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Author Topic: Brown, Black and White Graeco Roman Gods and Goddesses
mena7
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anus - In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Janus (Latin: Ianus) is the god of beginnings and transitions,[1] thence also of gates, doors, doorways, endings and time. He is usually a two-faced god since he looks to the future and the past. The Romans dedicated the month of January to Janus. Source: Wikipedia

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God Janus

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God Janus

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Katsina janus terracotta head, Nigeria. ca. (500 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.)

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Janus-head flask, 1st century A.D., eastern Mediterranean. Glass, 3 7/16 in. high. The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.474

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A bronze as from Canusium depicting a laureate Janus with the prow of a ship on the reverse

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (/ˈdʒeɪnəs/; Latin: Ianus, pronounced [ˈjaː.nus]) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, doorways, time, and doors,[1] and by of gates, doors, doorways, passages and endings. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past. It is conventionally thought that the month of January is named for Janus (Ianuarius),[2] but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month.[3]

Janus presided over the beginning and ending of conflict, and hence war and peace. The doors of his temple were open in time of war, and closed to mark the peace. As a god of transitions, he had functions pertaining to birth and to journeys and exchange, and in his association with Portunus, a similar harbor and gateway god, he was concerned with travelling, trading and shipping.

Janus had no flamen or specialised priest (sacerdos) assigned to him, but the King of the Sacred Rites (rex sacrorum) himself carried out his ceremonies. Janus had a ubiquitous presence in religious ceremonies throughout the year, and was ritually invoked at the beginning of each one, regardless of the main deity honored on any particular occasion.

The ancient Greeks had no equivalent to Janus, whom the Romans claimed as distinctively their own.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janus

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Ish Gebor
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"looks to the future and the past."

The Romans dedicated the month of January to Janus. Source: Wikipedia

Interesting, to look into the future and past at the start of a/ each new year.

Hocus Spocus Pilatus Pas.

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mena7
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God Herakles

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Early Depiction of Herakles with club and lion skin Etruscan 500-400 BCE Bronze

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cast bronze figure of the hero god Heracles with his club seated on a lion. Hellenistic kingdoms of Bactria or Gandhara in C. Asia or India 100 BCE-100 AD

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Statuette of Herakles, 250–150 B.C., Sikeliote (Sicilian Greek).

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This evocative Gandharan statue, is likely of Vajrapani in the guise of Herakles. Vajrapani was one of the traditional protectors of Buddha and was often depicted as a muscular unkempt figure. As Greek culture pervaded the region, Vajrapani and Herakles (Hercules) became indistinguishable. Height is 43 cm.

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Cypriot Herakles-Melqart 5th cent.BCE limestone from Cyprus Museo Baracco,Rome

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Limestone Herakles Period: Archaic Date: ca. 530–520 B.C. Culture: Cypriot Medium: Limestone Dimensions: H. 85 1/2 in. (217.2 cm)

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Head from a statue of Herakles, from Cyprus, Cypro-Archaic II Period (limestone) Creator Cypriot, (5th century BC)

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Wk 10 Farnese Hercules, Glykon of Athens, early third century statue based on the Weary Herakles by Lysippos, 320 BCE

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mena7
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Herakles with the Apples of the Hesperides Roman 1st century CE from a temple at Byblos Lebanon

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Herakles fighting Antaeus

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Hercules (Heracles), Roman statuette (bronze), 2nd–3rd century AD, (Römmermuseum, Weissenburg).

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Mulato or Black Julia daughter of Emperor Titus

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Mena: I this the Black and Mulato looking Herakles from Cyprius are the original one. The European looking Herakles are copy or restore (code word for turning Black people statue into White people) dating from the European colonial era.


Herakles-Melqart, Early 5th century. BC, Cyprus. Limestone The limestone statuette of Heracles- Melqart, from the early 5th century B.C., is a sign of the religious and cultural contamination that occurred on the island of Cyprus between oriental gods (Melqart was worshipped in the Phoenician world) and figures from Greek mythology, such as Heracles.Provenance: From Cyprus Inventory: Inv. MB 63 MUSEUM OF ANCIENT SCULPTURE BARRACO, Rome


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This Herakles look like a copy or restoration ( turning it White people) dating from the colonial era.

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Brada-Anansi
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A black Heracles vs the equally Black Busris the evil Kemitic Pharaoh and his henchmen.

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jantavanta
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Mena7: Thanks for the Katsina Terracotta Janus. I can now picture the evolution of the Greek Janus from the Katsina Janus.

All the Greek & Roman Gods are ultimately evolved from the interior of Africa.

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jantavanta
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Here is another Katsina Janus, for auction.
It shows the transition from Female to Male

http://www.artemisgallery.com/Rare-and-Large-African-Katsina-Terracotta-Janus-Head.html

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mena7
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Goddess Isis Fortuna
Statuette of Isis-Fortuna, Roman, 2nd century, Bronze, 19 c

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Goddess Isis Fortuna

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Goddess Isis Fortuna
"The Egyptian goddess Isis was adopted into Roman religion in the first century A.D. This statuette portrays Isis combined with Fortuna. She wears the elaborate headdress of Isis, a lunar disk between horns or feathers, and the front of her long dress is tied in a knot on her chest, the so-called Isis knot. She also holds the usual attributes of Fortuna. The rudder in her right hand and the cornucopia in her left arm is a symbol of abundance and prosperity." Getty Museum.

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Goddess Isis Fortuna

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X.3.15 Pompeii. Picture of Isis Fortuna with horn of plenty and sistrum and with a foot on a globe. To the right is Hesperos and left is Helios or Harpocrates - Helios. The painting of Isis-Fortuna (MN Inventory 8836) was found in 1847

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The goddess Fortuna, holding a cornucopia and rudder, looks down upon a naked man crouching between two bearded serpents; the words CACATOR CAVE MALV[m] ("Shitter, beware of evil!") are painted above the man. The museum tag identifies the goddess as Isis-Fortuna-Demeter and the man as Harpocrates, but most interpreters think that the man is defecating and the goddess and serpents are apotropaic symbols. Naples, National Archaeological Museum

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Isis-Fortuna. This statuette of Isis displays her in a Hellenistic robe. She has a combination of cow horns, sun-disk, and ears of corn as a crown on her head, a cornucopia and a ship's rudder.The cornucopia connects her to the goddess Fortuna, and the ears of corn to Demeter. The rudder stresses the aspect of Isis as patron of navigation, called Isis Pelagia. 1st-2nd century (Roman)

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mena7
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A Roman Bronze Figure of Hermes, circa 2nd Century A.D.

