variants of the same entity. Moreover, several additional characteristics of these assemblages, such as distinctive stone implements and the manufacture and use of bone tools and possible shell ornaments, suggest a closer affinity to other Late Pleistocene African Middle Stone Age industries rather than to the Middle Paleolithic of western Eurasia.

—Dibble HL et al.

On the industrial attributions of the Aterian and Mousterian of the Maghreb.

J Hum Evol. 2013 Mar;64(3):194-210. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.10.010. Epub 2013 Feb 9.


quote:

Aterian and Mousterian in North Africa


The sites in Northern Africa in country of Libya were researched because of the multiple Aterian stone tools found in the surrounding areas. The Aterian is another specialized industry similar to the Mousterian and the Levallois found in the Middle Paleolithic. The hominid species that occupied this area (modern humans) appeared to be "modern" by the types of artifacts that they
left behind.

—Cremaschi, Mauro, et al. "Some Insights on the Aterian in the Libyan Sahara: Chronology,
Environment, and Archeology." African Archaeological, Vol. 15, No. 4. 1998.

http://www.indiana.edu/~origins/teach/P314/MSA%20reports/Aterian.pdf


quote:

Extended Data Figure 4: Dating results for Area C.
 -


A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (BP), replacing all other forms of hominins1. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr BP (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium–thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the ‘assimilation model’ in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals2, 3.


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7546/images/nature14134-st2.jpg
Extended Data Table 2 | Manot 1 calvaria morphology compared with an Upper Palaeolithic European specimen, Neanderthals and present- day humans


—Israel Hershkovitz et al.

Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans

Nature 520, 216–219 (09 April 2015)

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7546/full/nature14134.html?message-global=remove

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally, the Aterian was considered to be the final phase of the local Mousterian/Middle Palaeolithic tradition, and thus mostly younger than 40 ka. Current data support a more asynchronous view. Integrating new dates for the sites of El Harhoura and El Mnasra with those from other sites published recently (Barton et al., 2009; Richter et al., 2010; Schwenninger et al., 2010; Jacobs et al., 2011) suggest an older chronology, with a range of between 112 and 50 ka. Sub-divisions within the Aterian have been also recognized for some time, but based entirely on typology (Ruhlmann, 1945; Antoine, 1950a, b; Balout, 1955; Roche, 1969). Recently, Jacobs et al. (2012) proposed four phases to the MP/Aterian history in the Maghreb:

The traditional interpretation has been that the Aterian represents a local facies of the North African Mousterian, sometimes described as an ‘evolved Mousterian’ (Tixier, 1959; Balout, 1965), or as an ‘Epi- Mousterian’ (Bordes, 1961). From a technological perspective, the characterization of the generalized North African MP/MSA is not simple. Techno-typological definitions of the non-Aterian MP/MSA industries in the Maghreb are unclear: Aumassip (2001) suggests a relative rarity of retouched tools and a relatively high frequency of sidescrapers, while for others abundant and diversified side- scrapers mainly produced on Levallois blanks are what characterize non-Aterian MP/MSA assemblages in the area (Wengler, 2010: 68). However, non-Aterian regional variation in the MSA is high. Aumassip (2004) identifies a number of traditions within a scheme of Mousterian variation very similar to European Mousterian facies e (a) Mousterian of Acheulean tradition, rich in small bifaces and Levallois debitage, frequent in Morocco and the Maghrebian Sahara; (b) Denticulate Mousterian in Egypt and the Maghreb, rich in denticulates and notches; (c) Typical Mousterian across North Africa; (d) Ferrassie-type Mousterian in the Maghreb, rich in scrapers and points and without bifaces; (e) Nubian Mousterian in Egypt and Sudan, characterized by the Levallois production of Nubian points, as well as (f) the Khormusan, a distinct facies of the Sudanese record (Marks, 1968; Goder-Goldeger, 2013). However, Aumassip’s classification of the non-Aterian MP/MSA of North Africa has been criticized on the grounds that it uses a European rather than African framework, and specifically excludes a number of sites from this North African ‘Mousterian’ variation e those described by Clark and others as ‘Middle Stone Age’ in Niger and Mali, and a set of very localized industries, such as those from M’zab and Dede in Algeria. To these, one could add the Pre-Aurignacian of Cyrenaica (McBurney, 1967). This highlights the point made earlier, that to understand the Aterian and its relationship to the MSA requires a broader comparative approach to technology, and that comparative framework must be Africa.

