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Author Topic: Black Romans and Greeks
ausar
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Hey what happened to close up of Herakles' face?
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the lioness,
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see page 2, bottom
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ausar
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o i c now
you replaced it

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mena7
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Clodius Macer

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Clodius Macer

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Clodius Macer

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Clodius Macer

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Clodius Macer

Lucius Clodius Macer was a legatus of the Roman Empire in Africa in the time of Nero. He revolted in May 68, cutting off the food supply of Rome, possibly at the instigation of Calvia Crispinilla. Although encouraged by Galba, Macer raised a legion Legio I Macriana liberatrix in addition to the Legio III Augusta that he already commanded, presumably raising suspicion that Macer also harbored imperial ambitions, and in October 68 Galba had him killed by the procurator Trebonius Garutianus. Papirus, the centurion of Mucianus, was implicated in his assassination.

He produced denarii which are extremely rare today. Only about 85 are known to exist, of which only 20 bear his portrait. It is interesting that he uses the formulaic abbreviation S C (senatus consulto) on his denarii, for this abbreviation otherwise had only rarely appeared on Roman silver coins since about 40 BC. We may take this and his decision to portray himself without a laurel wreath or a diadem as evidence that he wished to portray his revolt as being against Nero, not the senate.

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Pescenius Niger
Pescennius Niger (Latin: Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus;[1] c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. He claimed the imperial throne in response to the murder of Pertinax and the elevation of Didius Julianus, but was defeated by a rival claimant, Septimius Severus, and killed while attempting to flee from Antioch.

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mena7
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Said to be LATE HELLENISTIC OR ROMAN BRONZE HEAD OF AN AFRICAN CIRCA 1ST CENTURY B.C.-1ST CENTURY A.D. bUT REALLY A BLACK GREEK OR A BLACK ROMAN CITIZEN.

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kdolo
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Nice

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Keldal

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mena7
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mena7
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Statue of a Roman judge. İstanbul arkeoloji müzesi

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Grave stele of Phousinia Mermer

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VORY 6TH BCE An Eunuch-priest (part of a chain) Ivory statuette (early 6th BCE) from the foundations of the Artemis (Diana) Temple Ephesus, Turkey Height 11 cm - Inv. 2593 Archaeological Museum, Istanbul, Turkey

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HELLENISTIC IVORY 10TH-6TH BCE A woman spinning, with distaff and spindle. Ivory statuette (late 7th BCE) from the foundations of the Artemis Temple Ephesus, Turkey Height 10.5 cm - Inv. 2594 Archaeological Museum, Istanbul, Turkey

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Statue of Roman judge

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Pompeii. Isis Statue | Temple of Isis. Isis (Ancient Greek: Ἶσις, original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic.

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mena7
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istanbul arkeoloji müzesi

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istanbul arkeoloji müzesi

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istanbul arkeoloji müzesi
Bronze statue of Hadrian, 2nd century CE, from Adana, Istanbul Archaeological Museum

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Bust of a Woman, 25 B.C.-- A.D. 25, Roman, bronze.

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Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius

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Man, possibly P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Roman bust (bronze), 1st century BC, (Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples).

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Gaius Marius, Roman General And Politician.

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mena7
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Girl, Roman bust (marble), 3rd century AD, (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

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"Seneca", bronze with inlaid eyes, Roman, 1st century CE. Found in the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. While commonly called Seneca that is only one possibility and academics usually refer to it more correctly as the head of a man, possibly a poet or philosopher.

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Title: "Les Trois Grâces" Class: Free-standing statue Material: Marble Height: 1.19 metres Context: Found in the Villa Cornovaglia in Rome Original / Copy: Roman copy of Greek statue C2nd BC

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Dionysos, Pan and a satyr; Roman Bronze figurines statue - circa 2nd-3rd AD, from Szomodor in Hungary, metal fitting of a chariot - at the National Museum, Budapest

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Roman bronze figurine of Pan - 1st century AD

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Female figure standing on the head of a dragon. from Begram, Afghanistan, 1st-2nd century

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A ROMAN BRONZE PORTRAIT HEAD OF A MAN - CIRCA SECOND QUARTER OF THE 3RD CENTURY A.D.

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mena7
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Moor Ptolemy of Mauritania

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Lusius Quietus (98-117 A.D.) was known as one of Rome’s greatest generals and was named by Roman Emperor Trajan as his successor. According to Rashidi, he was purely of African origin, described as a “man of Moorish race and considered the ablest soldier in the Roman army.”

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Poet Sappho

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Goddess Cybele

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Roman copy of Greek Poet Sappho

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Bust of Appolo

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mena7
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Grave stell of Narkissos the gladiator Mermer

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ouros, statue of a standing youth Mermer, Kyzikos

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Roman ancestor or founding father

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God Sol

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Moon Goddess

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God Dionysius

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mena7
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Fayum Portrait

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Fayum portrait

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Fayum portrait

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Fayum portrait

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Fayum portrait

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Fayum portrait

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Portrait of a thin-faced man, A.D. 140–170. Roman Period. From Egypt. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1909(09.181.3) | This work is exhibited in the “New Discoveries: Early Liturgical Textiles from Egypt, 200-400” exhibition, on view through September 5, 2016.
10d

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Fayum portrait

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mena7
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Mummy portrait of a woman, Hawara, Fayum, Egypt, AD 100-120 -

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Fayum mummy portraits is the name given to a large number of paintings from the first to third century. The surviving paintings are predominantly from the Fayum region in Roman Egypt

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Fayum mummy portrait Almost look like the portraits on the walls of the homes in Pompii

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mena7
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Fayum mummy portraits, 1st century BC to the 3rd century

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Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) is the modern term given to a type of naturalistic painted portraits on wooden boards attached to mummies from the Coptic period. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. In fact, the Fayum portraits are the only large body of art from that tradition to have survived.

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real expert
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quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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Roman Emperor Nero

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Roman Emperor Nero

The word Nero mean black in Italian. Maybe Nero was a black person with straight hair. most likely he was a mulato.


Nero

Holy **** I didn'know that Afrocentrics have sunk so low and that their inferiority complex is beyond repair. A black person with straight or weavy hair is someone who wears wigs or weaves.

