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Author Topic: Egyptian pharaohs
zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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mena7
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Pharaoh Sheshonq 1

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Pharaoh Osorkon 1

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Pharaoh Shabaka

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Pharaoh Shebitku

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Pharaoh Taharqa

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Pharaoh Taharqa

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Pharaoh Taharqa

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Pharaoh Tantamani

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mena7
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Pharaoh Psamtik

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Pharaoh Psamtik

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Pharaoh Necho I

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Pharaoh Wahibre

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Pharaoh Ahmose II

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Pharaoh Ahmose II

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Bilal Dogon
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Very cool pics, mena7! Much appreciated.
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mena7
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Pharaoh Hakor

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Pharaoh Hakor

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Pharaoh Nectanebo I

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Pharaoh Nectabeno II

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mena7
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Ptolemy Pharaohs

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King Alexander I

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Ptolemy Soter I

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Ptolemy II

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Black Greek of the Ptolemy era British Museum

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Ptolemy III

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Ptolemy IV

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Ptolemy V

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Ptolemy VI

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mena7
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Ptolemy Pharaohs

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Ptolemy III

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Ptolemy X

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Ptolemy X

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Ptolemy X

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Queen Arsinoe II

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Queen Cleopatra VII

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Ptolemy XV Caesarion

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Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Ijuputa or Edo or Kemet or Egypt was a black African civilization composed of many African tribes. Some scholars states the 42 nomes of Egypt were 42 African tribes.

The Egyptian Pharaohs were black African.

The Ptolemy Macedonian/Greek Pharaohs were mulato(light skin black), black and white.

Greek and Roman civilizations were created by black people and became a multiracial civilizations of mulato, black and white people.

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mena7
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Pharaoh Meni, Narmer

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Pharaoh Mena, Narmer

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Pharaoh Menes, Narmer

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Pharaoh Meni/Narmer and female Prime minister

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Pharaoh Narmer

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Pharaoh Mena, Narmer

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Pharaoh Menes, Narmer

HAPPY EGYPTIAN PHARAOH CORONATION DAY.

Narmer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 31st century BC).[1] Probably the successor to the Protodynastic pharaohs Scorpion and/or Ka, some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, therefore the first pharaoh of unified Egypt.

The identity of Narmer is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus[2][3][4] identifies Narmer with the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes. Menes is also credited with the unification of Egypt, as the first pharaoh. This conclusion is based on the Narmer Palette which shows Narmer as the unifier of Egypt and the two necropolis seals from the necropolis of Abydos that show him as the first king of the First Dynasty

The famous Narmer Palette, discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis,[5] shows Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms.[6] Since its discovery, it has been debated whether the Narmer Palette represents an historic event[6][7] or was purely symbolic.[8][9] In 1993, however, Günter Dreyer discovered in Abydos a year label of Narmer depicting the same event as that on the Narmer Palette which clearly shows that the Narmer Palette depicts an actual historic event.[10]

The mainstream Egyptological consensus identifying Narmer with Menes is by no means universal. This has ramifications for the agreed history of ancient Egypt. Some Egyptologists hold that Menes is the same person as Hor-Aha and that he inherited an already-unified Egypt from Narmer;[11] others hold that Narmer began the process of unification but either did not succeed or succeeded only partially, leaving it to Menes to complete. Arguments have been made that Narmer is Menes because of his appearance on a mud seal impression found in Abydos in conjunction with the gameboard hieroglyph for "mn", which appears to be a contemporary record of the otherwise unattested king.[12]

Another possible theory is that Narmer was an immediate successor to the king who did manage to unify Egypt (perhaps the King Scorpion whose name was found on a macehead also discovered in Hierakonpolis), but he adopted symbols of unification that had already been in use for perhaps a generation.[13]

Two necropolis mud sealings listing kings recently found in the tombs of Den and Qa'a (both in Abydos) show Narmer as the founder of the First Dynasty, who was then followed by Hor-Aha. The Qa'a sealing shows all eight kings of the First Dynasty in the correct sequence beginning with Narmer.[14] Menes is not mentioned on either list of kings because at that time the name generally used on the monuments was the Horus name, while Menes was a personal name[15].

His wife is thought to have been Neithhotep (literally: "Neith is satisfied"), a princess of Lower Egypt. Inscriptions bearing her name were found in tombs belonging to Narmer's immediate successors Hor-Aha and Djer, implying that she was the mother of Hor-Aha


Menes (Egyptian: Meni; Ancient Greek: Μήνης;[4] Arabic: مينا‎) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I).[5]

The identity of Menes is the subject of ongoing debate, although mainstream Egyptological consensus identifies Menes with the protodynastic pharaoh Narmer[1][2][3] (most likely) or first dynasty Hor-Aha.[6] Both pharaohs are credited with the unification of Egypt, to different degrees by various authorities


The commonly used Menes derives from Manetho, an Egyptian historian and priest who lived during the Ptolemaic period. Manetho used the name in the form Μήνης (transliterated: Mênês).[4][7] An alternative Greek form, Μιν (transliterated: Min), was cited by the 5th-century BCE historian Herodotus,[8] a variant no longer considered the result of contamination from the name of the god Min.[9]

The Egyptian form, Meni, is taken from the Turin and Abydos king lists (dated Dynasty XIX).[7]

The name, Menes, means "He who endures", which, Edwards (1971) suggests, may have been coined as "a mere descriptive epithet denoting a semi-legendary hero [...] whose name had been lost".[4] Rather than a particular person, the name may conceal collectively the protodynastic pharaohs Ka, Scorpion and Narmer

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Nubians were ethnically the closest
people to the Egyptians. Conflict
between the two were typical clashes
between kingdoms without the simplistic
"racial" models drawn by some 20th
century writers.