Aterian origins have usually been thought to lie in the Maghreb (Debènath et al., 1986; Pasty, 1997), although this view has been strongly criticized (Kleindienst, 1998: 8). Alternative origins have been suggested in sub-Saharan Africa, pointing to affinities with industries with foliates, such as the Lupemban and Sangoan (Caton- Thompson, 1946; Clark, 1982, 2008; Kleindienst, 1998; Wengler, 2010; Garcea, 2012). Sub-Saharan links are pertinent, since all human fossil remains found in association with the Aterian are those of H. sapiens, thus representing one of the main regional early human populations of Africa prior to the colonization of Eurasia.

We would argue that the Central Sahara occupies a pivotal place in the origins and dispersals of modern humans, and that the MSA of Africa is the context in which we should be developing hypotheses. Following the re-dating of key Maghrebian sites, the recognition of the North African MSA diversity, and of its place within a broader complex of Mode 3 African industries, the Aterian could be considered as one among several MSA traditions that may have existed in North Africa.

Although these need chronological definition, MSA-making hominins could have occupied North Africa and the Sahara during several wet phases, both before and after MIS5, while the expansion of the Aterian during this latter period is consistent with the expansion of modern humans, and MSA sites and traditions, throughout Africa. Furthermore, Aterian and non-Aterian MSA assemblages are temporally interstratified at certain sites as Ifri N’Ammar in Morocco (Mikdad and Eiwanger, 2000; Jacobs et al., 2011) or El Guettar in Tunisia (Aouadi- Abdeljaouad and Belhouchet, 2008, 2012). Such dynamic demographic responses to changes in socio-ecological environments have been mapped in other MSA traditions of Africa, such as the Howieson’s Poort (Jacobs et al., 2008).


--Robert A. Foley er al.

The Middle Stone Age of the Central Sahara: Biogeographical opportunities and technological strategies in later human evolution

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quote:
Spanish investigators believe they may have found proof that neanderthal man reached Europe from Africa not just via the Middle East but by sailing, swimming or floating across the Strait of Gibraltar.

[…]

Cabililla de Benzú, in the Spanish north African enclave of Ceuta, are remarkably similar to those found in southern Spain, investigators said. Stone tools at the site correspond to the middle palaeolithic period, when neanderthal man emerged, and resemble those found across Spain.

"This could break the paradigm of most investigators, who have refused to believe in any contact in the palaeolithic era between southern Europe and northern Africa," investigator José Ramos explained in the University of Cadiz's research journal.

[…]

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/jan/16/spain.science
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 -


—Saioa López et al.

Human Dispersal Out of Africa: A Lasting Debate

Evol Bioinform Online. 2015; 11(Suppl 2): 57–68.
Published online 2016 Apr 21. doi: 10.4137/EBO.S33489
PMCID: PMC4844272

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844272/

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Elite Diasporan
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Good **** Ish.
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by BlessedbyHorus:
Good **** Ish.

Next:


quote:
This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes.
—Fernando L. et al.

The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes - april2016


quote:
Genotyping of a DNA sample that was submitted to a commercial genetic-testing facility demonstrated that the Y chromosome of this African American individual carried the ancestral state of all known Y chromosome SNPs. To further characterize this lineage, which we dubbed A00 (see Figure S1, available online, for proposed nomenclature), we sequenced multiple regions (totaling ∼240 kb) of the X-degenerate portion of this chromosome, as well as a subset of these regions (∼180 kb) on a chromosome belonging to the previously known basal lineage A1b (which we rename here as A0).
—Michael F. Hammer Fernando L. Mendez et al.

An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree

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xyyman
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In 1960, mining operations in the Jebel Irhoud massif 55 km southeast of Safi, Morocco exposed a Palaeolithic site in the Pleistocene filling of a karstic network. An almost complete skull (Irhoud 1) was accidentally unearthed in 1961, prompting excavations that yielded an adult braincase (Irhoud 2)4, an immature mandible (Irhoud 3)5,
an immature humeral shaft6, an immature ilium7 and a fragment of a mandible8, associated with abundant faunal remains and Levallois stone-tool technology6. Although these human remains were all reported to come from the bottom of the archaeological deposits, only the precise location of the humeral shaft was recorded. The interpretation of the Irhoud hominins has long been complicated
by persistent uncertainties surrounding their geological age. They were initially considered to be around 40 thousand years (kyr) old and an African form of Neanderthals9. However, these affinities have been challenged5,10,11 and the faunal8 and microfaunal12 evidence supported a Middle Pleistocene age for the site. An attempt to date one
of the hominins directly by uranium series combined with electron spin resonance (U-series/ESR)3 suggested an age of 160 ± 16 kyr (ref. 13).
Consistent with some genetic evidence14,