If blacks would have naturally straight or weavy hair, the wig and weave indusry would be not a multi- billion dollars business.

Africans Spend Over $7 BILLION On Weaves, Wigs, Extensions And Relaxers DESPITE DIRE POVERTY! Black Americans also spent billion dollars for weaves and wigs.

Weavy or silky curly hair only occurs in rare cases among Ethiopians, Somalis, Fulanis, Tuaregs etc. all of them have West Asian admixture.

Straight or weavy hair is a non- negroid trait and therefore pure or predominantly negroid people have 10 out of 10 KINKY, NAPPY HAIR. Even mulattoes have only in very rare case weavy or silky curly hair. If Afrocentrics can't prove that Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Native Americans, Assyrians or Chinese were black they call them mulattoes.

The word Nero means black in Italian? So what? smartass the Romans spoke Latin and not Italian. The Latin word for black was "niger": This word means also evil, sad, griefing, dreadful, malicous,obfuscate etc.

Okay smartass the Name Nero of the Roman Emperor was not of Italian or Latin BUT Sabine origin and means "strong, vigourous" and NOT black.

Furhermore Nero was described by the ancient Roman historian Suetonius as having light blonde hair and blue eyes.

Show me one negro or Mulatto who looks like the Emperor Nero. The ancient Egyptians depicted different people in their art, so did ancient Greeks and Romans. All the genuine depictions and not the photoshopped and faked depictions of phony realhistoryww show Ethiopians/Nubians and NO Romans or Greeks.

Just because Romans and Greeks depicted Nubians/Ethiopians in their art they don't mutated into Nubians or negroes by doing so.

The mere presence of Nubian/Ethiopian individuals in Greece or Rome doesn't turn them into ethnic Romans or Greeks either.

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by real expert:
quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
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Roman Emperor Nero

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Roman Emperor Nero

The word Nero mean black in Italian. Maybe Nero was a black person with straight hair. most likely he was a mulato.


Nero

Holy **** I didn'know that Afrocentrics have sunk so low and that their inferiority complex is beyond repair. A black person with straight or weavy hair is someone who wears wigs or weaves.

Holy **** dumbass, the views of one person doesn't represent that of anyone else.

Know the difference between a singular and plural.

A black persons with straight hair can be natural. And the Roman army have blacks/ Africans in several positions. But a euronut, such as yourself don't know that of course.

You know very little in general, let alone specific ethnography.
Euronuts like you really have sunk low, rock bottom.

I don't know if Mena created a trap for you, but if so, you have now debunked yourself,by your contradicting rant. LOL


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quote:


Physical variations in any given trait tend to occur gradually rather than abruptly over geographic areas. And because physical traits are inherited independently of one another, knowing the range of one trait does not predict the presence of others. For example, skin color varies largely from light in the temperate areas in the north to dark in the tropical areas in the south; its intensity is not related to nose shape or hair texture. Dark skin may be associated with frizzy or kinky hair or curly or wavy or straight hair, all of which are found among different indigenous peoples in tropical regions. These facts render any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations both arbitrary and subjective.

--American Anthropological Association

http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by real expert:
quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
[qb]  -
Roman Emperor Nero

 -
Roman Emperor Nero

The word Nero mean black in Italian. Maybe Nero was a black person with straight hair. most likely he was a mulato.


Nero

Holy **** I didn'know that Afrocentrics have sunk so low and that their inferiority complex is beyond repair. A black person with straight or weavy hair is someone who wears wigs or weaves.

Holy **** dumbass, the views of one person doesn't represent that of anyone else.

Know the difference between a singular and plural.

A black persons with straight hair can be natural. And the Roman army have blacks/ Africans in several positions. But a euronut, such as yourself don't know that of course.


So you are saying Mena has no reason to think that Nero was a mulatto instead of a fully black man due to his wavy hair?


Could you show some photos of adult male black men with straight or wavy hair who aren't too old so we can see what you are talking about?


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^^ we know this is a black man we just need some photos of adult males who aren't old men to back it up.
It should match the age range and gender to be a good comparison

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by real expert:
quote:
Originally posted by mena7:
[qb] http://webspace.webring.com/people/lg/gaiusulpius/nero_bronze1.jpeg
Roman Emperor Nero

http://www.livius.org/a/1/emperors/nero_mus_munchen.JPG
Roman Emperor Nero

The word Nero mean black in Italian. Maybe Nero was a black person with straight hair. most likely he was a mulato.


Nero

Holy **** I didn'know that Afrocentrics have sunk so low and that their inferiority complex is beyond repair. A black person with straight or weavy hair is someone who wears wigs or weaves.

Holy **** dumbass, the views of one person doesn't represent that of anyone else.

Know the difference between a singular and plural.

A black persons with straight hair can be natural. And the Roman army have blacks/ Africans in several positions. But a euronut, such as yourself don't know that of course.


So you are saying Mena has no reason to think that Nero was a mulatto instead of a fully black man due to his wavy hair?


Could you show some photos of adult male black men with straight or wavy hair who aren't too old so we can see what you are talking about?


http://www.livius.org/a/1/emperors/nero_mus_munchen.JPG


^^ we know this is a black man we just need some photos of adult males who aren't old men to back it up.
It should match the age range and gender to be a good comparison

I am saying that Mena is an individual.

And I am saying that you are a euronut and lying a hog! A complete dumbass, who can't comprehend very well. That is what I am saying, retard!

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

I am saying that Mena is an individual.


I knew that already. Say something un-dumb
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Ish Gebor
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quote:

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Mystery head could be rare statue of Emperor Nero

A piece of a marble statue discovered at a Roman site in Sussex could be one of only three in existence depicting the Emperor Nero.

Head found at Fishbourne Roman Palace in West Sussex, Nero head: Mystery head could be rare statue of Emperor Nero

The chunk of stone, which is the right side of a boy's head and his lower face, is to be scanned using sophisticated technology and the remainder generated by computer to suggest what he may have looked like.

Archaeologists suspect the sculpture, which was found at Fishbourne Roman Palace in West Sussex, is of Nero as a young boy.

The only other known statues of Nero are in the Italian National Museum of Antiquities in Parma and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

One of the reasons that so few survive is because he was declared an enemy of the state after he was pushed from power in a military coup and images of him were ordered destroyed.