Quote 1:
"The ancient Egyptians referred to a
region, located south of the third cataract
the Nile River, in which Nubians dwelt as
Kush.. Within such context, this phrase is
not a racial slur. Throughout the history
of ancient Egypt there were numerous,
well documented instances that celebrate
Nubian-Egyptian marriages. A study of
these documents, particularly those dated
to both the Egyptian New Kingdom
(after 1550 B.C.E.) and to Dynasty XXV
and early Dynasty XXVI (about 720-640
BCE), reveals that neither spouse nor
any of the children of such unions
suffered discrimination at the hands of
the ancient Egyptians. Indeed such
marriages were never an obstacle to
social, economic, or political status,
provided the individuals concerned
conformed to generally accepted
Egyptian social standards. Furthermore,
at times, certain Nubian practices, such
as tattooing for women, and the unisex
fashion of wearing earrings, were
wholeheartedly embraced by the ancient
Egyptians." (Bianchi, 2004: p. 4)


'It is an extremely difficult task to
attempt to describe the Nubians during
the course of Egypt's New Kingdom,
because their presence appears to have
virtually evaporated from the
archaeological record.. The result has
been described as a wholesale Nubian
assimilation into Egyptian society. This
assimilation was so complete that it
masked all Nubian ethnic identities
insofar as archaeological remains are
concerned beneath the impenetrable
veneer of Egypt's material; culture.. In
the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled
as Pharaohs in their own right, the
material culture of Dynasty XXV (about
750-655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian
in character.. Nubia's entire landscape up
to the region of the Third Cataract was
dotted with temples indistinguishable in
style and decoration from contemporary
temples erected in Egypt. The same
observation obtains for the smaller
number of typically Egyptian tombs in
which these elite Nubian princes were
interred. (Bianchi, 2004, p. 99-100)

- Robert Bianchi ( 2004). Daily Life of
the Nubians. Greenwood Publishing
Group


"Anthropologists have invented the ingenious, convenient, fictional notion
of the "true Negro," which allows them to consider, if need be, all the real
Negroes on earth as fake Negroes, more or less approaching a kind of
Platonic archetype, without ever attaining it. Thus, African history is full
of "Negroids," Hamites, semi-Hamites, Nilo-Hamitics, Ethiopoids,
Sabaeans, even Caucasoids! Yet, if one stuck strictly to scientific data and
archeological facts, the prototype of the White race would be sought in
vain throughout the earliest years of present-day humanity. The Negro
has been there from the beginning; for millennia he was the only one in
existence. Nevertheless, on the threshold of the historical epoch,
the "scholar" turns his back on him, raises questions about his genesis,
and even speculates "objectively" about his tardy appearance..."


"If the African anthropologist made of point of examining European races
'under the magnifying glass,' he would be able to multiply them ad infinitum
by grouping physiognomies into races and sub-races as artifically as his
European counterpart does with regard to Africa. He would in turn, succeed
in dissolving collective European reality into a fog of insignificant facts."

--CA DIop, African Origin of Civilization. p 238

Hypocritical double standards of the European academy in research
on African peoples - C.A. Diop


"But it is only the most gratuitous theory that considers the Dinka,
the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. What if an African
ethnologist were to persist in recognizing as white-only the blond, blue-eyed
Scandinavians, and systematically refused membership to the remaining Europeans,
and Mediterraneans in particular—the French, Italians, Greek, Spanish, and
Portuguese? Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries
must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so
should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in
the reality of the Negro world. To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a
Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be,
to a European, an attitude that maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the
same race."

-- Cheikh Anta Diop, 'Evolution of the Negro world', Presence Africaine (Vol. 23, no. 51, 1964), pp. 5-15.