--------------------
Without data you are just another person with an opinion - Deming

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the lioness,
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If there were Meanderthals in Africa and they mixed with humans in Africa thatn humans in Africa would carry Neanderthal DNA and it would be of a different type than Neanderthal DNA from a different region
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xyyman
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"If"? And I agree there weren't "Meanderthals" in Africa and no where else. Just kidding i know it ia typo.

How can still argue that there weren't Neanderthal IN Africa when neanderthal originated IN Africa. Neanderthal is a DEAD line and as many other "homos".

--------------------
Without data you are just another person with an opinion - Deming

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DD'eDeN
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160ka Greece

ScienceDirect Navigation
Journal of Human Evolution
August 2017, Vol.109:22–29, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.04.008
U-series dating and classification of the Apidima 2 hominin from Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece
Antonis BartsiokasJuan Luis ArsuagaRainer Grün
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Abstract
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier. This makes Apidima 2 the earliest known fossil with a clear Neanderthal facial morphology. Together with the nearby younger Neanderthal specimens from Lakonis and Kalamakia, the Apidima crania are of crucial importance for the evolution of Neanderthals in the area during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of the other human fossils from this area will elucidate our understanding of Neanderthal evolution and demise.

Keywords
ApidimaGreeceNeanderthalU-series datingTaxonomy

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xyambuatlaya

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
If there were Meanderthals in Africa and they mixed with humans in Africa thatn humans in Africa would carry Neanderthal DNA and it would be of a different type than Neanderthal DNA from a different region

This topic is obviously too overwhelming for you.
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DD'eDeN
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https://www.academia.edu/33549565/The_North_African_Middle_Stone_Age_and_its_place_in_recent_human_evolution?auto=download&campaign=weekly_digest

Nice map on p. 123 of watersheds and alluvial plains of northern Africa now and in past, and list of Homo spp. specimens

- - -

An earlier revolution: genetic and genomic analyses reveal pre- existing cultural differences leading to Neolithization

Archaeological evidence shows that, in the long run, Neolitization (the transition from foraging to food production) was associated with demographic growth. We used two methods (patterns of linkage disequilibrium from whole-genome SNPs and MSMC estimates on genomes) to reconstruct the demographic profiles for respectively 64 and 24 modern-day populations with contrasting lifestyles across the Old World (sub-Saharan Africa, southeastern Asia, Siberia). Surprisingly, in all regions, food producers had larger effective population sizes (N e) than foragers already 20 k years ago, well before...

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xyambuatlaya

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by xyyman:
In 1960, mining operations in the Jebel Irhoud massif 55 km southeast of Safi, Morocco exposed a Palaeolithic site in the Pleistocene filling of a karstic network. An almost complete skull (Irhoud 1) was accidentally unearthed in 1961, prompting excavations that yielded an adult braincase (Irhoud 2)4, an immature mandible (Irhoud 3)5,
an immature humeral shaft6, an immature ilium7 and a fragment of a mandible8, associated with abundant faunal remains and Levallois stone-tool technology6. Although these human remains were all reported to come from the bottom of the archaeological deposits, only the precise location of the humeral shaft was recorded. The interpretation of the Irhoud hominins has long been complicated
by persistent uncertainties surrounding their geological age. They were initially considered to be around 40 thousand years (kyr) old and an African form of Neanderthals9. However, these affinities have been challenged5,10,11 and the faunal8 and microfaunal12 evidence supported a Middle Pleistocene age for the site. An attempt to date one
of the hominins directly by uranium series combined with electron spin resonance (U-series/ESR)3 suggested an age of 160 ± 16 kyr (ref. 13).
Consistent with some genetic evidence14,

Well observed, "old and an African form of Neanderthals"

—New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by xyyman:
"If"? And I agree there weren't "Meanderthals" in Africa and no where else. Just kidding i know it ia typo.

How can still argue that there weren't Neanderthal IN Africa when neanderthal originated IN Africa. Neanderthal is a DEAD line and as many other "homos".