According to ancient historians, Nero was the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned" during the city's Great Fire in 64AD and ordered the deaths of his mother, stepfather and pregnant wife, among others, to keep his grip on power.

As ruler of the Roman empire, he controlled Britain and his forces put down the revolt led by Boudica, also called Boadicea, and her tribe, the Iceni, in 60AD.

He committed suicide in 68AD.

The latest find was actually discovered in 1964 but until recently it was always believed to be that of a king called Togidubnes or a member of his family.

Now similarities have been found between the Fishbourne statue and the only others in Italy and France.

The rounded cheeks, full, curving lips, rounded lower face, slightly protruding ears, curling locks of hair and almond-shaped eyes are all very similar.

As a man, the Roman historian Suetonius described Nero as "about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender".

Although this would only be the third statue of him, busts and coins bearing his image are more common.

Dr Rob Symmons, curator of archaeology at Fishbourne, will work with Bournemouth University lecturers Dr Miles Russell and Harry Manley to produce 3D scans of the head.

The scans will recreate the face, which was damaged with an axe, to test the theory that it could in fact be the emperor.

Dr Symmons said: "This is very exciting as the scan will allow us to see for the first time what the boy really looked like and may also reveal his identity.

"We have always assumed he was related to the Royal family who lived here but it may be that it is even more special and is a rare depiction of Nero."

Dr Russell said: "They tried to eradicate the fact that Nero ever existed.

"This particular head is extremely well made in a very expensive type of marble and someone has taken an axe to it and smashed it almost to oblivion.

"Why else would they do that?".

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6255317/Mystery-head-could-be-rare-statue-of-Emperor-Nero.html
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

I am saying that Mena is an individual.


I knew that already. Say something un-dumb
You only understand dumb. That is your language barrier! Lioness "team" is dumbfounded!
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the lioness,
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 -  -
Portrait of Nero from his first major portrait phase of AD 50/51-54, found in the basilica at Velleia, Italy (© Museo Nazionale di Antichità, Parma)


quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
 -


quote:



As a man, the Roman historian Suetonius described Nero as "about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender".


http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6255317/Mystery-head-could-be-rare-statue-of-Emperor-Nero.html
quote:
Originally posted by Troll Patrol:
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Obviously Nero was of Solomon Island extraction while the Euronut albinos are trying to pretend he was caucasoid
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Ish Gebor
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^LOL. MORE DUMB AND RETARDED NAZI BULLSHYT. BY YOUR HO'stess, lions ass. A picture I never posted. Neither something I ever claimed. But you are a dumb box of rocks. And you are contracting yourself, without even knowing it. Typical!


quote:
"Nero (A.D. 37-68) became emperor of the Roman Empire after the death of his adopted father, the Emperor Claudius, in A.D. 54. The last ruler of what historians call the “Julio-Claudian” dynasty, he ruled until he committed suicide in June, A.D. 68."


"After the murder of Caligula in January A.D. 41, and the ascension of Emperor Claudius shortly afterward, mother and son were reunited. His ambitious mother would go on to marry Claudius (who was also her uncle) in A.D. 49, and she saw to it that he adopted her son, giving him a new name that started with “Nero.” His tutors included the famous philosopher Seneca, a man who would continue advising Nero into his reign, even writing the proclamation explaining why Nero killed his mother."

http://www.livescience.com/40277-emperor-nero-facts.html


quote:
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c.71-c.135): Roman scholar and official, best-known as the author of the Lives of the Twelve Caesars.
http://www.livius.org/articles/person/suetonius/
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Mike111
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
 -  -
Portrait of Nero from his first major portrait phase of AD 50/51-54, found in the basilica at Velleia, Italy (© Museo Nazionale di Antichità, Parma)

This is not a particular person: this is a typical Fake Albino artifact featuring stereotypical Albino features. No child actually looks like that. It is only a composite of juvenile Albino features.

Check Kovels and Hummel figurines.

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Mike111:
This is not a particular person: this is a typical Fake Albino artifact featuring stereotypical Albino features. No child actually looks like that. It is only a composite of juvenile Albino features.

Check Kovels and Hummel figurines.

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Anybody who says "albino features" is beyond stupid and has no idea what albinism is.

And the remark " No child actually looks like that" and at the same time saying it shows "stereotypical features" is equally profound in it's stupidity.

If the features are "stereotypical" that means most children of that type look like that

How incredibly stupid !

quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


The only other known statues of Nero are in the Italian National Museum of Antiquities in Parma and the Louvre Museum in Paris.


 -  -
Italian National Museum of Antiquities in Parma

^^ and are the features exaggerated ???
Of course not. They are not exaggerated, nothing enlarged, stretched or thrown out of proportion in any kind of way.

You could find multi millions of children that look like this in America and Europe.

^^He looks like any typical straight haired Black so called "negro" child anywhere in America

quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


The only other known statues of Nero are in the Italian National Museum of Antiquities in Parma and the Louvre Museum in Paris.



 -
Louvre Museum in Paris
Nero in toga, with bulla, holding a scroll
Ca. 50 CE.
Height 138 cm.
Paris, Louvre Museum

^^^ Look at this how could anybody think this is a white boy?
Look at the black features. Just because he had blond hair and blues does not change his prominent Somalian features
.


_________________


 -

what, Black people can't have blue eyes now ??
Stop being NAZIs !!!

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,


Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
 -



quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

A picture I never posted.


what about this thread where you posted it ?

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=006804

^^ does this count?

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 -

THE EXPLOITS OF BLACK ROMAN EMPEROR NERO IN NORTH AFRICA

The Battle of Grumentum was fought in 207 BC between Romans led by Gaius Claudius Nero, and a part of Hannibal's Carthaginian army. The battle was a minor Roman victory, and Nero marched north where he defeated and killed Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal at Metaurus. The battle is described by Livy at 27.41-42.