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Hermes with baby Dionysos, bronze nude statue - from Roman period, circa 2nd c. AD

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A ROMAN BRONZE MERCURY CIRCA 1ST-2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE FIGURE OF MERCURY 1ST-2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE MERCURY CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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Ancient Roman figure of Mercury, with his winged helmet and marsupium/money bag. (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien)

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Hermes staff. Greek. Early 5th century B.C.

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Mosaic of Hermanubis, a hybrid of Anubis and the Greek god Hermes (or the Roman Mercury). In the Ptolemaic period (350–30 BCE), when Egypt became a Hellenistic kingdom ruled by Greek pharaohs, Anubis was merged with the Greek god Hermes, becoming Hermanubis. The two gods were considered similar because they both guided souls to the afterlife.

Hermes (/ˈhɜːrmiːz/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods.

Hermes is considered a god of transitions and boundaries. He is described as quick and cunning, moving freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine. He is also portrayed as an emissary and messenger of the gods;[1] an intercessor between mortals and the divine, and conductor of souls into the afterlife. He has been viewed as the protector and patron of herdsmen, thieves,[2] oratory and wit, literature and poetry, athletics and sports, invention and trade,[3] roads, boundaries and travelers.[4]

In some myths, he is a trickster and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or for the sake of humankind. His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster, the tortoise, purse or pouch, winged sandals, and winged cap. His main symbol is the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus, which appears in a form of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff.[5]

In the Roman adaptation of the Greek pantheon (see interpretatio romana), Hermes is identified with the Roman god Mercury,[6] who, though inherited from the Etruscans, developed many similar characteristics such as being the patron of commerce

Mercury (/ˈmɜːrkjᵿri/; Latin: Mercurius [mɛrˈkʊr.jʊs] About this sound listen (help·info)) is a major Roman god, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the patron god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence (and thus poetry), messages/communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he is also the guide of souls to the underworld.[1][2] He was considered the son of Maia and Jupiter in Roman mythology. His name is possibly related to the Latin word merx ("merchandise"; compare merchant, commerce, etc.), mercari (to trade), and merces (wages); another possible connection is the Proto-Indo-European root merĝ- for "boundary, border" (cf. Old English "mearc", Old Norse "mark" and Latin "margō") and Greek οὖρος (by analogy of Arctūrus/Ἀρκτοῦρος), as the "keeper of boundaries," referring to his role as bridge between the upper and lower worlds.[citation needed] In his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms; both gods share characteristics with the Greek god Hermes. He is often depicted holding the caduceus in his left hand.

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DD'eDeN
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Oannes(Sumerian) -> Janus(Latin) & probably Johannes.baptist(Sabean/Mande)

merchant/marchand/market is also boundary, since formal trade occurred at borders/bridges/puntos/pitla(spiderwebs), not within them (where gift exchange was informal).

A Mearc/boundary was a day's march/marchant.

Mercury's caduceus/kerykeion/winged staff originally was probably a punt pole for propelling a coracle/roundshield.

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mena7
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God Jupiter

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God Jupiter

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God Jupiter

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God Jupiter

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God Jupiter

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Jupiter Temple

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Jupiter is the supreme god of the Roman pantheon, called dies pater, "shining father". He is a god of light and sky, and protector of the state and its laws. He is a son of Saturn and brother of Neptune and Juno (who is also his wife).

The Romans worshipped him especially as Jupiter Optimus Maximus (all-good, all-powerful). This name refers not only to his rulership over the universe, but also to his function as the god of the state who distributes laws, controls the realm and makes his will known through oracles. His English name is Jove.

The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill. Here he was worshipped alongside Juno and Minerva, forming the Capitoline Triad. Temples to Jupiter Optimus Maximus or the Capitoline Triad as a whole were commonly built by the Romans at the center of new cities in their colonies.

His temple was not only the most important sanctuary in Rome; it was also the center of political life. Here official offerings were made, treaties were signed and wars were declared, and the triumphant generals of the Roman army came to give their thanks.

Other titles of Jupiter include: Caelestis (heavenly), Lucetius (of the light), Totans (thunderer), Fulgurator (of the lightning). As Jupiter Victor he led the Roman army to victory. Jupiter is also the protector of the ancient league of Latin cities. His attribute is the lightning bolt and the eagle is both his symbol and his messenger.

The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually but not always identified with Jupiter. Their Etruscan counterpart was Tinia.

It was once believed that the Roman god Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) was in charge of cosmic Justice, and in ancient Rome, people swore to Jove in their courts of law, which lead to the common expression "By Jove," that many people use today.

http://www.crystalinks.com/jupiterrome.html

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mena7
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Black Swedish Valkyrie with braid iron age

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Iron Age Silver valkyrie with Asian slanted eyes found in Denmark.Black Goddess Valkyrie with slanted eyes.

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God Thor

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he Norse god Tyr and Fenrir, from a Viking carving from eighth century Sweden. Tyr sacrifices his hand to entice Fenrir wolf into bondage: the warrior often gives profoundly of himself to secure the safety of the community he is sworn to defend.

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mena7
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PHANES was the primordial god (protogenos) of creation in the Orphic cosmogony. He was the generator of life--the driving force behind reproduction in the early cosmos. Phanes was hatched from the world-egg, a primordial mix of elements split into its constituent parts by Khronos (Chronos) (Time) and Ananke (Inevitability).