Of course the eurocentrist was going announce this, so it still can be used against Africa (Africans) as a premise for back migration.
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the lioness,
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The Neanderthals, like humans were also probably varied in appearance according to regions they were in.
If there were Neanderthals in Africa and they mixed with humans in Africa than humans in Africa would carry Neanderthal DNA to that extent.
If there were Neanderthals in Africa they may not have mixed with humans.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
The Neanderthals, like humans were also probably varied in appearance according to regions they were in.
If there were Neanderthals in Africa and they mixed with humans in Africa than humans in Africa would carry Neanderthal DNA to that extent.
If there were Neanderthals in Africa they may not have mixed with humans.

The clue here is that during those days small pockets of homo sapiens sapiens roamed Africa. Most most likely never interacted with one another. Some did mix with "Neanderthals" and others did not.
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DD'eDeN
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As MP noted at Sci.anthropology.paleo, during cold spells, neanderthals moved south from Europe, those settling in one of 3 southward peninsulas Italy, Iberia, Greece became cold adapted more so than those who crossed down to Levant & Oman, and had unique genetic & morphologic traits. This was also true of H antecessor etc.

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xyambuatlaya

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Ish Gebor
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It is also funny that they claim that the last of Neanderthals died out at the Strait of Gibraltar, they claim they could not have entered for 400.000 years. Yet, Cro-Magnons could enter Africa at the Strait of Gibraltar, 30Kya magically all of a sudden. But vs was not possible. lol
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Ish Gebor
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More of this bigotry and troll science.


quote:
Basal Eurasian is a genetic component of an early, prehistoric branch of West Eurasian of Near Easterners, that was notably lacking in Neanderthal admixture compared to other Out of Africa populations.[1]

—Iosif Lazaridis et al. 2016, Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East, Nature 536, 419–424, (25 August 2016)


And …

quote:
The ‘Basal Eurasians’ are a lineage hypothesized
—Iosif Lazaridis et al. (2016 )

Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East

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In continuation of Neanderthal ancestry irony science:


quote:
By extrapolation, we infer that the Basal Eurasian population had lower Neanderthal ancestry than non-Basal Eurasian populations and possibly none (ninety-five percent confidence interval truncated at zero of 0-60%; Fig. 2; Methods). The finding of little if any Neanderthal ancestry in Basal Eurasians could be explained if the Neanderthal admixture into modern humans 50,000-60,000 years ago 11 largely occurred after the splitting of the Basal Eurasians from other non-Africans
—Iosif Lazaridis et al. (2016)

Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East

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quote:
Ghost populations also lurk in ancient DNA. While analysing high-quality genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, a team led by Reich and Montgomery Slatkin at the University of California, Berkeley, noticed a peculiar pattern: present-day sub-Saharan Africans are more closely related to Neanderthals than they are to Denisovans 4. But evidence from other ancient genomes suggested that the two archaic groups were equally related to present-day Africans. After weighing the possibilities, the scientists realized that they might have uncovered another ghost population.

[…]

These discoveries are only the beginning. The Akey and Reich teams found that the genomes of east Asians possess, on average, slightly more Neanderthal DNA than do people of European ancestry. Akey sees this as possible evidence that Neanderthals interbred with ancient humans on at least two separate occasions: once with the ancestors of all Eurasians, and later with a population ancestral only to east Asians. And Akey believes that humans are likely to bear genetic scraps from other extinct species, including some that interbred with the ancestors of humans in sub-Saharan Africa.

[…]


http://www.nature.com/news/human-evolution-the-neanderthal-in-the-family-1.14932
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the lioness,
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Ish Gebor
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^^^

quote:
"haplogroup CF and DE molecular ancestors first evolved inside Africa and subsequently contributed as Y chromosome founders to pioneering migrations that successfully colonized Asia. While not proof, the DE and CF bifurcation (Figure 8d ) is consistent with independent colonization impulses possibly occurring in a short time interval."
--Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild - 2007

Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by xyyman:
In 1960, mining operations in the Jebel Irhoud massif 55 km southeast of Safi, Morocco exposed a Palaeolithic site in the Pleistocene filling of a karstic network. An almost complete skull (Irhoud 1) was accidentally unearthed in 1961, prompting excavations that yielded an adult braincase (Irhoud 2)4, an immature mandible (Irhoud 3)5,
an immature humeral shaft6, an immature ilium7 and a fragment of a mandible8, associated with abundant faunal remains and Levallois stone-tool technology6. Although these human remains were all reported to come from the bottom of the archaeological deposits, only the precise location of the humeral shaft was recorded. The interpretation of the Irhoud hominins has long been complicated
by persistent uncertainties surrounding their geological age. They were initially considered to be around 40 thousand years (kyr) old and an African form of Neanderthals9. However, these affinities have been challenged5,10,11 and the faunal8 and microfaunal12 evidence supported a Middle Pleistocene age for the site. An attempt to date one
of the hominins directly by uranium series combined with electron spin resonance (U-series/ESR)3 suggested an age of 160 ± 16 kyr (ref. 13).
Consistent with some genetic evidence14,

To get back to this, I've noticed something very ironic in the crania.

Compare the Jebel Irhoud to the "recent" African crania from the Morton collection.


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L-606-968. Negro, Born in Africa. This labeling system is characteristic of all the Morton specimens. The Original Morton Collection number is “968.” The L-606-” prefix was added after the collection was transferred to Penn in the mid-1960s (L=loan; 606 is a consecutive loan series number specific to the Morton Collection within the Penn Museum’s cataloging system.


https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/a-historical-osteobiography-of-the-african-crania-in-the-morton-collection/

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
.


1982 Version:


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Linda Fahr
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[Big Grin] [Big Grin] I didn't know Neanderthal is considered to be Homo Sapiens.... [Big Grin] Homo sapiens? neanderthalensis [Big Grin] [Big Grin]

--------------------
---lnnnnn*

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Ish Gebor
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Technically it indeed is not possible, considering that Homo Sapiens Sapiens came after the Neaderthals, with Homo Sapiens Sapiens meaning "modern man".

Noun 1. modern man - subspecies of Homo sapiensmodern man - subspecies of Homo sapiens; includes all modern races
Homo sapiens sapiens

genus Homo - type genus of the family Hominidae
Homo sapiens - the only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools; brain volume at least 1400 cc


1. also Ne·an·der·tal (-tôl′, -täl′)
a. A species of extinct hominins (Homo neanderthalensis) that lived throughout most of Europe and western and central Asia during the late Pleistocene Epoch until about 30,000 years ago. Members of this species had a large skull and stocky build and are associated with Middle Paleolithic tools.
b. An individual belonging to this species.
2. Slang A crude, boorish, or slow-witted person.


Great observation.

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capra
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Anatomically modern humans did not lcome "after"
quote:
Originally posted by Linda Fahr:
[Big Grin] [Big Grin] I didn't know Neanderthal is considered to be Homo Sapiens.... [Big Grin] Homo sapiens? neanderthalensis [Big Grin] [Big Grin]

Neanderthal can be considered either a separate species of human, Homo neanderthalis, or a subspecies of Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens neanderthalis. The concept of species is not well defined, different experts have different opinions.
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the lioness,
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https://blog.britishmuseum.org/violence-and-climate-change-in-prehistoric-egypt-and-sudan/

of the 61 men, women and children buried at Jebel Sahaba, at least 45% of them died of inflicted wounds
Clearly, the conflict was brutal and seems to have been fairly constant, as healed injuries have also been observed.

_____________________

wikipedia

Cranial analysis of the Jebel Sahaba fossils found that they shared osteological affinities with a hominid series from Wadi Halfa in Sudan.[6] Additionally, comparison of the limb proportions of the Jebel Sahaba skeletal remains with those of various ancient and recent series indicated that they were most similar in body shape to the examined modern populations from Sub-Saharan Africa (viz. 19th century fossils belonging to the San population, 19th century West Africa fossils, 19th and 20th century Pygmy fossils, and mid-20th century fossils culled from Kenya and Uganda in East Africa). However, the Jebel Sahaba specimens were post-cranially distinct from the Iberomaurusians and other coeval series from North Africa, and they were also morphologically remote from later Nubia skeletal series and from fossils belonging to the Mesolithic Natufian culture of the Levant.[7]


[6] Bräuer, G. (1978). "The morphological differentiation of anatomically modern man in Africa, with special regard to recent finds from East Africa". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie: 266–292. Retrieved 29 September 2017.

[7] Holliday, T. W. (2015). "Population affinities of the Jebel Sahaba skeletal sample: Limb proportion evidence". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 25 (4): 466–476. Retrieved 29 September 2017.


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