Upon Hannibal's descent from the alps he had for three years won an impressive string of victories against Rome[2] The battle of Ticinus, Trebia, Trasimene and Cannae were some of the more notable victories that he'd won. These had been disastrous defeats for the Romans, especially the latter battle. This victory brought the Romans to the brink of despair. The Senate had issued a decree that forbade anyone to say the word, "Peace" within the city. Mourning was legislatively circumscribed to 30 days, women were not permitted to cry in the public venues. In spite of such measures, there was much despair in the city and some young Romans of high birth were proposing mass desertion from the army and establishment of a new colony elsewhere. The proposed defection was put down and all thoughts of surrender were circumscribed.[2]:pp.382–388
Despite these setbacks, Rome itself remained secure from attack. Hannibal did not believe that that he had the resources necessary for a siege of Rome, and, even after the battle of Cannae, he had not been able to break up the Roman Symmachy. Not a single member of the Italian Confederacy ever broke its treaty with Rome, the roots of Roman power in the peninsula were sown deep, based upon time and the mutual benefit that both Rome and her subordinate allies had received from the alliance. Some colonies had been detached from the Confederacy in Cisalpine Gaul, but no seriously demoralizing blow had been struck at the Symmachy.[2]:pp.382–386
So, after Cannae, Hannibal set about just this task. It was indeed upon the basis of his being able to detach the confederates of Rome that Hannibal had calculated upon a lasting victory. Without them, nothing serious could be brought about. So after the battle itself, Hannibal started to conduct diplomacy to this effect. Phillip V of Macedon promised a navy and an army to descend on Italy—it was in this way that he hoped to simultaneously strike a blow at Rome herself while regaining Epirus to his kingdom. In addition to this, Hiero of Syracuse recently passed, and his successor concluded a treaty with Hannibal. With the end of detaching more confederates from the Roman Symmachy, after the battle Hannibal released all soldiers that had been enlisted under the banners as a result of their cities' treaty with Rome without request for ransom.[2]:pp.383–391
However, in spite of the seeming ascendancy of Hannibal over Rome, his cause was in reality anything but that. His military chest was stretched to its limit, and to this effect he sent a deputation to Rome that requested money in return for hostages. The deputation was forbidden to enter the city, and the Senate forbade the purchase of hostages from the Carthaginians on an individual basis—deeming any enrichment of Hannibal through the wealth of Rome and its citizens to be unacceptable.[2] [Razz] .391
What happened at this point, was a number of Roman allies—not including any Latin confederate—were detached. Capua, the second city of Italy, in a commanding position on the crucial plain of Campania, was detached. This city had been much oppressed by the Romans, and faced discriminatory treatment by the Senate and the chief magistrates of the Republic. Capua was said to be able to furnish Hannibal with 30,000 foot and 4,000 cavalry. This was a major blow to the Symmachy, as demoralizing as the defeat at Cannae had been. Following the example of Capua were Uxuntum, much of Bruttia, much of Lucaria, the Picentes of Salernia, the Harpini, almost all of Samnium. Hannibal had effectively consolidated all of southern Italy with the exception of a string of Roman forts.[2]:pp.391–393
Hannibal's army spent the winter of 216-215 BC in Capua,[2] during which time it is said to have engaged in liscentious conduct. However, this is not surprising considering that the army had spent the previous 4 years incessantly campaigning in Italy.[2] Many of Hannibal's veterans from Iberia were gone, and the composition of his army was this time to take a different form. Recruits from his allies in Italy would be a major contributor to his army.[2] In addition to this, the Romans were to start treating him with the respect he deserved, and all the meanwhile their legions would be gaining in ability and experience while Hannibal would constantly be compelled to train fresh recruits. In spite of this, until Hannibal departs from Italy we shall see the Roman consuls and praetors dealing with him in a similar way to which Fabius dealt with him - that is to attack his foragers and avoid him in a major battle.
The consuls for the year 215 BC were the former dictator Fabius and Tiberius Sempronius Grachus. Marcellus was to take the field in his capacity as Proconsul. These were all tried and tested officers, and they would conduct their armies accordingly. The Senate, as one of its first measures, decided to double imports and taxes of all sorts, in order to be able to equip their legionnaires and pay their salaries. The Senate ordered the various army commanders to continue the Fabian strategy.[2]:pp.410–412
Hannibal encamped on Mt. Tifata, where he could control the healthy pastures for his cavalry and his herds, while simultaneously being in such a position as to descend on any one of the Roman armies currently opposed to him. Hannibal was to make an observable change in his strategy, from seeking battle and engaging in offense against the Romans he was to observe a decidedly more defensive strategy. As the Romans were not seeking to engage him either, as per their fabian strategy, there was only small skirmishes between the Carthaginians and Romans. The Capuans sought to seize the oppidum of Cumae through treachery, but failed in their attempt after the Cumaens informed the consul Gracchus of the Capuan-instigated negotiations. Hannibal sought to seize the place thereafter, as it was on the coast and he required a port from which to communicate with Carthage. However, this failed. After this, three Roman armies, the two consular armies and that of the proconsul Marcellus, were marched into Campania, where they encamped close to each other so as to sustain one another. This strategy was so effective that Hannibal knew it was only a matter of time before the Romans drove him from Campania. Leaving a strong garrison in his camp on Mt. Tifata, he marched towards Nola, where some of his friends were attempting to gain that city over to the Carthaginian side. Here he received reinforcements including 4,000 infantry and a number of elephants. After a combat Hannibal would conduct his army back to his camp at Mt. Tifata. After failing to take Nola, he opted to march to Apulia and winter near Arpi.[2]:pp.414–419
The consuls for the year 214 BC were Fabius and Marcellus. The armies under the command of a praetor were commanded by Fulvius, Fabius Jr., Octalius and Lentulus.[2] [Razz] .428 The consuls were ordered by the Senate to put afoot 20 legions which, with the 20 allied legions to be put into the field, would total something over 200,000 men. These legions were disperesed as follows; Lentulus the governor of Sicily for the year had two legions in Sicily, there were another two in Quintus Mucius in Sardinia, and two in cisalpine gaul under Manius Pomponius which was attached to the Roman Army in Spain. In Italy there were; Two fresh legions under the consul Fabius, Another two legions under his colleague Marcellus, Gracchus was opposite Hannibal with two legions that were manned by slaves promised with manumission for meritorious service, Fabius Jr. as praetor had two legions. There were, of course, two in Rome - Varro, the commander who had conducted himself so poorly at Cannae, had a legion near Cisalpine gaul which was placed there as a reserve to the legions in Cisalpine Gaul. The last legion was in Brundisium. Another fleet was constructed by fiat of the Senate and it was financed by a tax on the wealthiest citizens. Four of these armies were stationed directly against the Carthaginian army, the rest were to be involved in the war indirectly by attacking and harassing the allies of Hannibal.[2] [Razz] .428
An appeal was sent from Capua, to which Hannibal responded. Once he arrived there he took up his old quarters—but the situation was not as dire as had been made out to him. In spite of this however, Hannibal decided to conduct operations in Campania, and headed off to one of its seaports. While conducting operations on the Campanian coast he received a deputation from a group of young, disgruntled nobles from the southern Greek city of Tarentum.[2] [Razz] .432 Hannibal, deeming this a crucial opportunity decided to seize it. he thought this because of the geographical advantages that Tarentum would afford him for descents on Italy from both Carthage and Macedonia. On his way, he ordered Hanno to march north with the 17,000 men he recruited in Bruttium, however he was defeated when the Romans forced him to battle and he (Hanno) made his escape with 2,000 foot and some of his cavalry. After another attempt at the city of Nola, he opted to retire upon an inconclusive engagement before that oppidum. He then set off to Tarentum, but a Roman officer rallied the city's Roman supporters to baulk the designed assault. After Hannibal left Campania, the two consuls decided to besiege Casilinum, which they succeeded in capturing.[2] [Razz] .441
For the Year 213 BC the consuls were Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Fabius Jr. The praetors for the year were M. Atilius Regulus,[3] Sempronius Tuditantus, Cneius Fulvius, and Aemilius Lepidus. Fabius the dictator was to be a legate of his sons.[2]:pp.429–445
-World Heritage Encyclopedia™