Phanes was the first king of the universe who handed the royal sceptre over to his daughter Nyx (Night), who in turn handed it down to her son Ouranos (Uranus) (Heaven). It was then seized by the Titan Kronos (Cronus), and afterwards by Zeus, the ultimate ruler of the cosmos. Some say Zeus devoured Phanes in order to absorb his power and redistribute it among a new generation of gods--the Olympians he would sire.

The Orphics equated Phanes with the elder Eros (Desire) of Hesiod's Theogony. Phanes also incorporated aspects of other primordial beings described by various ancient writers such as Thesis, Physis and Ophion. Phanes also echoes the figures of Metis (i.e. Thesis, Creation), the goddess devoured by Zeus, and Tethys, nurse of all.

Phanes was described as a beautiful, golden-winged, hermaphroditic deity wrapped in the coils of a serpent. His name means "bring to light" or "make appear" from the Greek verbs phanaô and phainô.

http://www.theoi.com/Protogenos/Phanes.html


Phanes[pronunciation?] (Ancient Greek: Φάνης, genitive Φάνητος),[1] or Protogonos (Greek: Πρωτογόνος, "First-born"), was the mystic primeval deity of procreation and the generation of new life, who was introduced into Greek mythology by the Orphic tradition; other names for this Classical Greek Orphic concept included Ericapaeus (Ἠρικαπαῖος or Ἠρικεπαῖος "power") and Metis ("thought").[2]

In these myths Phanes is often equated with Eros and Mithras and has been depicted as a deity emerging from a cosmic egg, entwined with a serpent. He had a helmet and had broad, golden wings. The Orphic cosmogony is bizarre, and quite unlike the creation sagas offered by Homer and Hesiod. Scholars have suggested that Orphism is "un-Greek" even "Asiatic" in conception, because of its inherent dualism.[3][4]

Time, who was also called Aion, created the silver egg of the universe, out of this egg burst out the first-born, Phanes. Phanes was a uroboric male-female deity of light and goodness, whose name means "to bring light" or "to shine"; a first-born god of light who emerges from a void or a watery abyss and gives birth to the universe.[5]

Many threads of earlier myths are apparent in the new tradition. Phanes was believed to have been hatched from the World-Egg of Chronos (Time) and Ananke (Necessity or Fate) or Nyx in the black bird form and wind. His older wife Nyx (Night) called him Protogenus. As she created nighttime, he created daytime. He also created the method of creation by mingling. He was made the ruler of the deities and passed the sceptre to Nyx. This new Orphic tradition states that Nyx later gave the sceptre to her son Uranos before it passed to Cronus and then to Zeus, who retained it.

According to Aristophanes, whence he is called Eros, he was born from an egg created by Nyx and placed in the boundless lap of Erebus. After which he mates with Chaos and creates the birds.[6] This passage seeks to demonstrate that the birds are considered older than all other living creatures, even older than the other gods.

The "Protogonos Theogony" is known through the commentary in the Derveni papyrus and references in Empedocles and Pindar.

According to Damascius, Phanes was the first god “expressible and acceptable to human ears” (πρώτης ητόν τι ἐχούσης καὶ σύμμετρον πρὸς ἀνθρώπων ἀκοάς ).[7]

Another orphic hymns states:[8] "ὄσσων ὃς σκοτόεσσαν ἀπημαύρωσας ὁμίχλην πάντη δινηθεὶς πτερύγων ῥιπαῖς κατὰ κόσμον λαμπρὸν ἄγων φάος ἁγνόν , ἀφ ' οὗ σε Φάνητα κικλήσκω." "You scattered the dark mist that lay before your eyes and, flapping your wings, you whirled about, and throughout this world you brought pure light. For this I call you Phanes.".

The Derveni Papyrus refers to Phanes:"Πρωτογόνου βασιλέως αἰδοίου∙ τῶι δ’ ἄρα πάντες ἀθάνατοι προσέφυν μάκαρες θεοὶ ἠδ̣ὲ θέαιναι καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ κρῆναι ἐπήρατιο ἄλλα τε πάντα , ἅ̣σσα τότ’ ἦγγεγαῶτ ’ , αὐτὸς δ’ ἄρα μοῦνος ἔγεντο.” "Of the First-born king, the reverend one; and upon him all the immortals grew, blessed gods and goddesses and rivers and lovely springs and everything else that had then been born; and he himself became the sole one"[9]

Dionysus of the Orphic tradition is intimately connected to Protogonos. In the Orphic Hymn 30, he is given a list of epithets that also allude to Protogonos: "πρωτόγονον, διφυῆ, τρίγονον, Βακχεῖον ἄνακτα,ἄγριον, ἄρρητον, κρύφιον, δικέρωτα, δίμορφον" "Primeval, two-natured, thrice-born, Bacchic lord, savage, ineffable, secretive, two-horned, and two-shaped"[10]

In the Orphic tradition, Dionysus-Protogonos-Phanes is a dying and rising god. Eusebius tell us the story of his death and recreation. The Titans boil the dismembered limbs of Dionysus in a kettle, they roast him on a spit and eat the roasted “sacrificial meat”, then Athena rescues the heart (that still beats) [11] from which (according to Olympiodorus[12]) Zeus is able to recreate the god and bring him back to life. Kessler has argued that this cult of death and resurrection of Dionysus developed the 4th century CE; and together with Mithraism and other sects this cult formed, were in direct competition with Early Christianity during Late Antiquity.

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mena7
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Aion (god of eternity) on Globe. Relief from the Villa Albani,

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Aion God of Eternity

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This image is from a "floor mosaic from a Roman villa in Sentinum (today Sassoferrato in Umbria), ca. 200–250 CE."