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mena7
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Pharaoh Khnum Khufu

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Pharaoh Khnum Khufu

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Pharaoh Khnum Khufu

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Khnum Khufu

Khufu (/ˈkuːfuː/ KOO-foo), originally Khnum-Khufu (/ˈknuːmˈkuːfuː/ KNOOM-koo-foo), is the birth name of a Fourth Dynasty ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who ruled in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). He is equally well known under his Hellenized name Khêops or Cheops (/ˈkiːɒps/, KEE-ops; Greek: Χέοψ, by Diodor and Herodotus) and less well known under another Hellenized name, Súphis (/ˈsuːfɨs/ SOO-fis; Greek: Σοῦφις, by Manetho).[4][9] A rare version of the name of Khufu, used by Josephus, is Sofe (/ˈsɒfiː/ SO-fe; Greek: Σοφe).[10]

Khufu was the second pharaoh of the 4th dynasty; he followed his possible father, king Sneferu, on the throne. He is generally accepted as having built the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are rather poorly documented.[4][9]

Khufu's origin[edit]

The royal family of Khufu was quite large. It is uncertain if Khufu was actually the biological son of Sneferu. Mainstream Egyptologists believe Sneferu was Khufu's father, but only because it was the common tradition that the eldest son or a selected descendant inherit the throne.[8] In 1925 the tomb of queen Hetepheres I, G 7000x, was found east of Khufu's pyramid. It contained many precious grave goods, and several inscriptions giving her the title of "Mother of a king" (Mut-nesut), together with the name of king Sneferu. Therefore it seemed clear at first that Hetepheres was the wife of Sneferu, and that they were Khufu's parents. More recently, however, some have doubted this theory, because Hetepheres is not known to have bore the title of "king's wife" (Hemet-nesut), a title indispensable to confirming a queen's royal status.[8][11] Instead of the spouse's title, Hetepheres bore only that of a "biological daughter of a god" (Sat-netjer-khetef, litt. daughter of his divine body), a title mentioned for the first time.[11] As a result, researchers now think Khufu may not have been Sneferu's biological son, but that Sneferu legitimised Khufu's rank and familial position by marriage, and by apotheosizing his mother as the daughter of a living god. Another clue that could support this theory lies in that Khufu's mother was buried close to her son, i.e., not in the necropolis of her husband as was usual

Length of reign[edit]

It is still unclear how long Khufu ruled over Egypt. The Royal canon of Turin gives 23 years of rulership, the ancient historian Herodotus gives 50 years and the ancient historian Manetho even credits him 63 years of reign. These figures are now considered an exaggeration or a misinterpretation of earlier sources.[4]

Sources contemporary to Khufu's time give two key pieces of information: One of them was found at the Dakhla Oasis in the Libyan Desert. Khufu's serekh name is carved in a rock inscription reporting the "Mefat-travelling in the year after the 13th cattle count under Hor-Medjedu".[14] The second source can be found in the relieving chambers inside Khufu's pyramid above the burial chamber. One of these inscriptions mentions a workmen's crew named "friends of Khufu"; however, no known inscription "mentions a Year of the 17th time of cattle count" as Flinders Petrie mentioned in 1883. Petrie's claim of a 17th year of Khufu[15] was perhaps based on a misreading of Karl Richard Lepsius in Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Abtheilung II., vol. 1 from 1842, which shows a 16th year count in a quarry mark from one of the Dahshur pyramids of king Sneferu, together with quarry marks in the 'relieving chambers' of the Great Pyramid.[16]

Therefore, Khufu's highest known and certain preserved date is the Year after the 13th cattle count -or Year 27- of his reign, if the cattle count was held every second year (as it was tradition at least until the end of Snefru's reign). This could prove that Khufu ruled for at least 26 years, and possibly for over 34 years

Political activities
There are only few hints about Khufu's political activities within and outside Egypt. Within Egypt, Khufu is documented in several building inscriptions and statues. Khufu's name appears in inscriptions at Elkab and Elephantine and in local quarries at Hatnub and Wadi Hammamat. At Saqqara two terracotta figures of the goddess Bastet were found, at their bases the horus name of Khufu is incised. They were deposited at Saqqara during the Middle Kingdom, but their creation can be dated back to Khufu's reign.[21]

At the Wadi Maghareh in Sinai a rock inscription depicts Khufu with the double crown. Khufu sent several expeditions in an attempt to found turquoise and copper mines. Like other kings, such as Sekhemkhet, Sneferu and Sahure, which are also depicted in impressive reliefs there, he was looking for those two precious materials.[22] Khufu also entertained contacts with Byblos. He sent several expeditions to Byblos in an attempt to trade copper tools and weapons for precious Lebanese Cedar wood. This kind of wood was essential for building large and stable funerary boats and indeed the boats discovered at the Great Pyramid were made of it.

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mena7
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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

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Pharaoh Khafra

Khafra (also read as Khafre, Khefren and Chephren) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He was the son of Khufu and the throne successor of Djedefre. According to the ancient historian Manetho Khafra was followed by king Bikheris, but according to archaeological evidences he was rather followed by king Menkaure. Khafra was the builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza. Some of the egyptologists also credit him with the building of the Great Sphinx, but this is highly disputed. There is not much known about Khafra, except the historical reports of Herodotus, who describes him as a cruel and heretic ruler, who kept the Egyptian temples closed after Khufu had sealed them

There is no agreement on the date of his reign. Some authors say it was between 2558 BC and 2532 BC; this dynasty is commonly dated ca. 2650 BC–2480 BC. While the Turin King List length for his reign is blank, and Manetho's exaggerates his reign as 66 years, most scholars believe it was between 24 to 26 years, based upon the date of the Will of Prince Nekure which was carved on the walls of this Prince's mastaba tomb. The will is dated anonymously to the Year of the 12th Count and is assumed to belong to Khufu since Nekure was his son. Khafra's highest year date is the "Year of the 13th occurrence" which is a painted date on the back of a casing stone belonging to mastaba G 7650.[5] This would imply a reign of 24–25 years for this king if the cattle count was biannual during the Fourth Dynasty

Khafra built the second largest pyramid at Giza. The Egyptian name of the pyramid was Wer(en)-Khafre which means "Khafre is Great".[6]

The pyramid has a subsidiary pyramid, labeled GII a. It is not clear who was buried there. Sealings have been found of a King's eldest son of his body etc. and the Horus name of Khafre

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kikuyu22
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I swear there's a special secret team,part of the great Euro lie , whose sole task is to destroy African features-namely noses!
Thanks,mena7!