 -
Location of Black Roman Colony in North Africa

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,


Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
 -



quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

A picture I never posted.


what about this thread where you posted it ?

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=006804

^^ does this count?

DUMBO, THAT THREAD FROM WAS FOUR YEARS AGO, WAS A DIFFERENT TOPIC AND HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THIS THREAD. YOU ARE CLEARY RETARDED.


quote:
"Nero (A.D. 37-68) became emperor of the Roman Empire after the death of his adopted father, the Emperor Claudius, in A.D. 54. The last ruler of what historians call the “Julio-Claudian” dynasty, he ruled until he committed suicide in June, A.D. 68."


"After the murder of Caligula in January A.D. 41, and the ascension of Emperor Claudius shortly afterward, mother and son were reunited. His ambitious mother would go on to marry Claudius (who was also her uncle) in A.D. 49, and she saw to it that he adopted her son, giving him a new name that started with “Nero.” His tutors included the famous philosopher Seneca, a man who would continue advising Nero into his reign, even writing the proclamation explaining why Nero killed his mother."

http://www.livescience.com/40277-emperor-nero-facts.html


quote:
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c.71-c.135): Roman scholar and official, best-known as the author of the Lives of the Twelve Caesars.
http://www.livius.org/articles/person/suetonius/


LOL The proposed author was not even alive when Nero was alive. Ridiculous clown you are!


Say, jiggaboo.

 -

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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

A picture I never posted.


so you lied when you said you didn't post that picture?

what you hate blond haired people now? racist

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

A picture I never posted.


so you lied when you said you didn't post that picture?

what you hate blond haired people now? racist

LOL Dumbo piece of ****. It has nothing to do with this thread, never posted that picture in this thread, and never made that claim. What part of this can't you comprehend. You just sunk to a new low, RACIST NAZI BIGOT.


LOL "Now I hate blond haired people"? Based on what, RACIST? LOL SMH

You are such a pathetic individual, you can't help yourself, RACIST. lol smh


[Big Grin]

 -


 -

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
http://www.livius.org/a/1/emperors/nero_mus_munchen.JPG

THE EXPLOITS OF BLACK ROMAN EMPEROR NERO IN NORTH AFRICA

The Battle of Grumentum was fought in 207 BC between Romans led by Gaius Claudius Nero, and a part of Hannibal's Carthaginian army. The battle was a minor Roman victory, and Nero marched north where he defeated and killed Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal at Metaurus. The battle is described by Livy at 27.41-42.

Upon Hannibal's descent from the alps he had for three years won an impressive string of victories against Rome[2]
Location of Black Roman Colony in North Africa

LOL


Self proclaimed "expert". I love how you contradict yourself and don't even realize it.


Hannibal's Carthaginian army and the Roman army both had African compositions. [Big Grin] smh

You are literally dumber than a box of rocks.

I predict you will come back, with something even dumber as before.

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:


[...]

Look at the black features. Just because he had blond hair and blues

[...]


It's a HOAX!!!

It's funny how you keep fetching this hoax.

Nero (A.D. 37-68)

Suetonius (c.71-c.135)

How the heck could Suetonius have known what Nero looked like, "real expert"?

quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:


 -

what, Black people can't have blue eyes now ??
Stop being NAZIs !!!

Meaningless venting above.

quote:
In our data, with the exception of a low frequency haplotype in Africa, rs916977 and rs1667394 are in nearly complete LD. Therefore, we treat them as another haplotype system, BEH3, blue-eye associated haplotype #3. The blue-eye associated allele of BEH3 is CA, again the derived haplotype. In the HGDP populations BEH3 will consist of rs1667394 only since rs916977 is not present in the data set.
--Michael P. Donnelly

A global view of the OCA2-HERC2 region and pigmentation

Hum Genet. 2012 May; 131(5): 683–696.

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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
[qb]

[...]

Look at the black features. Just because he had blond hair and blues

[...]


It's a HOAX!!!

It's funny how you keep fetching this hoax.

Nero (A.D. 37-68)

Suetonius (c.71-c.135)

How the heck could Suetonius have known what Nero looked like, "real expert"?


Maybe you've forgotten, you introduced this
"HOAX !!!"
into the thread:


quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:




As a man, the Roman historian Suetonius described Nero as "about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender".

Although this would only be the third statue of him, busts and coins bearing his image are more common.


