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Author Topic: An Overview of the Human Genome Project
Ish Gebor
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A Brief History of the Human Genome Project

In February 2001, the Human Genome Project (HGP) published its results to that date: a 90 percent complete sequence of all three billion base pairs in the human genome. (The HGP consortium published its data in the February 15, 2001, issue of the journal Nature.

The project had its ideological origins in the mid-1980s, but its intellectual roots stretch back further. Alfred Sturtevant created the first Drosophila gene map in 1911.

The crucial first step in molecular genome analysis, and in much of the molecular biological research of the last half-century, was the discovery of the double helical structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson. The two researchers shared the 1962 Nobel Prize (along with Maurice Wilkins) in the category of "physiology or medicine."

In the mid-1970s, Frederick Sanger developed techniques to sequence DNA, for which he received his second Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1980. (His first, in 1958, was for studies of protein structure). With the automation of DNA sequencing in the 1980s, the idea of analyzing the entire human genome was first proposed by a few academic biologists.

The United States Department of Energy, seeking data on protecting the genome from the mutagenic (gene-mutating) effects of radiation, became involved in 1986, and established an early genome project in 1987.

In 1988, Congress funded both the NIH and the DOE to embark on further exploration of this concept, and the two government agencies formalized an agreement by signing a Memorandum of Understanding to "coordinate research and technical activities related to the human genome."

James Watson was appointed to lead the NIH component, which was dubbed the Office of Human Genome Research. The following year, the Office of Human Genome Research evolved into the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR).

In 1990, the initial planning stage was completed with the publication of a joint research plan, "Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance: The Human Genome Project, The First Five Years, FY 1991-1995." This initial research plan set out specific goals for the first five years of what was then projected to be a 15-year research effort.

In 1992, Watson resigned, and Michael Gottesman was appointed acting director of the center. The following year, Francis S. Collins was named director.

The advent and employment of improved research techniques, including the use of restriction fragment-length polymorphisms, the polymerase chain reaction, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, enabled rapid early progress. Therefore, the 1990 plan was updated with a new five-year plan announced in 1993 in the journal Science (262: 43-46; 1993).

Indeed, a large part of the early work of the HGP was devoted to the development of improved technologies for accelerating the elucidation of the genome. In a 2001 article in the journal Genome Research, Collins wrote, "Building detailed genetic and physical maps, developing better, cheaper and faster technologies for handling DNA, and mapping and sequencing the more modest-sized genomes of model organisms were all critical stepping stones on the path to initiating the large-scale sequencing of the human genome."

Also in 1993, the NCHGR established a Division of Intramural Research (DIR), in which genome technology is developed and used to study specific diseases. By 1996, eight NIH institutes and centers had also collaborated to create the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR), for study of the genetics of complex diseases.

In 1997, the NCHGR received full institute status at NIH, becoming the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997, with Collins remaining as the director for the new institute. A third five-year plan was announced in 1998, again in Science, (282: 682-689; 1998).

In June 2000 came the announcement that the majority of the human genome had in fact been sequenced, which was followed by the publication of 90 percent of the sequence of the genome's three billion base-pairs in the journal Nature, in February 2001.

Surprises accompanying the sequence publication included: the relatively small number of human genes, perhaps as few as 30,000; the complex architecture of human proteins compared to their homologs - similar genes with the same functions - in, for example, roundworms and fruit flies; and the lessons to be taught by repeat sequences of DNA.

For more information on how this story unfolded, see News About the HGP.

Last Reviewed: November 8, 2012

https://www.genome.gov/12011239/a-brief-history-of-the-human-genome-project/

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Ish Gebor
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History® - Sequencing the first Human Genome


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQifx8BpaqE


As public and private sectors raced to sequence the human genome, their work was accelerated by the International Human Genome Project’s commitment to share data freely every day. In June 2000, President Clinton recognized the first draft of the human genome sequence as “the most important, most wondrous map ever producedby humankind.” Please Visit:

https://unlockinglifescode.org/media/videos/544#546

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Ish Gebor
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How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvuYATh7Y74&t=52s

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Andromeda2025
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Tishkoff states that the majority of the DNA data is proprietary.

Dr. Linda Haywood, says the majority of the DNA sample has been in Nigeria and Cameroon skewing AA's results when the majority of the slaves did not come from that area. The historical record concurs with this.

So bias sampling and proprietary data, without proper historical, linguistic and archaeological context = eurocentric framing always. Link to vid

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9K4A7e3clMM

I find the Aryan invasion theory debate very useful, Reich vs. the OOI and Indian Centrics. Both sides have compelling arguments.

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Ish Gebor
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@Andromeda2025,

Thanks very much, I notice a weird pattern in these papers.

A pattern were they try to segregate SSA's from humanity. It's ironic, and maybe coincidental that this is the group of people descending for the African slaves and a people who have been subjugated and marginalized all throughout recent history.

I find this is quite interesting.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Andromeda2025:
[QB] Tishkoff states that the majority of the DNA data is proprietary.


DNA Tribes is an example of proprietary methodology
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Andromeda2025
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
@Andromeda2025,

Thanks very much, I notice a weird pattern in these papers.

A pattern were they try to segregate SSA's from humanity. It's ironic, and maybe coincidental that this is the group of people descending for the African slaves and a people who have been subjugated and marginalized all throughout recent history.

I find this is quite interesting.

not Sub Saharan = Schrodinger's cat
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Djehuti
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^ LOL [Big Grin] That's a good one Andromeda, I like your humorous wit.