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mena7
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Khafre statue with different nose.

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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The ancient Badarians were quite representative of
ancient Egyptians as a whole and showed clear links
with tropical Africans to the south. They have been
sometimes excluded in studies of the ancient
Egyptian population, which shows continuity in its
history, not mass influxes of foreigners until the late
periods.


Quotes:
"As a result of their facial prognathism, the Badarian
sample has been described as forming a
morphological cluster with Nubian, Tigrean, and
other southern (or \Negroid") groups (Morant, 1935,
1937; Mukherjee et al., 1955; Nutter, 1958, Strouhal,
1971; Angel, 1972; Keita, 1990). Cranial nonmetric
trait studies have found this group to be similar to
other Egyptians, including much later material (Berry
and Berry, 1967, 1972), but also to be significantly
different from LPD material (Berry et al., 1967).
Similarly, the study of dental nonmetric traits has
suggested that the Badarian population is at the
centroid of Egyptian dental samples (Irish, 2006),
thereby suggesting similarity and hence continuity
across Egyptian time periods. From the central
location of the Badarian samples in Figure 2, the
current study finds the Badarian to be relatively
morphologically close to the centroid of all the
Egyptian samples. The Badarian have been shown to
exhibit greatest morphological similarity with the
temporally successive EPD (Table 5). Finally, the
biological distinctiveness of the Badarian from other
Egyptian samples has also been demonstrated (Tables 6 and 7).

These results suggest that the EDyn do form a
distinct morphological pattern. Their overlap with
other Egyptian samples (in PC space, Fig. 2)
suggests that although their morphology is
distinctive, the pattern does overlap with the other
time periods. These results therefore do not support
the Petrie concept of a \Dynastic race" (Petrie, 1939;
Derry, 1956). Instead, the results suggest that the
Egyptian state was not the product of mass
movement of populations into the Egyptian Nile
region, but rather that it was the result of primarily
indigenous development combined with prolonged
small-scale migration, potentially from trade, military,
or other contacts.

This evidence suggests that the process of state
formation itself may have been mainly an indigenous
process, but that it may have occurred in association
with in-migration to the Abydos region of the Nile
Valley. This potential in-migration may have
occurred particularly during the EDyn and OK. A
possible explanation is that the Egyptian state formed
through increasing control of trade and raw
materials, or due to military actions, potentially
associated with the use of the Nile Valley as a
corridor for prolonged small scale movements
through the desert environment."

(Sonia R. Zakrzewski. (2007). Population Continuity
or Population Change: Formation of the Ancient
Egyptian State. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 132:501-509)

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mena7
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Pharaoh Menkaure with Goddess Hathor and Bata

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Pharaoh Menkaura

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Pharaoh Menkaure

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Pharaoh Menkaura

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Pharaoh Menkaura

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Pharaoh Menkaura

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Pharaoh Menkaure and Queen Kamermebty

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Pharaoh Myke rinos

Menkaure (also read as Menkaura), was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom, who is well known under his Hellenized names Mykerinos (by Herodotus) and Menkheres (by Manetho). According to Manetho, he was the throne successor of king Bikheris, but according to archaeological evidences he rather was the successor of king Khafre. Menkaure became famous for his pyramid tomb at Giza and his beautiful statue triads, showing the king together with goddesses and his wife Khamerernebty

Reign

It´s still unsure how long Menkaure had really reigned. The ancient historian Manetho credits him with a rulership of 63 years, but this is surely an exaggeration. The Turin Canon is damaged at the spot where it should present the full sum of years, but the remains allow a reconstruction of “..?.. + 8 years of rulership”. Egyptologists think that a 18 year rulership was meant to be written, which is generally accepted. A contemporary workmen´s graffito reports about the “year after the 11th cattle count”. If the cattle count was held every second year (as it was a tradition at least up to king Sneferu), Menkaure might have ruled for 22 years.