So now you are asking how could a Roman historian writing a few decades after a Roman emperor died possibly know what his hair color was. He must have made up the blond thing.
As soon as an Emperor died nobody knew anything.

Did you know something is only a hoax if you prove it to be a hoax?



 -

Ok, fine Nero was Black and not Oceanic as we can see by his distinctive African features. His hair must be equally black not albinoized like the Oceanics

So at least we can agree that Nero was an important part of Black History

Do one of your nostril opening race checks, we need to prove to the doubters his true blackness

Look at his name, only missing the "g". That was invented later

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 -

Portrait of a Roman Sister with cornrows
(marble), 3rd century AD, (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
http://www.livius.org/a/1/emperors/nero_mus_munchen.JPG

THE EXPLOITS OF BLACK ROMAN EMPEROR NERO IN NORTH AFRICA

The Battle of Grumentum was fought in 207 BC between Romans led by Gaius Claudius Nero, and a part of Hannibal's Carthaginian army. The battle was a minor Roman victory, and Nero marched north where he defeated and killed Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal at Metaurus. The battle is described by Livy at 27.41-42.

Upon Hannibal's descent from the alps he had for three years won an impressive string of victories against Rome[2]
Location of Black Roman Colony in North Africa

LOL


Self proclaimed "expert". I love how you contradict yourself and don't even realize it.


Hannibal's Carthaginian army and the Roman army both had African compositions. [Big Grin] smh

You are literally dumber than a box of rocks.

I predict you will come back, with something even dumber as before.

the Nazis had Blacks in their armies too and Hitler was E1b1b1 what's your point?

so you're going to say the Nazis were white now? Racist

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
[qb]

[...]

Look at the black features. Just because he had blond hair and blues

[...]


It's a HOAX!!!

It's funny how you keep fetching this hoax.

Nero (A.D. 37-68)

Suetonius (c.71-c.135)

How the heck could Suetonius have known what Nero looked like, "real expert"?


Maybe you've forgotten, you introduced this
"HOAX !!!"
into the thread:


quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:




As a man, the Roman historian Suetonius described Nero as "about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender".

Although this would only be the third statue of him, busts and coins bearing his image are more common.


So now you are asking how could a Roman historian writing a few decades after a Roman emperor died possibly know what his hair color was. He must have made up the blond thing.
As soon as an Emperor died nobody knew anything.

Did you know something is only a hoax if you prove it to be a hoax?



He did not see him, EVER. LOL That is a undeniable FACT! You now go by gossip words, nice. [Big Grin] That in itself is a hoax, did you know that?


The one who introduced this was not me. Think about that one....lol

But I did cite that article. For multiple reasons. lol

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
Ok, fine Nero was Black and not Oceanic as we can see by his distinctive African features. His hair must be equally black not albinoized like the Oceanics

So at least we can agree that Nero was an important part of Black History

Do one of your nostril opening race checks, we need to prove to the doubters his true blackness

Look at his name, only missing the "g". That was invented later

[Big Grin] I never stated he is black etcetera. You are making top stuff as usually. I never implied anything about his ethnicity. [Big Grin]

It is you who is doing this the entire time. [Big Grin]

What we know for sure is that there are no original color depictions of him. Thus far I know. All that other stuff you wrote is pure rubbish.


But depictions own general show them having brown skin. And you are obviously vey upset by the nostril widening thingy. [Big Grin]

Lastly, the one who is known for doing "RACE CHECKS" is you, no one else other then you on this site. [Big Grin]


There are countless of threads made by you on "RACE CHECKS" RACIST. [Big Grin]


quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
Look at his name, only missing the "g". That was invented later

Yes, that is true. [Big Grin]
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
 -

Portrait of a Roman Sister with cornrows
(marble), 3rd century AD, (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).

Rome was a cosmopolitan society. With members from all surrounding continents. [Big Grin]

And this marble statue shows no (skin) color. But depictions in general show them having brown skin.

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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
http://www.livius.org/a/1/emperors/nero_mus_munchen.JPG

THE EXPLOITS OF BLACK ROMAN EMPEROR NERO IN NORTH AFRICA

The Battle of Grumentum was fought in 207 BC between Romans led by Gaius Claudius Nero, and a part of Hannibal's Carthaginian army. The battle was a minor Roman victory, and Nero marched north where he defeated and killed Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal at Metaurus. The battle is described by Livy at 27.41-42.

Upon Hannibal's descent from the alps he had for three years won an impressive string of victories against Rome[2]
Location of Black Roman Colony in North Africa

LOL


Self proclaimed "expert". I love how you contradict yourself and don't even realize it.


Hannibal's Carthaginian army and the Roman army both had African compositions. [Big Grin] smh

You are literally dumber than a box of rocks.

I predict you will come back, with something even dumber as before.

the Nazis had Blacks in their armies too and Hitler was E1b1b1 what's your point?

so you're going to say the Nazis were white now? Racist

The point is that you believe in NAZI ideology. Which is prompted here on a daily basis, by you. LOL

Funny how the nazis now weren't white, because of a few supporters who were non-white nazi's. LOL

But the Roman army was white, delisted of it being a cosmopolitan society. And depictions in general showing brown people. NOT WHITE. LOL

Please keep posting, keep contracting yourself. lol

I predicted this crap. Remember, RACIST?

You racist always while pit/ put blacks in the spot when it contains negativity aspects. You have a reel in that. Coincidence? Nope, that is what racist do! [Big Grin]


So, tell how many times have you read Mein Kampf. Hitler sure was a important figure of white history, "real expert".

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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

He did not see him, EVER. LOL That is a undeniable FACT! You now go by gossip words, nice. [Big Grin] That in itself is a hoax, did you know that?


What I know is that you don't know what a hoax is or how to prove something is a hoax


quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

The one who introduced this was not me. Think about that one....lol

But I did cite that article. For multiple reasons. lol

The word "introduced" means you brought something somewhere and showed it

You cited an article. That means you introduced the article into the thread. So stop the bullshit

And you look like a fool now trying to disown information you brought into the thread

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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

 -

 -


 -


 -


So you think brown skinned caucasians showed be in a topic called "Black Romans" ?

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

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 -


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So you think brown skinned caucasians showed be in a topic called "Black Romans" ?