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Mosaic floor depicting Aion and Tellus in richly-patterned framing (Glyptothek, Munich)

Aion (Greek: Αἰών) is a Hellenistic deity associated with time, the orb or circle encompassing the universe, and the zodiac. The "time" represented by Aion is unbounded, in contrast to Chronos as empirical time divided into past, present, and future.[1] He is thus a god of eternity, associated with mystery religions concerned with the afterlife, such as the mysteries of Cybele, Dionysus, Orpheus, and Mithras. In Latin the concept of the deity may appear as Aevum or Saeculum.[2] He is typically in the company of an earth or mother goddess such as Tellus or Cybele, as on the Parabiago plate

Iconography and symbolism[edit]
Aion is usually identified as the nude or seminude youth within a circle representing the zodiac, or eternal and cyclical time. Examples include two Roman mosaics from Sentinum (modern–day Sassoferrato) and Hippo Regius in Roman Africa, and the Parabiago plate. But because he represents time as a cycle, he may also be imagined as an old man. In the Dionysiaca, Nonnus associates Aion with the Horae and says that he:

changes the burden of old age like a snake who sloughs off the coils of the useless old scales, rejuvenescing while washing in the swells of the laws [of time].[4]


Drawing of the leontocephaline found at the mithraeum of C. Valerius Heracles and sons, dedicated 190 AD at Ostia Antica, Italy (CIMRM 312)

Detail from the Parabiago plate depicting Aion; Tellus (not shown) appears at the bottom of the plate, which centers on the chariot of Cybele
The imagery of the twining serpent is connected to the hoop or wheel through the ouroboros, a ring formed by a snake holding the tip of its tail in its mouth. The 4th-century AD Latin commentator Servius notes that the image of a snake biting its tail represents the cyclical nature of the year.[5] In his 5th-century work on hieroglyphics, Horapollo makes a further distinction between a serpent that hides its tail under the rest of its body, which represents Aion, and the ouroboros that represents the kosmos, which is the serpent devouring its tail.[6]

Identifications
Martianus Capella (5th century AD) identified Aion with Cronus (Latin Saturnus), whose name caused him to be theologically conflated with Chronos ("Time"), in the way that the Greek ruler of the underworld Plouton (Pluto) was conflated with Ploutos (Plutus, "Wealth"). Martianus presents Cronus-Aion as the consort of Rhea (Latin Ops) as identified with Physis.[7]

In his highly speculative reconstruction of Mithraic cosmogony, Franz Cumont positioned Aion as Unlimited Time (sometimes represented as Saeculum, Cronus, or Saturn) as the god who emerged from primordial Chaos, and who in turn generated Heaven and Earth. This deity is represented as the leontocephaline, the winged lion-headed male figure whose nude torso is entwined by a serpent. He typically holds a sceptre, keys, or a thunderbolt.[8] The figure of Time "played a considerable, though to us completely obscure, role" in Mithraic theology.

Aion is identified with Dionysus in Christian and Neoplatonic writers, but there are no references to Dionysus as Aion before the Christian era.[10] Euripides, however, calls Aion the son of Zeus.

The Suda identifies Aion with Osiris. In Ptolemaic Alexandria, at the site of a dream oracle, the Hellenistic syncretic god Serapis was identified as Aion Plutonius.[12] The epithet Plutonius marks functional aspects shared with Pluto, consort of Persephone and ruler of the underworld in the Eleusinian tradition. Epiphanius says that at Alexandria Aion's birth from Kore the Virgin was celebrated January 6:[13] "On this day and at this hour the Virgin gave birth to Aion." The date, which coincides with Epiphany, brought new year's celebrations to a close, completing the cycle of time that Aion embodies.[14] The Alexandrian Aion may be a form of Osiris-Dionysus, reborn annually.[15] His image was marked with crosses on his hands, knees, and forehead.[16] Gilles Quispel conjectured that the figure resulted from integrating the Orphic Phanes, who like Aion is associated with a coiling serpent, into Mithraic religion at Alexandria, and that he "assures the eternity of the city.

Roman Empire
This syncretic Aion became a symbol and guarantor of the perpetuity of Roman rule, and emperors such as Antoninus Pius issued coins with the legend Aion,[18] whose female Roman counterpart was Aeternitas.[19] Roman coins associate both Aion and Aeternitas with the phoenix as a symbol of rebirth and cyclical renewal.

Aion was among the virtues and divine personifications that were part of late Hellenic discourse, in which they figure as "creative agents in grand cosmological schemes."[21] The significance of Aion lies in his malleability: he is a "fluid conception" through which various ideas about time and divinity converge in the Hellenistic era, in the context of monotheistic tendencies.

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9 Muses

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God Eros Pella Museum

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God Serapis Agathodaemon

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Goddess Kore, Kar

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West African face God Mithra and the Zodiac

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God Mercury

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Roman Empress Domitian as Goddess Ceres

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Odysseus

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Minautor, Apis, Wall Street bull

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God Vulcan

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Roman Genius

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She Wolf feeding Romulus or Remus aka Constellation Gemini

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Greek God Apollo

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Goddess Hygeia, Getty museum

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Roman Sun God

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Roman Celestial Globe

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Roman Zodiac Globe

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Chinese Celestial coin

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Minoan Analogue computer

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Zodiac

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Apollo Sun God Zodiac

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Zodiac, the day of the week and Sexagram

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Early Medieval Jesus Zodiac

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Roman plate with sign of the Zodiac

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Triple Goddeses Spain Roman Mosaic

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DD'eDeN
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interesting look at zodiac and calendar

Here is ancient European Seasonal Wheel calendar, it might be origin of Swaztika:

http://oldeuropeanculture.blogspot.com/2016/07/two-crosses.html

Combined Earth Cross and Sun Cross

Reminded me of the song Turn Turn Turn sung by the Byrds and written by Pete Seeger from the bible Eccelestes

http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=turn+turn+turn&adlt=strict&view=detail&mid=2B2EEA6EE06C665334442B2EEA6EE06C66533444&rvsmid=7D3740265FE77489394C7D3740265FE77489394C&fsscr=0&FORM =VDFSRV

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xyambuatlaya

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Nice post Deden

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Roman Men crushing grapes Merida

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Beth Alpha Synagogue Zodiac

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Nice post Deden

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Triple Goddeses Spain Roman Mosaic


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Roman Men crushing grapes Merida

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Beth Alpha Synagogue Zodiac

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Altar of the Twelve Gods. Made of marble and decorated with the zodiac signs

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Astrology sri lanka zodiac

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Man with signs of the zodiac on his body, Egerton 1486

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Zodiac man: UB Heidelberg Cod. Pal. germ. 291 - digi.ub.uni-heide...