Pyramid complex

Menkaure's pyramid at Giza was called Netjer-er-Menkaure which means "Menkaure is Divine". This pyramid is the smallest of the three pyramids at Giza. There are three subsidiary pyramids associated with Menkaure's pyramid. These pyramids are sometimes labeled G-IIIa (East subsidiary pyramid), G-IIIb (Middle subsidiary pyramid) and G-IIIc (West subsidiary pyramid). In the chapel associated with G-IIIa a statue of a Queen was found. It is possible that these pyramids were meant for the Queens of Khafra. It may be that Khamerernebti II was buried in one of the pyramids

Family

Menkaure was the son of Khafra and the grandson of Khufu. A flint knife found in the mortuary temple of Menkaure mentioned a king's mother Khamerernebty I, suggesting that Khafra and this queen were the parents of Menkaure. Menkaure is thought to have had at least two wives.
Queen Khamerernebty II is the daughter of Khamerernebti I and the mother of a king's son Khuenre. The location of Khuenre's tomb suggests that he was a son of Menkaure, making his mother the wife of this king.[2][3]
Queen Rekhetre is known to have been a daughter of Khafra and as such the most likely identity of her husband is Menkaure.[2]

Not many children are attested for Menkaure:
Khuenre was the son of queen Khamerernebti II. Menkaure was not succeeded by Prince Khuenre, his eldest son, who predeceased Menkaure, but rather by Shepseskaf, a younger son of this king.[4]
Shepseskaf was the successor to Menkaure and likely his son.
Sekhemre is known from a statue and possibly a son of Menkaure.
A daughter that died in early adulthood is mentioned by Herodotus. She was placed at a superbly decorated hall of the palatial area at Sais, in a hollow gold layered wooden zoomorphic burial feature in the shape of a kneeling cow covered externally with a layer of red decoration except the neck area and the horns which were covered with adequate layers of gold.[5]
Khentkaus I - possible Menkaure's daughter[6]

The royal court included several of Menkaure's half brothers. His brothers Nebemakhet, Duaenre, Nikaure and Iunmin served as vizier during the reign of their brother. His brother Sekhemkare may have been younger and became vizier after the death of Menkaure

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QUOTE:
“the XIIth Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.)
originated from the Aswan region. As
expected, strong Nubian features and
dark coloring are seen in their sculpture
and relief work. This dynasty ranks as
among the greatest, whose fame far
outlived its actual tenure on the throne."

- (F. J. Yurco, 'Were the ancient
Egyptians black or white?', Biblical
Archaeology Review (Vol 15, no. 5,
1989)

"Among the foreigners, the Nubians were closest
ethnically to the Egyptians. In the late predynastic
period (c. 3700-3150 B.C.E.), the Nubians shared
the same culture as the Egyptians and even evolved
the same pharaonic political structure.“

- F. J. Yurco, Biblical Archaeology Review, 15:5

-------------------------------------------------------------------

An old thread had info on the Egyptian king format
originating with the Nubians but can't locate it.
Yurco above says the Nubians evolved the same pharaonic
structure, but weren't the Nubians first out the gate on this?

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Pharaoh Djoser

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Pharaoh Djoser

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Pharaoh Djoser

Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoque. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros (by Manetho) and Sesorthos (by Eusebius). He was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaethap, but if he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary horus names, some Egyptologists question the handed down throne sequence


Reign

Length of reign

Manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years. Because of his many substantial building projects, particularly at Saqqara, some scholars argue Djoser must have enjoyed a reign of nearly three decades. Manetho's figure appears to be more accurate, according to Wilkinson's analysis and reconstruction of the Royal Annals. Wilkinson reconstructs the Annals as giving Djoser "28 complete or partial years", noting that the cattle counts recorded on Palermo Stone register V, and Cairo Fragment 1 register V, for the beginning and ending of Djoser's reign, would most likely indicate his regnal Years 1–5 and 19–28.[5]

Political activities

Djoser dispatched several military expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula, during which the local inhabitants were subdued. He also sent expeditions there to mine for valuable minerals such as turquoise and copper. This is known from inscriptions found in the desert there, sometimes displaying the banner of Seth alongside the symbols of Horus, as had been more common under Khasekhemwy. The Sinai was also strategically important as a buffer between the Nile valley and Asia.

His most famous monument was his step pyramid, which entailed the construction of several mastaba tombs one over another.[6] These forms would eventually lead to the standard pyramid tomb in the later Old Kingdom. Manetho, many centuries later, alludes to architectural advances of this reign, mentioning that "Tosorthros" discovered how to build with hewn stone, in addition to being remembered as the physician Aesculapius, and for introducing some reforms in the writing system. Modern scholars think that Manetho originally ascribed (or meant to ascribe) these feats to Imuthes, who was later deified as Aesculapius by the Greeks and Romans, and who corresponds to Imhotep, the famous minister of Djoser who engineered the Step Pyramid's construction.

Some fragmentary reliefs found at Heliopolis and Gebelein mention Djoser's name and suggest he commissioned construction projects in those cities. Also, he may have fixed the southern boundary of his kingdom at the First Cataract. An inscription known as the Famine Stela and claiming to date to the reign of Djoser, but probably created during the Ptolemaic Dynasty, relates how Djoser rebuilt the temple of Khnum on the island of Elephantine at the First Cataract, thus ending a seven-year famine in Egypt. Some consider this ancient inscription as a legend at the time it was inscribed. Nonetheless, it does show that more than two millennia after his reign, Egyptians still remembered Djoser.

