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Author Topic: 30,000-year old Sungir Homo sapiens visualized for the first time in 3-D VR
Doug M
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quote:

VISUAL SCIENCE—Visual Science and the RAS Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, with support from the All-Russian Science Festival "Nauka 0+", have reconstructed the faces of the Sungir people—Homo sapiens who lived 30,000 years ago in Central Russia and are believed to be ancestors of today's Northern and Eastern Europeans. The new virtual reality 3D animation brings the Sungir people to life. The scientifically accurate visualization is based on skeletal remains from the Sungir site, one of the northernmost Paleolithic settlements in Europe, as well as data from previous efforts to reconstruct the Sungir people's appearance.

What is Sungir?

Located in the Vladimir region of central Russia, Sungir is by far the northernmost prehistoric settlement of early modern humans in Europe. It was first excavated by archaeologists in 1956.
More than 80,000 cultural and household artifacts have been found at the site, which is believed to have been a seasonal hunting camp. Many are made from mammoth bones, Arctic fox canines and stone. Beads, pendants, zoomorphic figurines, engravings and clothing have been among the findings.
Remains of nine people have been discovered at the site. The best-preserved belonged to two siblings, aged approximately 10 and 13. These were used to create the VR 3D animation.
Decades of research on the Sungir site have advanced our understanding of human development, migration, and the cultures of Paleolithic Europe.

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/fall-2017/article/30-000-year-old-sungir-homo-sapiens-visualized-for-the-first-time-in-3-d-virtual-reality

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Thereal
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The reconstruction is obviously modified to make them look like contemporary white Russians, I think it was xyman but these folks are supposed to be related to the makrani who don't look like that. Here is a bust of the same people,the son doesn't look the same.
http://img.2r.ru/geo_objects/2013/08/6c8e21af48dbf31a3609a59f39bafe7f.jpg

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Doug M
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quote:
Originally posted by Thereal:
The reconstruction is obviously modified to make them look like contemporary white Russians, I think it was xyman but these folks are supposed to be related to the makrani who don't look like that. Here is a bust of the same people,the son doesn't look the same.
http://img.2r.ru/geo_objects/2013/08/6c8e21af48dbf31a3609a59f39bafe7f.jpg

True. I noticed the same.
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DD'eDeN
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(per Jack at AAT)
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Duf1220 is the driver of brain size.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511999/

This graph is helpful to understand our significant increase over other primates.
http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/08/our-big-human-brains-may-depend-on.html?m=1

To understand how mammals have a significant advantage over the dinosaurs, reptiles and birds which have zero duf1220

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230841831_Evolutionary_History_and_Genome_Organization_of_DUF1220_Protein_Domains/figures?lo=1

Humans have increased over a great deal of time and there are more duf1220 the closer one gets to the NorthEast of Eurasia.  That means the original ancestor appeared there and slowly migrated west and south.  Each aquatic barrier thins the CNVs, hence the lowest levels would be seen the the farther one goes away from point of origin.

Indigenous peoples of South Africa would have few number of copy number variation because they have been slowly culled over time.  Much like successive breeding in domesticated animals.  

Eventually humans hit the sweet spot for social intelligence.  Neanderthal had too many at 350 and could not form society, rather would exist in tight single family groups.  These skeletons were robust (Gorilla like) with archaic features. 

Population boomed in the form of large tribes and this new body plan, a highly social group construct (with smaller brains and gracile bone structure).  These groups slowly sucked up the indigenous groups in Eurasia and caused our modern society.  That is why Asian and Europeans have ancient autosomal genes (800,000 to 2.4million years) as well as many genes that have never been in Africa.

This is the most parsimonious explanation for our genome, CNVs, Endogenous viruses and archaic features in our modern population. 
(per Jack)

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xyambuatlaya

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Doug M:
quote:
Originally posted by Thereal:
The reconstruction is obviously modified to make them look like contemporary white Russians, I think it was xyman but these folks are supposed to be related to the makrani who don't look like that. Here is a bust of the same people,the son doesn't look the same.
http://img.2r.ru/geo_objects/2013/08/6c8e21af48dbf31a3609a59f39bafe7f.jpg

True. I noticed the same.
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The old and new reconstructions look so similar to me, the newer one was hardly worth doing


quote:


Makrani population showed a high genetic diversity (0.9688) and, consequently, a high power of discrimination (0.9592). Our results revealed a strongly admixed mtDNA pool composed of African haplogroups (28%), West Eurasian haplogroups (26%), South Asian haplogroups (24%), and East Asian haplogroups (2%),

In our population data, we observed African haplogroups (28%) including L2a1b1a (11%), L2a1 (5%), L3d1a1a (3%), L2ba1 (1%), L3f1b4a (1%), L4b2a2 (1%), M1a1 (1%), L0a1b (1%), L1c2a1a (1%), L4b2b1 (1%), L2a1a2 (1%), L0a2a2 (1%); West Eurasian haplogroups (26%) including U7a (6%), T1a8a (5%), U5b (2%), J1d (2%), HV2a (2%), T1a7 (1%), U4c1 (1%), U4‘9(1%), J1b1b (1%), W6 (1%), T2 (1%), T1a103 (1%), J2a2 (1%), J1b1a1 (1%); South Asian haplogroups (24%) including R2 (6.0%), R30a1b (5%), M3 (3%), M4 (3%), U2b1 (3%), M3a1 (1%) M6a1b (1%), M18a (1%), U2a (1%); and one East Asian haplogroup, F3b1 (2%). The remaining 20% mtDNA of the sampled individuals could not be confidently assigned a continental origin.

-- Genetic characterization of the Makrani people of Pakistan from mitochondrial DNA control-region data
Muhammad Hassan Siddiqi, 2014

quote:


http://exhibitions.nypl.org/africansindianocean/essay-south-asia.php


Pakistan
Many of the Africans brought into the Indian subcontinent entered through the ports of Baluchistan and Sindh, where they worked as dockworkers, horse-keepers, domestic servants, agricultural workers, nurses, palanquin carriers and apprentices to blacksmiths and carpenters. In 1851, the linguist Sir Richard Burton, who served in the British Army in Sindh, noted how up to 700 Bambasi, Habshi and Zangibari—all Africans—were imported annually into neighboring Baluchistan. Females were in greater demand and were priced at around 50 pounds, while children were bartered for grain, cloth and other goods. Much of the vocabulary used by the Afro-Sindhi descendants of these migrants is a modified Swahili. For instance, the word for shield in Swahili, ngao, is gao among the Afro-Sindhi; the word for moon (or one month) in Swahili, mwesi, is moesi in Afro-Sindhi.

Pakistan has the most people of African descent in South Asia. It has been estimated that at least a quarter of the total population of the Makran coast is of African ancestry—that is, at least 250,000 people living on the southern coast of Pakistan, which overlaps with southeastern Iran, can claim East African descent. Beginning in 1650 Oman traded more heavily with the Lamu archipelago on the Swahili coast and transported Africans to the Makran coast. As a result, today many Pakistani of African descent are referred to as Makrani, whether or not they live there. On the coast they are also variously referred to as dada, sheedi and syah (all meaning black), or alternatively, gulam (slave) or naukar (servant). The children of Sindhi Muslim men and sidiyani (female Africans) are called gaddo—as in half-caste. The population geneticist Lluis Quintana-Murci of the Pasteur Institute in Paris found that more than 40 percent of the maternal gene pool of the Makrani is of African origin.


I don't know why you bring up the Makrani. there is no connection between the Marani and Sungir
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