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Mappa Coeli with 1 signs of the Zodiac from Tetrabiblos of Ptolemaios

The zodiac is the circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude employed by western astrology and (formerly) astronomy. The western zodiac is centered upon the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets also remain close to the ecliptic, within the belt of the zodiac, which extends 8-9° north or south of the ecliptic, as measured in celestial latitude. Because the divisions are regular, they do not correspond exactly to the boundaries of the twelve constellations after which they are named.

Historically, these twelve divisions are called signs. Essentially, the zodiac is a celestial coordinate system, or more specifically an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude, and the position of the Sun at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude.

Name
The English word zodiac derives from zōdiacus, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek zōidiakòs kýklos (ζῳδιακὸς κύκλος), meaning "circle of little animals". Zōidion (ζῴδιον) is the diminutive of zōion (ζῷον, "animal"). The name reflects the prominence of animals (and mythological hybrids) among the twelve signs.

Usage
The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period (mid-1st millennium BC), which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.[1] The construction of the zodiac is described in Ptolemy's vast 2nd century AD work, the Almagest.[2]

Although the zodiac remains the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system in use in astronomy besides the equatorial one,[3] the term and the names of the twelve signs are today mostly associated with horoscopic astrology.[4] The term "zodiac" may also refer to the region of the celestial sphere encompassing the paths of the planets corresponding to the band of about eight arc degrees above and below the ecliptic. The zodiac of a given planet is the band that contains the path of that particular body; e.g., the "zodiac of the Moon" is the band of five degrees above and below the ecliptic. By extension, the "zodiac of the comets" may refer to the band encompassing most short-period comets.[

Early history

Wheel of the zodiac: This 6th century mosaic pavement in a synagogue incorporates Greek-Byzantine elements, Beit Alpha, Israel.

Zodiac circle with planets, c.1000 - NLW MS 735C
Further information: Babylonian star catalogues and MUL.APIN
The division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian ("Chaldean") astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, likely during Median/"Neo-Babylonian" times (7th century BC).[6] The classical zodiac is a modification of the MUL.APIN catalogue, which was compiled around 1000 BC. Some of the constellations can be traced even further back, to Bronze Age (Old Babylonian) sources, including Gemini "The Twins", from MAŠ.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL "The Great Twins", and Cancer "The Crab", from AL.LUL "The Crayfish", among others.

Babylonian astronomers at some stage during the early 1st millennium BC divided the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude to create the first known celestial coordinate system: a coordinate system that boasts some advantages over modern systems (such as the equatorial coordinate system). The Babylonian calendar as it stood in the 7th century BC assigned each month to a sign, beginning with the position of the Sun at vernal equinox, which, at the time, was depicted as the Aries constellation ("Age of Aries"), for which reason the first sign is still called "Aries" even after the vernal equinox has moved away from the Aries constellation due to the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation.[7]

Because the division was made into equal arcs, 30° each, they constituted an ideal system of reference for making predictions about a planet's longitude. However, Babylonian techniques of observational measurements were in a rudimentary stage of evolution and it is unclear whether they had techniques to define in a precise way the boundary lines between the zodiacal signs in the sky.[8] Thus, the need to use stars close to the ecliptic (±9° of latitude) as a set of observational reference points to help positioning a planet within this ecliptic coordinate system.[9] Constellations were given the names of the signs and asterisms could be connected in a way that would resemble the sign's name. Therefore, in spite of its conceptual origin, the Babylonian zodiac became sidereal.[10]

In Babylonian astronomical diaries, a planet position was generally given with respect to a zodiacal sign alone, less often in specific degrees within a sign.[11] When the degrees of longitude were given, they were expressed with reference to the 30° of the zodiacal sign, i.e., not with a reference to the continuous 360° ecliptic.[12] To the construction of their mathematical ephemerides, daily positions of a planet were not as important as the dates when the planet crossed from one zodiacal sign to the next.[13]

Hebrew astrology
Knowledge of the Babylonian zodiac is also reflected in the Tanakh, but is the first recorded astrological division into 12 constellations, elaborated on in the Talmuds, books of the Midrash Rabba, and other minor works. E. W. Bullinger interpreted the creatures appearing in the book of Ezekiel as the middle signs of the four quarters of the Zodiac,[14][15] with the Lion as Leo, the Bull is Taurus, the Man representing Aquarius and the Eagle representing Scorpio.[16] Some authors have linked the twelve tribes of Israel with the twelve signs. Martin and others have argued that the arrangement of the tribes around the Tabernacle (reported in the Book of Numbers) corresponded to the order of the Zodiac, with Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan representing the middle signs of Leo, Aquarius, Taurus, and Scorpio, respectively.Such connections were taken up by Thomas Mann, who in his novel Joseph and His Brothers attributes characteristics of a sign of the zodiac to each tribe in his rendition of the Blessing of Jacob.

Hellenistic and Roman era

The Babylonian star catalogs entered Greek astronomy in the 4th century BC, via Eudoxus of Cnidus.[17] [18] Babylonia or Chaldea in the Hellenistic world came to be so identified with astrology that "Chaldean wisdom" became among Greeks and Romans the synonym of divination through the planets and stars. Hellenistic astrology derived in part from Babylonian and Egyptian astrology.[19] Horoscopic astrology first appeared in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Dendera zodiac, a relief dating to ca. 50 BC, is the first known depiction of the classical zodiac of twelve signs.