Although he seems to have started an unfinished tomb at Abydos (Upper Egypt), Djoser was eventually buried in his famous pyramid at Saqqara in Lower Egypt. Since Khasekhemwy, a pharaoh from the 2nd dynasty, was the last pharaoh to be buried at Abydos, some Egyptologists infer that the shift to a more northerly capital was completed during Djoser's time.

Djoser and Imhotep

One of the most famous contemporaries of king Djoser was his vizir, "head of the royal shipyard" and "overseer of all stone works", Imhotep. Imhotep oversaw stone building projects such as the tombs of King Djoser and King Sekhemkhet. It is possible, that Imhotep was mentioned in the also famous Papyrus Westcar, in a story called "Khufu and the magicians". But because the papyrus is badly damaged at the beginning, Imhotep's name is lost today. A papyrus from the ancient Egyptian temple of Tebtunis, dating to the 2nd century AD, preserves a long story in the demotic script about Djoser and Imhotep. At Djoser's time Imhotep was of such importance and fame that he was honoured by being mentioned on statues of king Djoser in his necropolis at Saqqara

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Pharaoh Djedefre

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Pharaoh Djedefre

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Pharaoh Djedefre

Djedefre (also known as Djedefra and Radjedef) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom. He is well known under his Hellenized name form Ratoises (by Manetho). Djedefre was the son and immediate throne successor of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza; his mother is not known for sure. He was the king who introduced the royal title Sa-Rê (meaning “Son of Ra”) and the first to connect his cartouche name with the sun god Ra.

He married his (half-) sister Hetepheres II. He also had another wife, Khentetka with whom he had (at least) three sons, Setka, Baka and Hernet, and one daughter, Neferhetepes. These children are attested to by statuary fragments found in the ruined mortuary temple adjoining the pyramid. Various fragmentary statues of Khentetka were found in this ruler's mortuary temple at Abu Rawash.[4] Abu Rawash actually sits at an elevation higher than the rest of Giza, making it the highest, albeit not the tallest, pyramid. Some historians claim that the "pyramid" at Abu Rawash isn't even a pyramid at all; instead, it may be a "sun temple

The Turin King List credits him with a rule of eight years, but the highest known year referred to during this reign appears to be the Year of his 11th cattle count. The anonymous Year of the 11th count date presumably of Djedefre was found written on the underside of one of the massive roofing-block beams which covered Khufu's southern boat-pits by Egyptian work crews

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Pharaoh Userkaf

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Pharaoh Userkaf

Userkaf[pronunciation?] was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt and the first pharaoh to start the tradition of building sun temples at Abusir.[3] His name means "his Ka (or soul) is powerful".[4] He ruled from 2494-2487 BC[1] and constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara

Activities

Nikaankh, an official during Userkaf's reign had a royal decree of Userkaf reproduced in his mastaba. By this decree, Userkaf donates and reforms several royal domains in middle Egypt for the maintenance of the cult of Hathor.[17] Apparently, Userkaf also started the temple of Monthu at Tod, where he is the oldest attested pharaoh.

Userkaf's reign might have witness a recrudescence of trade between Egypt and its Mediterranean neighbors thanks to a series of naval expeditions, which are represented in his mortuary temple.[18]

Monuments

Userkaf most innovative monument is undoubtedly his sun temple at Abu Gorab. First recognized by Richard Lepsius in the mid 19th century, it was studied by Ludwig Borchardt in the early 20th century and thoroughly excavated by Herbert Ricke in 1954. According to the royal annals, the construction of the temple started in Userkaf's 5th year on the throne and, on that occasion, he donated 24 royal domains for the maintenance of the temple.[19] The site of Abusir may have been chosen due to its proximity to Sakhebu, a locality mentioned in various sources such as the Westcar Papyrus as a cult center of Re. Userkaf's sun temple covered an area of 44 × 83 m[20] and was called.

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Pharaoh Sahure

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Pharaoh Sahure

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Pharaoh Sahura

Sahure ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 B.C.E. (before common era) [3] The Turin King List gives him a reign of twelve years while the contemporary Palermo Stone Annal preserves Years 2-3, 5-6 and the final year of Sahure's reign.[4] The document notes six or seven cattle counts, which would indicate a reign of at least 12 full years if the Old Kingdom cattle count was held biennally (i.e.: every 2 years) as this Annal document implies for the early Fifth Dynasty. If this assumption is correct and Sahure's highest date was the Year after the 6th count rather than his 7th count as Wilkinson believes,[5] then this date would mean that Sahure died in his 13th Year and should be given a reign of 13 Years 5 months and 12 days. This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon's 12 year figure for Sahure.

