Genetic legacy of the Paleolithic black Asians
The migration history of haplogroup D-M174 is most mysterious. By now, we have known little about the origin and dispersal of this haplogroup. This haplogroup was derived from African haplogroup DE-M1 (YAP insertion) and is associated with a short black Asian physical style. Haplogroups E and D are brother haplogroups. While haplogroup E was carried westwards to Africa by the tall black people, haplogroup D might have been carried eastwards to East Asia by the short black people (Figure 3).
Haplogroup D-M174 has high frequencies in the Andaman Negritos, the northern Tibeto-Burman populations and the Ainu of Japan, and also appears at low frequencies in other East and Southeast Asian and Central Asian populations (Figure 1) [20,22,30,31]. A northern Tibeto-Burman population, the Baima-Dee, comprises nearly 100% of haplogroup D. There are three main subclades of haplogroup D, that is, D1-M15, D2-M55 and D3-P99, and many unclassified minor sub-haplogroups. Haplogroup D1-M15 is prevalent in the Tibetans, Tangut-Chiang and Lolo, and is also found at very low frequencies among the mainland East Asian populations [32,33]. Haplogroup D2-M55 is restricted to various populations of the Japanese Archipelago. Haplogroup D3-P99 is found at high frequencies among Tibetans and several Tibeto-Burman minorities in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces that reside in close proximity to the Tibetans, such as Pumi and Naxi . The paragroup D* is restricted to the Andaman Islands , which has been isolated for at least 20 thousand years. Some other minor haplogroups, also included in D*, can be found around Tibet. Most of the populations with haplogroup D have very dark skin color, including the Andamanese, some of the Tibeto-Burman and Mon-Khmer people. The Ainu people may have developed pale skin to absorb more ultraviolet light in high latitude regions.
For the origin of haplogroup D, Chandrasekar et al. suggested that the CT-M168 gave rise to the YAP insertion and D-M174 mutation in South Asia based on their findings of the YAP insertion in northeast Indian tribes and the D-M174 in Andaman islanders . In that case, haplogroup E with YAP insertion might also have an Asian origin. However, this hypothesis is seldom supported by any evidence. If haplogroup D originated in Africa, it is most mysterious how it has traveled through the populations with haplogroups CF to East Asia.
Another mystery is how haplogroup D has migrated from southwestern East Asia all the way to Japan. It could have gone either through mainland East Asia or through Sundaland (Figure 2B). The mainland route seems to be shorter than the Sundaland route. Shi et al. proposed that the northward expansion of D-M174 to western China might predate the migrations of other major East Asian lineages at about 60 thousand years ago using the ASD time estimation method with an average Y-STR evoltionary mutation rate of 0.00069 per locus per 25 years. Subsequently, these frontier populations could have traveled eastward through a northern route via Korea or through a southern route via Taiwan and a Ryukyu land bridge to Japan, where they might have met the earlier Australian style settlers. The current relic D-M174 in East Asia was probably edged out of eastern China by the later northward migration of haplogroup O and the Neolithic expansion of Han Chinese . However, there has never been any evidence from genetics or archaeology that haplogroup D2 or Negritos have migrated to eastern China. In contrast, there are still many Negrito populations in Sundaland from Malaya to the Philippines. It was possible that Negritos occupied the whole of Sundaland in the late Paleolithic Age. Therefore, these populations might move directly from the Philippines to Taiwan and Ryukyu. The only problem is that no haplogroup D has been found in the Negritos in the Philippines. Their paternal lineages might have been replaced by the expansion of haplogroups C2 and K from Papua around 18 thousand years ago using the BATWING time estimation method  or a more recent migration of haplogroup O from mainland East Asia . However, due to the lack of data, the history of haplogroup D, as a genetic legacy of the Paleolithic Age in East Asia, remains a mystery. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687582/
quote:Originally posted by the lioness,: On academia,edu
Academia.edu does not "publish" papers in the senses of providing peer review and/or making them available in a recognized venue with a history of publication on a topic. People can POST papers to Academia.edu, whether or not they have been published elsewhere. For a scholar, publication in a peer-review venue should be the first priority, and then making those published papers available for others (e.g., through Academia.edu) is the next priority. Most people avoid posting original research on the internet until they have had a chance to publish it in a recognized journal or book or internet venue.
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If you will notice all Clyde's links in his last post are on academia.edu
They allow you to post, and have a not yet instituted peer review afterwards
These papers Clyde posts on academia.edu would be able to make it into scientific journals that do a peer review first to see if the research methods meet scientific standards
For instance if you say "The Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene" and have zero DNA testing indicating that your paper is not going to get published.
However if you said " We hypothesize the Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene" it would be acceptable
But Clyde won't revise his statement on the video because he's trying to trick people into thinking there are DNA testing results that show Fuegians and Khosians carry the M174 gene.
This is why Clyde Winters research cannot be trusted.
Stupid Euronut. My articles at Academia Edu, were published in peer reviewed journals listed on the papers. They were just added to my published work already at Academia Edu. Bernardo's paper was never published in a research journal.
. In addition, no one at ES has debunked any of my research papers. To falsify a research paper you have to cite research that disputes the findings and results in a research paper. This has not been done. If anyone had falsified my research I am sure they should have found a publisher for their work.
If anyone here debunked my work they should be able to cite their published work. Put up , or shut up. .
-------------------- C. A. Winters Posts: 12312 | From: Chicago | Registered: Jan 2006
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