Particularly important in the development of Western horoscopic astrology was the astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy, whose work Tetrabiblos laid the basis of the Western astrological tradition.[20] Under the Greeks, and Ptolemy in particular, the planets, Houses, and signs of the zodiac were rationalized and their function set down in a way that has changed little to the present day.[21] Ptolemy lived in the 2nd century AD, three centuries after the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes by Hipparchus around 130 BC. Hipparchus's lost work on precession never circulated very widely until it was brought to prominence by Ptolemy,[22] and there are few explanations of precession outside the work of Ptolemy until late Antiquity, by which time Ptolemy's influence was widely established.[23] Ptolemy clearly explained the theoretical basis of the western zodiac as being a tropical coordinate system, by which the zodiac is aligned to the equinoxes and solstices, rather than the visible constellations that bear the same names as the zodiac signs.[24]

Hindu zodiac
The Hindu zodiac uses the sidereal coordinate system, which makes reference to the fixed stars. The Tropical zodiac (of Mesopotamian origin) is divided by the intersections of the ecliptic and equator, which shifts in relation to the backdrop of fixed stars at a rate of 1° every 72 years, creating the phenomenon known as precession of the equinoxes. The Hindu zodiac, being sidereal, does not maintain this seasonal alignment, but there are still similarities between the two systems. The Hindu zodiac signs and corresponding Greek signs sound very different, being in Sanskrit and Greek respectively, but their symbols are nearly identical.[25] For example, dhanu means "bow" and corresponds to Sagittarius, the "archer", and kumbha means "water-pitcher" and corresponds to Aquarius, the "water-carrier".[26]

Middle Ages

Middle Ages

Angers Cathedral South Rose Window of Christ (centre) with elders (bottom half) and Zodiac (top half). Mediaeval stained glass by Andre Robin after the fire of 1451
The High Middle Ages saw a revival of Greco-Roman magic, first in Kabbalism and later continued in Renaissance magic. This included magical uses of the zodiac, as found, e.g., in the Sefer Raziel HaMalakh.

The zodiac is found in mediaeval stained glass as at Angers Cathedral, where the master glassmaker, André Robin, made the ornate rosettes for the North and South transepts after the fire there in 1451.[27]

Early modern

The zodiac signs in a 16th-century woodcut

A volvella of the moon. A volvella is a moveable device for working out the position of the sun and moon in the zodiac, 15th century

17th-century fresco, Cathedral of Living Pillar, Georgia of Christ in the Zodiac circle
An example of the use of signs as astronomical coordinates may be found in the Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris for the year 1767. The "Longitude of the Sun" columns show the sign (represented as a digit from 0 to and including 11), degrees from 0 to 29, minutes, and seconds.[28]

The zodiacal symbols are Early Modern simplifications of conventional pictorial representations of the signs, attested since Hellenistic times.

Twelve signs
Main article: Astrological sign
What follows is a list of the twelve signs of the modern zodiac (with the ecliptic longitudes of their first points), where 0° Aries is understood as the vernal equinox, with their Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, and Babylonian names (but note that the Sanskrit and the Babylonian name equivalents (after c.500 BC) denote the constellations only, not the tropical zodiac signs). Also, the "English translation" is not usually used by English speakers. The Latin names are standard English usage.

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God Mithra

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Goddess Aphrodite

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17th-century fresco, Cathedral of Living Pillar, Georgia of Christ in the Zodiac circle

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Southern hemisphere constellations from a western scientific manuscript c.1000

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Islamic Zodiac

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Sala Bologna Zodiac, Vatican

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Cathedral Santa Maria Annunziat, Otranto, Italy. Brown and Black Italians working.

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God Atlas lifting the Zodiac Globe

In Greek mythology, Atlas (/ˈætləs/; Ancient Greek: Ἄτλας) was the Titan god of endurance and astronomy,[1] condemned to hold up the sky for eternity after the Titanomachy. Although associated with various places, he became commonly identified with the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa (modern-day Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia).[2] Atlas was the son of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Asia[3] or Clymene.[4] He had many children, mostly daughters, the Hesperides, the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the nymph Calypso who lived on the island Ogygia.[5] According to the ancient Greek poet Hesiod Atlas stood at the ends of the earth towards the west.[6]

In contexts where a Titan and a Titaness are assigned each of the seven planetary powers, Atlas is paired with Phoebe and governs the moon.[not in citation given][7]

Hyginus emphasises the primordial nature of Atlas by making him the son of Aether and Gaia.[8]

"Atlantic Ocean" means "Sea of Atlas", while "Atlantis" means "island of Atlas".

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DD'eDeN
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Mena, Atlas mountains were called in Berber/Amazigt "Dyris" per Strabo.

During the Black Sea deluge 7,700 years ago due to Oceanic sea level rise from post-Ice Age melting; the Atlantic Ocean flooded the Black Sea, likely producing the various flood stories (Noah, Atrahasis, Atlantis, Yima, Manu, Duecaleon and other hero tales).

It is possible that Atlas & the pillars of Hercules were actually at Bosphorus strait in east Iberia (per one Roman travel writer), and in west Iberia(Spain, Morocco) and rock of Gibralter.

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xyambuatlaya

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Three Black Romans crushing grapes

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This mosaic most be a copy because in the original mosaic from Shutterstock those two Romans have curly hair and brown skins

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Medusa coin

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Medusa coin

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Medusa coin

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Medusa coin

n Greek mythology Medusa (/məˈdjuːzə, məˈdʒuː-, -sə/, US /məˈduː-/; Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress")[1] was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with a hideous face and living venomous snakes in place of hair. Gazers on her face would turn to stone. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto,[2] though the author Hyginus (Fabulae Preface) makes Medusa the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto.[3] According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene. The 2nd-century BCE novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion.

Medusa was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon[4] until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion.

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A ROMAN BRONZE BUST OF HERCULES CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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Mercury (Hermes), Roman relief (marble), from Herculaneum, 1st century AD?, (Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples).

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God Hercules/Herakles

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Roman guilt bronze bust of Hercules, 2nd Century AD
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Roman bronze balsamarium in the form of a herm of Herakles wearing the lion’s skin draped around his shoulders, his head surmounted by a fillet with floret remaining on one side, eyes inlaid with gold or electrum. 1st-2nd Century AD

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A ROMAN BRONZE HEAD OF HERCULES, CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE HERCULES | CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE VENUS | CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A Roman Bronze Figure of Isis-Aphrodite, Syria, Circa 2nd Century A.D.