Historical records and Egyptian art show that Sahure established an ancient Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to the Land of Punt and traded with cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean. His pyramid had colonnaded courts and relief sculptures which illustrated his naval fleet and recorded his military career consisting mostly of campaigns against the Libyans in the western desert. He is credited with having begun the cemetery complex at Saqqara and he also used a diorite quarry just west of Abu Simbel

Sahure's birth name means "He who is Close to Re".[1] His Horus name was Nebkhau (Nb-ḫˁ.w)

Sahure was a son of queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure's pyramid complex in Abusir.[2] His father was Userkaf. Sahure's consort was queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetnebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre. He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names. Miroslav Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and Prince Netjerirenre may have later take the throne as Shepseskare

Most foreign interactions during the reign of Sahure were economic, rather than military. In one scene in his pyramid, there are great ships with Egyptians and representatives from the Middle East on board. It is believed they are returning from the port of Byblos in Lebanon with huge cedar trees. There is corroborating evidence for this in the form of his name on a piece of thin gold stamped to a chair, as well as other evidence of the Fifth dynasty king's cartouches found in Lebanon on stone vessels. Other scenes in his temple depict what seem to be Syrian bears.

There is also the first documented expedition to the land of Punt, which apparently yielded a quantity of myrrh, along with malachite and electrum, and because of this, Sahure is often credited with establishing an Egyptian navy. There are also scenes of a raid into Libya which yielded various livestock and showed the king smiting the local chieftains. The Palermo stone also corroborates some of these events and also mentions expeditions to the Sinai and to the exotic land of Punt, as well as to the diorite quarries northwest of Abu Simbel in Nubia

His pyramid complex was the first built at the new royal burial ground at Abusir, a few kilometres north of Saqqara (though Userkaf had probably already built his solar temple there) and marks the decline of pyramid building, both in terms of size and quality, though many of the surviving fragments of reliefs which decorated the temple walls of both Sahure's and other Fifth Dynasty's kings are of high quality.[6]

His pyramid provides us most of the information we know of this king. The reliefs in his mortuary and valley temple depict a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and the return of a fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos. This may indicate a military interest in the Near East, but the contacts may have been diplomatic and commercial as well. As part of the contacts with the Near East, the reliefs from his funerary monuments also hold the oldest known representation of a Syrian bear

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Pharaoh Pepi I

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Pharaoh Pepi I

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Pharaoh Pepi I

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pharaoh Pepi I

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pharaoh Pepi I

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Pharaoh Pepi I

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Pharoh Pepi I

Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 – 2283 BC) was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. His first throne name was Neferdjahor which the king later altered to Meryre meaning "beloved of Rê."[

Reign

Pepi I's reign was marked by aggressive expansion into Nubia, the spread of trade to far-flung areas such as Lebanon and the Somalian coast, but also the growing power of the nobility. One of the king's officials named Weni fought in Asia on his behalf. Pepi's mortuary complex, Mennefer Pepy, eventually became the name for the entire city of Memphis after the 18th Dynasty.[4]

The decline of the Old Kingdom arguably began during Pepi I’s reign, with nomarchs (regional representatives of the king) becoming more powerful and exerting greater influence. Pepi I married two sisters – Ankhesenpepi I and II – who were the daughters of Khui, a noble from Abydos and Lady Nebet, made vizier of Upper Egypt.[5] Pepi later made their brother, Djau, a vizier as well. The two sisters' influence was extensive, with both sisters bearing sons who were later to become pharaohs

Family

Pepi was the son of Teti and Iput, who was a daughter of Unas, the last pharaoh of the previous dynasty. He needed the support of powerful individuals in Upper Egypt in order to put down his brother, the usurper Userkare who had murdered his father and for Pepi to win back his rightful throne. These individuals would remain a strong presence in his court thereafter.

His two most important wives and the mothers of his two successors (Merenre Nemtyemsaf I and Pepi II) were Ankhesenpepi I and Ankhesenpepi II. Other known wives include Meritites IV, Nubwenet and Inenek-Inti, who are buried in pyramids adjacent to that of Pepi, Mehaa, who is named in the tomb of her son Hornetjerkhet, and a queen named Nedjeftet who is mentioned on relief fragments. He also had a son called Teti-ankh and two daughters, Iput II and Neith, both became wives to Pepi II.[

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Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

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Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

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Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

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Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (reigned ca. 2046 BC – 1995 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty who reigned for 51 years. Around his 39th year on the throne he reunited Egypt thus ending the First Intermediary Period. Consequently, he is considered the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom

Reign

Mentuhotep II is considered to be the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years.[17] Many Egyptologists have long considered two rock reliefs, showing Mentuhotep II towering over smaller figures labeled king "Intef", to be conclusive evidence that his predecessor Intef III was his own father; this is, however, not entirely certain, as these reliefs may have had other propagandistic purposes, and there are other difficulties surrounding Mentuhotep's true origin, his three name-changes, and his frequent attempts to claim descent from various gods.[18]

Early reign

When he ascended the Theban throne, Mentuhotep II inherited the vast land conquered by his predecessors from the first cataract in the south to Abydos and Tjebu in the north. Mentuhotep II's first fourteen years of reign seem to have been peaceful in the Theban region as there are no surviving traces of conflict firmly datable to that period. In fact the general scarcity of testimonies from the early part of Mentuhotep's reign might indicate that he was young when he ascended the throne, an hypothesis consistent with his 51 years long reign.