LOL Those are Sicilians, Sicilians have African ancestry. Thanks for exposing yourself once more, dumbass. Funny how a bimbo brain like you now doesn't give credit to blacks.
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

He did not see him, EVER. LOL That is a undeniable FACT! You now go by gossip words, nice. [Big Grin] That in itself is a hoax, did you know that?


What I know is that you don't know what a hoax is or how to prove something is a hoax


quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:

The one who introduced this was not me. Think about that one....lol

But I did cite that article. For multiple reasons. lol

The word "introduced" means you brought something somewhere and showed it

You cited an article. That means you introduced the article into the thread. So stop the bullshit

And you look like a fool now trying to disown information you brought into the thread

Bimbo brain, "real expert" introduced it, in the initial post! For me to post that source doesn't automatically
mean I agree ("with everything"), you bimbo brain.


I introduced the different timings between Nero and Suetonius, misfit.


to bring (a person) to first knowledge,

to create, bring into notice, use,

to suggest, propose, or advance for or as if for the first time:


http://www.dictionary.com/browse/introduced

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the lioness,
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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

 -

 -


 -


 -


So you think brown skinned caucasians showed be in a topic called "Black Romans" ?

LOL Those are Sicilians, Sicilians have African ancestry. Thanks for exposing yourself once more, dumbass. Funny how a bimbo brain like you now doesn't give credit to blacks.
Again are the people above black and would ancient Romans who looked like the above people be "Black Romans" Stop playing games
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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:
quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

 -

 -


 -


 -


So you think brown skinned caucasians showed be in a topic called "Black Romans" ?

LOL Those are Sicilians, Sicilians have African ancestry. Thanks for exposing yourself once more, dumbass. Funny how a bimbo brain like you now doesn't give credit to blacks.
Again are the people above black and would ancient Romans who looked like the above people be "Black Romans" Stop playing games
They are mixed due to a cosmopolitan society. They are a mixture between Afrcians, Europeans and likely Asians. According to you anyone with darkskin is black. So there you have your answer. lol

The Romans had legions from all surrounding continents. You are such dumb bimbo brain. lol


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Median-joining (MJ) network. Network manipulated to fit the geography of the extant populations. MJ network was constructed using E haplogroup frequencies. Group represented by ITAL contains all the Italian samples pooled. Populations’ descriptions are given in Supplementary Table S1.


The complextion of these man, is what depictions show on average in classic Romans. So nope, that's not white. Technically they are "mulattos".

When we speak of "Black Romans" in modern sense we speak of African like ethnic groups. I.e. Garamanes (Sahara-Sahel type) Africans/ blacks. And in modern sense these Sicilians are people of color.


You are such bimbo brain, you'll think that a small region like Italy had a natural selection of color diversity. Back then there was not such term as caucasians, bimbo brain. [Big Grin]

And at the same time, you'll asked dumb questions like, why the continent of Africa, has different color complexions.


Historically:

Southern Italians were considered “black” in the South and were subjected to the Jim Crow laws of segregation. They weren’t allowed to marry “whites.” It was difficult, damn near impossible.


http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/when-italians-were-blacks-the-dark-skinned-sicilians/

Stop playing. lol


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I predict you'll post something incredibly dumb now and shoot yourself in the foot, again.

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Ish Gebor
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LOL AT THIS BIMBO BRAIN.


quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
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...The UVR [ultraviolet radiation] data recorded by satellite were combined with environmental variables and data on human skin reflectance in a geographic information system (GIS). These were then analyzed visually and statistically through exploratory data analysis, correlation analysis, principal components analysis, least-squares regression analysis, and nonlinear techniques. The main finding of this study was that the evolution of skin reflectance could be almost fully modeled as a linear effect of UVR in the autumn alone. This linear model needs only minor modification, by the introduction of terms for the maximum amount of UVR, and for summer precipitation and winter precipitation, to account for almost all the variation in skin reflectance.



Below is a comment on this map from Discover Magazine's Gene Expressions Blog:

What the shades of humanity should be

The map above was generated from the regression analysis. Apparently it has been updated as of 2007 (received the link from a friend). It does look much better than it did in the original paper (which I have read and have a PDF copy of). Do note that the selection of peoples whose reflectance values were plugged into the model obviously matters. But I still think it's interesting the sort of predictions this map produces and how it fits with our intuitions of what the distributions should be, and the knowledge of what they are. Note the equivalent latitudes in Europe and North America, or Australia.

____________________________________________________

original source of chart:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.10263/full

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15386260

Geographic distribution of environmental factors influencing human skin coloration
George Chaplin

Abstract
Skin coloration in indigenous peoples is strongly related to levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In this study, the relationships of skin reflectance to seasonal UVR levels and other environmental variables were investigated, with the aim of determining which variables contributed most significantly to skin reflectance. The UVR data recorded by satellite were combined with environmental variables and data on human skin reflectance in a geographic information system (GIS). These were then analyzed visually and statistically through exploratory data analysis, correlation analysis, principal components analysis, least-squares regression analysis, and nonlinear techniques. The main finding of this study was that the evolution of skin reflectance could be almost fully modeled as a linear effect of UVR in the autumn alone. This linear model needs only minor modification, by the introduction of terms for the maximum amount of UVR, and for summer precipitation and winter precipitation, to account for almost all the variation in skin reflectance. A further significant finding was that the effect of summer UVR seems to reach a threshold beyond which further adaptation is difficult.


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quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

 -

 -


 -


 -


They are mixed due to a cosmopolitan society. They are a mixture between Afrcians, Europeans and likely Asians. [/QUOTE]


Modern Italy is a cosmopolitan society. Is modern Italy a mixed society? yes or no please

so these people above are a good fit for a "Black Romans" concept? yes or no please, explanations after

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Ish Gebor
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quote:
Originally posted by the lioness,:
quote:
Originally posted by Ish Gebor:


But depictions own general show them having brown skin.

 -

 -


 -


 -


They are mixed due to a cosmopolitan society. They are a mixture between Afrcians, Europeans and likely Asians.