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A Roman bronze figure of Aphrodite Circa 1st-2nd Century A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE VENUS - CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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Aphrodite from Myrina, Asia Minor, 1st century A.D.

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Goddess Isis Ptolemy Egypt

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ROMAN BRONZE APHRODITE (VENUS), 1st century A.D.

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1st century BC-1st century AD, Herculaneum, bronze with copper and silver jewelry and inlays, 17.5 cm. Venus (Aphrodite). Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli,

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Statuette of a philosopher on a lamp stand, Early Imperial, Augustan, late 1st century B.C. Roman Bronze

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Apollo, Roman statuette (bronze), 1st century BC, (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

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ROMAN BRONZE NUDE ISIS-APHRODITE Wearing a headdress centering a plumed lunar disk between Hathor horns; flanked by grain ears atop a uraeus circlet all upon the back of a vulture. In her left hand she holds an apple and in her right she holds a bird. 1st-2nd Century AD

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A ROMAN BRONZE VICTORIA CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE MERCURY CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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Roman bronze Victory (Nike). 1st - 2nd century AD.

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A ROMAN BRONZE ISIS-FORTUNA CIRCA LATE 1ST CENTURY B.C.-EARLY 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE VENUS GENETRIX CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE JUPITER CIRCA 1ST CENTURY B.C.-1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE FIGURE OF VENUS CIRCA 1ST-2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE MINERVA CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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Roman Bronze Statuette of Sol Invictus, 2nd-3rd...

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Roman, bronze, 8 1/2 inches high, circa first half of the first century A.D.

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Roman bronze with silver inlays statuette of the god Mars Ultor. 2nd-3rd century A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE BUST OF MARS CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE MARS ULTOR CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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A Roman bronze Harpokirates, circa 1st- 2nd century A.D.

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A ROMAN BRONZE MERCURY CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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A STATUETTE OF VENUS H. 23.5 cm. Bronze, hollow cast Roman, 2nd-3rd cent. A.D.

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Portrait Statuette of the Greek Orator Demosthenes (early Roman copy of bronze portrait statue), 100 BC-100 ADSculpture, StatuetteGraeco-Roman, 1st century BC-2nd century AD Roman period, Early to Middle Imperial, c. 31 BC-AD 235

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A ROMAN BRONZE POLYTHEISTIC FORTUNA CIRCA 2ND CENTURY A.D.

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Bronze Figure Roman 1st Century AD Found Verona, Italy

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Roman bronze figurine of Pan. 1st – early 2nd century CE

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Bronze Statue of Dionysus - circa 120-150 AD, from Roman period - at the Pallazzo Museum, Terme

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A ROMAN BRONZE JUPITER - CIRCA 1ST CENTURY A.D.

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Mercury (Hermes), Roman statuette (bronze and silver), 1st century AD, (Walters Art Museum, Baltimore).

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Roman Bronze Figure of Silenus 17519 Culture : Roman, Roman Imperial Period : 1st century B.C.- 1st century A.D. Material : Bronze

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The stunning life-sized statue of the Roman god of war, Mars at the Yorkshire Museum in York

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bronze statue of Mars was found in southern Turkey and dates from the Roman era. classic.cca-roma....

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Bronze Statuette of a Draped Female Figure, perhaps Nyx. Roman Empire (Place created). Date: 1st century B.C.

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The Graeco Roman statues and reliefs prove to me that the Ancient Greek world and the Roman Empire was a multi racial or many races society. Black people, Brown people, White people were part of the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome and Italy.

Some of the Graeco Roman statues in their original form looks more like Black and Mulato people but because of modern Western museum restoration that tend to make the broken noses, chins and hairs of the statues looks more like modern White European the statues looks like Octoroon mulatoes and White people.

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Etruscan bronze statue of the winged Vanth; angel of the hades holding a serpent, circa 300BC British museum

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Canaanite God

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Etruscan satyr drinking cup, 6th-4th centuries BCE. Bad pun alert: "Another Satyr Tea Night and I ain't got no body..."

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A bronze fountain head featuring a satyr, found in the unique unisex Suburban Baths which were built close to the walls of Pompeii and which boasted a heated swimming pool.

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Bust of Silenus that once adorned a Roman dining couch 1st century BCE-1st century CE Bronze with traces of silver inlay by mharrsch, via Flickr

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Archaic Roman Empire art from Greece, a bronze lamp base with hooded Silenus. 50 BCE - 50 CE.

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Bronze statue of Bacchus from Pompeii, 2nd century BC

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God Asclepius

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mena7
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Etruscan polychrome terracotta satyr mask.from Veii,5th cent,BC

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Roman bronze Silenus balsamarium, 3rd-4th century A.D. 10 cm high. Private collection

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Roman Bronze Applique Bust Of Sol Invictus

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Roman medallion of sun god Roman period sculpture, I-IIIth century AD, round applique medallion, image of sun god Sol Invictus, divinity or deity in high relief

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Bronze high relief, radiated bust of Sun God Helios - 1st-2nd Century AD, Roman imperial period - at the J. Eisenberg, Art of the Ancient World

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Sol Invictus of Antioch of Pisidia at Archaeology Museum of Yalvac near Konya, Turkey. Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) was the Roman state-supported sun god created by the emperor Aurelian in 274 and continued, overshadowing other Eastern cults in importance, until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I. By far the earliest appearance of an inscription linking the unconquered emperor with the sun is the legend on a bronze phalera dated by its style to the second century, in the Vatican .

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Sol/Helios original God of the Sun

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults.

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Black basanite disc with a bust of the god Helios-Serapis. Late second-century. British Museum, London.

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Sun God Apollo

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A ROMAN BRONZE BUST OF ROMA CIRCA LATE 3RD CENTURY A.D.

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Roman god Sol Indiges

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Three dogs in one... The God Serapis and His Consort Isis with the Three Headed Dog Cerberus

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Isis, Roman statue (marble), 2nd century aD, discovered in Naples (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

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Black Roman God known as Hermes. He was also known as a patron of poetry.