Indeed there is confusion from some of the buzz terms put out like 'Eurasian Adam' even though he or his clade originated in Africa, or how some maps include the Horn as 'North African', or worse yet how North Africa is sometimes included in the 'Eurasian' category so that as Ish Gebor says humanity is divided into Sub-Saharans and non-Sub-Saharans which may or may not include Horn Africans LOL.

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Djehuti
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Speaking of Tishkoff et al., recall her findings on African populations and note the alleged 'Eurasian' blue component in Saharan peoples like the Dogon.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Andromeda2025:
[QB] Tishkoff states that the majority of the DNA data is proprietary.


DNA Tribes is an example of proprietary methodology
What other examples do you have?
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Andromeda2025
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quote:
Originally posted by KoKaKoLa:
quote:
Originally posted by The Explorer:
This koKakoLa chick? is a crackpot and not worthy of being taken seriously on any level. She has absolutely no regard for backing up her highly opinionated posts.
i noticed that pan africanists HATE science!
Science clearly debunks those wishful fantasies.
Ancient egyptians were not west africans and not related to them. [Wink]
Of course the Ancient Egyptians weren't West Africans, albeit they are related.

What exactly is your ultimate objective in raising such an argument, how does it benefit you to make West Africans some sort of separate entity within the continent that you ideologically go as far as to state they are unrelated to the other peoples of Africa? Icon 1 posted 25 July, 2011 07:59 AM

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=007422;p=3

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by Andromeda2025:
Tishkoff states that the majority of the DNA data is proprietary.

Dr. Linda Haywood, says the majority of the DNA sample has been in Nigeria and Cameroon skewing AA's results when the majority of the slaves did not come from that area. The historical record concurs with this.

So bias sampling and proprietary data, without proper historical, linguistic and archaeological context = eurocentric framing always. Link to vid

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9K4A7e3clMM

I find the Aryan invasion theory debate very useful, Reich vs. the OOI and Indian Centrics. Both sides have compelling arguments.

Thanks for the link,

It showed a few different perspectives, all equally interesting. The conclusion is that blacks / African descent people are underrepresented in all fields or are being skewed in data.

I noticed Sarah Thiskoff said something very important. The first studies on mitochondrial DNA, on African populations had bow only a small set of groups has been tested. Yet, these groups supposedly represent all of Africa. And these groups have been used in studies / papers over and over again. So we see a problem that arose from the beginning and has been maintained ever since. Everything was structured around this "false" basis.

Till this day we see this trend going on, in maintaining this way of thinking. Still something like 90% of Africa hasn't been tested.

Conclusively this brings us to Sarah Tishkoff addressing the assumptions / probability / bias (Bayesian) statistics method, which of course relates to the old methods of the skewed data in the first placed.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by Andromeda2025:
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quote:
Originally posted by KoKaKoLa:
quote:
Originally posted by The Explorer:
This koKakoLa chick? is a crackpot and not worthy of being taken seriously on any level. She has absolutely no regard for backing up her highly opinionated posts.
i noticed that pan africanists HATE science!
Science clearly debunks those wishful fantasies.
Ancient egyptians were not west africans and not related to them. [Wink]
Of course the Ancient Egyptians weren't West Africans, albeit they are related.

What exactly is your ultimate objective in raising such an argument, how does it benefit you to make West Africans some sort of separate entity within the continent that you ideologically go as far as to state they are unrelated to the other peoples of Africa? Icon 1 posted 25 July, 2011 07:59 AM

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=007422;p=3

We never could verify who this person (KoKaKoLa) was, but it's clear you see the paranoid intend. It especially becomes a weird claim and stament since we now know that most of Africa was never tested. Yet we had biased scholars like Maca-Meyer et al. writing up weird genetic stories about the African continent. This was long before Sarah Tishkoff came to any of her conclusions, years later.

These biased trends we have seen going on all throughout history, in different fields, wether genetics, archeology, anthropology you name it. We see it going on in the Abusir samples as of this moment, by Verena J. Schuenemann et al.


The weirdest claim going on was and is the Hg E is claimed to be "Eurasian" in origin.

Prior to the word "Eurasian" used in studies, the word "Caucasian" was used. Thus, I know that whenever they say "Eurasian" they refer to "Caucasian".

Albeit, when I say that it makes West Africans (SSA's) Eurasian in origin who moved to Africa, they shift the game-play all of a sudden into, no they aren't. The late great argument I've heard coming came up with to solve this problem they have is, by claiming that Eurasian moved to Africa and mixed with old groups of Africans thus is why Hg E got in Africa. And thus is why sub Sahara African groups carry Hg E, however not the Egyptian one, the Northeast African one.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by Djehuti:
Speaking of Tishkoff et al., recall her findings on African populations and note the alleged 'Eurasian' blue component in Saharan peoples like the Dogon.

 -

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Ish7688voT0/SfqvgGYv0sI/AAAAAAAABU8/SnEiya5zAw0/s1600/structure_global.png

Sarah Tishkoff said she found more variety within each group and amongst the groups than anywhere else in the world. While other genetics claimed different based on a few sample sets from a few small groups. (I think this is very problematic).

Do you know of the first genetic study done on Africa?

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Andromeda2025
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No I don't
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Andromeda2025
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Dr. Jacob Carruthers 1972 Science & Oppression

"The power of Western Science and Philosophy lies in it's ability to disguise itself as a perspective and assert itself as universal."

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