Modern Italy is a cosmopolitan society. Is modern Italy a mixed society? yes or no please

so these people above are a good fit for a "Black Romans" concept? yes or no please, explanations after
[/QUOTE]


LOL I already explained it. I can't help it didn't fulfill your needs. But no they are NOT the BLACK ROMANS WE ARE TALKING ABOUT! lol

Is modern day Italy a cosmopolitan society. Is modern Italy a mixed society? I can't tell. Can you?


THE BLACK ROMANS WE ARE TALKING ABOUT WERE THE SAHARA-SAHEL LIKE AFRICANS, GARAMANTES!


quote:
'1 The Kanuri people of Bornu originated from the Tibu or Teda Negroids of Kan em, and of the Eastern Sahara. These Tibu were perhaps the Garamantes of Roman geographers. Their range in ancient times extended from Fezzan to Lake Chad.'

--Johnston, Harry Hamilton, Sir, 1858-1927. 'A survey of the ethnography of Africa, and the former racial and tribal migrations in that continent'


quote:
One of the richest inhabitants of fourth century Roman York, buried in a stone sarcophagus with luxury imports including jewellery made of elephant ivory, a mirror and a blue glass perfume jar, was a woman of black African ancestry, a re-examination of her skeleton has shown.
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/feb/26/roman-york-skeleton


quote:
A common misconception is that the Romans in Britain were all born in Italy, had white skin, and spoke Latin. Not so: ever since the Emperor Claudius' multi‐ethnic Roman army landed at Richborough in Kent in ad 43, there has been a black African presence in Britain (Britannia). Two types of Africans came to Britain: those who were Roman citizens, from African families of the ruling classes who had embraced Romanization (the acceptance of Latin and Roman culture), and those who did not necessarily have a choice, such as slaves and soldiers mustered in one of the Roman provinces in Africa.

1. Evidence [...]

2. High‐ranking officials [...]

3. Soldiers [...]


--The Oxford Companion to Black British History
Edited by David Dabydeen, John Gilmore, and Cecily Jones

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780192804396.001.0001/acref-9780192804396-e-356


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Mosaic With Hunting Scenes

Roman (3rd century A.D.)

Mosaic, 270 x 370 cm.

Musée National du Bardo, Tunis.

The Image of the Black in Western Art Research Project and Photo Archive, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research, Harvard University



quote:
"The findings challenge a view dating back to Roman accounts that the Garamantes consisted of barbaric nomads and troublemakers on the edge of the Roman Empire.'
http://www.livescience.com/16916-castles-lost-cities-revealed-libyan-desert.html


quote:
"In the Sahara, population agglomeration is also evident in certain areas such as the Libyan Fezzan, which (albeit much later) also saw the emergence of an indigenous Saharan “civilization” in the form of the Garamantian Tribal Confederaion, the development of which has been described explicitly in terms of adaptation to increased aridity (Brooks, 2006; di Lernia et al., 2002; Mattingly et al., 2003)."
--Nick Brooks (2013): Beyond collapse: climate change and causality during the Middle Holocene Climatic Transition, 6400–5000 years before present, Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 112:2, 93-104


quote:
Our work developed from a programme of research focused on an early Saharan civilisation known as the Garamantes, located in southwestern Libya (Mattingly 2006, 2011). We have previously identified two Garamantian sites as having urban characteristics, Old Jarma and Qasṛ ash-Sharrāba, and have speculated on the existence of further Saharan towns (Mattingly and Sterry 2013). In the case of Jarma, we have presented a detailed urban biography of the site (Mattingly et al. 2013: 505–544). The specific aims of this paper are to provide a fuller evaluation of what is known historically about Zuwīla and to present in detail the available archaeological data and a more precise chronology for the site. In its final section we advance a plausible sequence of development of this important Saharan oasis centre based on all the currently available evidence. A gazetteer of archaeological monuments is provided as Appendix 1 and a summary of the material dating evidence as Appendix 2.

The early medieval period has generally been considered pivotal in the extension and intensification of trans-Saharan trade and this has also been linked with the spread of Islam from the Maghrib across the Sahara (Austen 2010: 19–22). On the southern fringes of the Sahara there is firm evidence of trans-Saharan contacts in the earlier first millennium AD at sites such as Kissi in Burkina Faso and Culabel and Siouré in Senegal (MacDonald 2011; Magnavita 2013).

[...]

The Roman sources refer to kings of the Garamantes and to their metropolis at Garama (Old Jarma in the Wādī al-Ajāl, 250 km to the west of Zuwīla), strongly suggesting that Garamantian power was exercised over an extensive area (Figure 2). We have argued that there was in this period a Garamantian state that controlled the various oasis zones of Fazzān (Mattingly 2003: 76–90, 346–351, 2013: 530–534). As we shall see, there is evidence to show that Zuwīla originated as an oasis settlement in this period (contra Lewicki 1988: 287 and Levtzion and Hopkins 2000: 460) and that it had arguably grown to be a centre of above average size by the Late Garamantian period.


--David J. Mattingly, Martin J. Sterry & David N. Edwards (2015) The origins and development of Zuwīla, Libyan Sahara: an archaeological and historical overview of an ancient oasis town and caravan centre, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 50:1, 27-75, DOI: 10.1080/0067270X.2014.980126



quote:
Zenata (Berber: Ijenaden) are a major old Berber ethnic group of North Africa. They were an umbrella-group encompassing probably hundreds of large linguistically or genealogically related Berber tribes in the north, center and east of Berber North Africa (excluding the Nile valley of Egypt). Zenata Berbers were the founders of several Berber empires, kingdoms and princedoms in North Africa.

http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Zenata


LOL at your nuances.

http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=008691;p=5#000200


http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=010955;p=1

Posts: 18907 | From: pAsidaw SIGILLUM SECRETUM | Registered: Nov 2010  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
the lioness,
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No you are trying to divert attention.

The theme of this thread is Black Romans and Greeks not "African admixture in Italy", or "Italian Mulattos"

So somebody can post any ancient Roman and propose them as a Black Roman and Ish Gebor won't question it, you'll just add to it.
So that's how European history is done on Egyptsearch. Any European king or emperor is Black. It's racist if you question it.
So just add to it. That's how we do.
I'm not going to question it anymore. Any Roman Emperor you post was Black. Teach your kids.
I've got to learn to stop questioning things

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