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Bronze statute of Winged Goddess Nike - from Etruscan culture, circa 4th c. B.C

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Flamen (Roman priest), head of Roman sculpture (marble), 3rd century AD, (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

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Mars. Marble relief. Head: 2nd century CE. Bust: 16th century. Rome, Roman National Museum, Palazzo Altemps

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Mars was the Roman god of war (equivalent to Ares in Greek Mythology) and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was the most prominent of the military gods worshipped by the Roman legions

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KORÉ À LA COLOMBE. Grande statuette représentant une koré debout sur une base. Elle est vêtue d'un long chiton couvert d'un himation plissé dont elle saisit un pan de la main gauche; de la main droite, elle tient une colombe à hauteur de la poitrine. Sa coiffure, formée de longues parotides, est ceinte d'un polos. Terre cuite orangée. Art Grec, fin du VIe siècle av. J.-C.

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Goddess Aphrodite, worshiped as Isis in ancient Egypt, Ptolemaic Period, 305-30 BC, terracotta polychrome

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Sheela-na-gig

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Medieval shield-na-gig

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This 'Yonitrantric' figure of Kali in menstrual flux is like a handsome, well-carved sheela-na-gig. cf Ballinderry Castle It was, however, carved in the 17th century. Could the influence have travelled from Ireland to India ? Kali is the (currently impotent!) goddess-challenger of demonic testosteronic madness. Similar wooden figures of the 17th and 18th century depict goddesses giving birth.

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the "Piraeus Apollo" in the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus (Athens). This is an archaic-style bronze (ranking among the very few such bronzes survived till us) dating from the 6th century BC, possibily from the years 530/520s BC

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Head from the Statue of the Young Bacchus; Unknown; Roman E [IMG][img] [IMG]https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/23/e1/5c/23e15c0adeee98c3bffbfb607935e8db.jpg [/img][/IMG] Aphrodite Greek, Tanagra, 250 - 200 B.C. Terracotta with polychromy H: 10 11/16 in. 55.AD.7[/IMG]
mpire; first half of 1st century; Bronze with silver.

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Figurine of Isis-Aphrodite anasyr(o)mene ("revealing the womb").Greek, East Greek,Hellenistic Period,3rd–2nd century B.C.In Hellenistic and Roman times,Aphrodite's identity was often fused with those of Egyptian fertility goddesses:Isis, Hathor and Bubastis.This figurine represents Isis-Aphrodite anasyromene or Isis-Bubastis.She lifts her short-sleeved tunic to reveal pubic area and wears elaborate kalathos-shaped headdress,reminiscent of those worn by Cypriot Aphrodite.

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STATUE OF EPONA, GODDESS OF HORSES, ARTIFACT UNCOVERED IN FRANCE, GALLO-ROMAN CIVILIZATION. Statue of Epona, goddess of horses, artefact uncovered in France. Gallo-Roman Civilisation. Alise-Sainte-Reine, Musée Alesia (Archaeological Museum)


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Isis-Aphrodite Roman, 1st century BC- 1st century AD Christie’s

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Fragment with the head and torso of a Roman statuette of Venus. Bronze.

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Sumerian star map from Ninive 3000 BCE / Pearl-Nautilus

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Aztec Sun Stone from Aztec Empire dated 1512. One of great wonders, in museo de Antropologia, Mexico city

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Aphrodite Greek, Tanagra, 250 - 200 B.C. Terracotta with polychromy H: 10 11/16 in. 55.AD.7

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A GREEK TERRACOTTA APHRODITE TANAGRA, CIRCA LATE 4TH-3RD CENTURY B.C.

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mena why are you posting so many unpainted sculptures in a thread called "Brown, Black and White" ?

why are these colors mentioned if we are looking at so many sculptures which are unpainted, just the natural color of the stone not intended to represent skin tone?

why isn't the title just >>

" Graeco Roman Gods and Goddesses" ??

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Lioness you are right I could have name this thread Graeco Roman Gods and Goddesses but I wanted to point out that the Graeco Roman civilization was inhabited by people of the Black, white and Brown races that is why the gods and Goddesses looks like Black, White and Brown people.

Mike III website Real history World Wide have a good teaching on race that say that there is only one race on planet earth the Black race. All the other races are subset of the Black race that has evolved because of their isolation and the climate.

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mena

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Busto in bronzo di Diana saettante rinvenuto nel Tempio di Apollo a Pompei, oggi nel Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (inv. 4895).

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Diana as an Archer (Diana Saettatrice) -- Roman art, bronze manifactured between 100 BCE and 79 CE, on display at Museo Nazionale Archeologico of Naples, Italy.

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Marble relief of the Three Graces. Marble. 2nd century CE. Inv. No. L.2013.17. New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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A Giant at the Bath, Pompei, Italy Copyright: Terez Anon

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Ancient Greek mosaic recently uncovered in Zeugma, Turkey, 2000 years old.

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Celtic Gneiss Stone Figure of a Goddess, perhaps Brigantia, 200-300, stone from Outer Hebrides. A mother, warrior, virgin, hag, conveyor of fertility, giver of prosperity to the land and protectress of the flocks and herds. Tied to the land whose features seemed to be manifestations of her power. When no longer venerated, converted into local nymphs, guardians of wells, or supernatural hags, conferring benefits/evils. Celtic goddesses remain traceable in local saints and spirits of

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Head of a Priest Syria 150-250 CE Limestone Dallas Museum of Art

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Antinous as Aristaeus, god of the shepherds and cheese-making, bee-keeping, Louvre Museum, Paris

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Pillars of Hercules in Ceuta.

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Head from statue of Herakles (Hercules) Roman 117-188 CE from villa of the emperor Hadrian at Tivoli, Italy. Portland Art Museum

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Pompeii. Isis Statue | Temple of Isis. Isis (Ancient Greek: Ἶσις, original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic.

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Bronze Apollo with Lyre. Pompeii, House of Apollo

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statue of Hekate, Three Graces - Metropolitan Museum

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Hecate circa 3nd century AD, at the museum of J. Eisenberg.

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God Atlas

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