Reunification of Egypt

In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred in the north. This uprising is most probably connected with the ongoing conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis who threatened to invade Upper Egypt. The 14th year of Mentuhotep's reign is indeed named Year of the crime of Thinis.This certainly refers to the conquest of the Thinite region by the Herakleopolitan kings who apparently desecrated the sacred ancient royal necropolis of Abydos in the process. Mentuhotep II subsequently dispatched his armies to the north. The famous tomb of the warriors at Deir el-Bahari discovered in the 1920s, contained the linen-wrapped, unmummified bodies of 60 soldiers all killed in battle, their shroud bearing Mentuhotep II's cartouche. Due to its proximity to the Theban royal tombs, the tomb of the warriors is believed to be that of heroes who died during the conflict between Mentuhotep II and his foes to the north.[19] Merykara, the ruler of Lower-Egypt at the time may have died during the conflict, which further weakened his kingdom and gave Mentuhotep the opportunity to reunite Egypt. The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign.[20] Indeed, evidence shows that the process took time, maybe due to the general insecurity of the country at the time: commoners where buried with weapons, the funerary stelae of officials show them holding weapons instead of the usual regalia [21] and when Mentuhotep II's successor sent an expedition to Punt some 20 years after the reunification, they still had to clear the Wadi Hammamat of rebels.


Following the reunification, Mentuhotep II was considered by his subjects to be divine, or half divine. This was still the case by the end of 12th dynasty some 200 years later: Senusret III and Amenemhat III erected stelae commemorating opening of the mouth ceremonies practiced on Mentuhotep II's statues.[22]

Military activities outside of Egypt

Mentuhotep II launched military campaigns under the command of his vizier Khety south into Nubia in his 29th and 31st years of reign, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. This is the first attested appearance of the term Kush for Nubia in Egyptian records. In particular, Mentuhotep posted a garrison on the island fortress of Elephantine so troops could rapidly be deployed southwards.[23] There is also evidence of military actions against Canaan. The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at the head of the administration. The viziers of his reign were Bebi and Dagi. His treasurer was Khety who was involved in organising the sed festival for the king. Other important officials were the treasurer Meketre and the overseer of sealers Meru. His general was Intef

Reorganization of the government

Throughout the first intermediary period and until Mentuhotep II's reign, the nomarchs held important powers over Egypt. Their office had become hereditary during the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt and the collapse of central power assured them complete freedom over their lands. After the unification of Egypt however, Mentuhotep II initiated a strong policy of centralization, reinforcing his royal authority by creating the posts of Governor of Upper Egypt and Governor of Lower Egypt who had power over the local nomarchs.[24]

Mentuhotep also relied on a mobile force of royal court officials who further controlled the deeds of the nomarchs.[25] Finally the nomarchs who supported the 10th dynasty, such as the governor of Asyut, certainly lost their power to the profit of the king. In the mean time, Mentuhotep II started an extensive program of self-deification emphasizing the divine nature of the ruler

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

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Senusret I

Senusret I[pronunciation?] (also Sesostris I and Senwosret I) was the second pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from 1971 BC to 1926 BC, and was one of the most powerful kings of this Dynasty. He was the son of Amenemhat I and his wife Nefertitanen. His wife and sister was Neferu. She was also the mother of the successor Amenemhat II. Senusret I was known by his prenomen, Kheperkare, which means "the Ka of Re is created."[2]

He continued his father's aggressive expansionist policies against Nubia by initiating two expeditions into this region in his 10th and 18th years and established Egypt's formal southern border near the second cataract where he placed a garrison and a victory stele.[3] He also organized an expedition to a Western Desert oasis in the Libyan desert. Senusret I established diplomatic relations with some rulers of towns in Syria and Canaan. He also tried to centralize the country's political structure by supporting nomarchs who were loyal to him. His pyramid was constructed at el-Lisht. Senusret I is mentioned in the Story of Sinuhe where he is reported to have rushed back to the royal palace in Memphis from a military campaign in Asia after hearing about the assassination of his father, Amenemhat

Succession

Senusret was crowned coregent with his father, Amenemhat I, in his father's 20th regnal year.[6] Towards the end of his own life, he appointed his son Amenemhat II as his coregent. The stele of Wepwawetō is dated to the 44th year of Senusret and to the 2nd year of Amenemhet, thus he would have appointed him some time in his 43rd year.[7] Senusret is thought to have died during his 46th year on the throne since the Turin Canon ascribes him a reign of 45 Years


The royal court

Some of the key members of the court of Senusret I are known. The vizier at the beginning of his reign was Intefiqer, who is known from many inscriptions and from his tomb next to the pyramid of Amenemhat I. He seems to have held this office for a long period of time and was followed by a vizier named Senusret. Two treasurers are known from the reign of the king: Sobekhotep (year 22) and Mentuhotep. The latter had a huge tomb next to the pyramid of the king and he seems to have been the main architect of the Amun temple at Karnak. Several high stewards are attested. Hor is known from several stelae and from an inscription in the Wadi el-Hudi where he was evidently the leader of an expedition for amethyst. One of the stelae is dated to year nine of the king. A certain Nakhr followed in office attested around year 12 of the king. He had a tomb at Lisht. A certain Antef, son of a woman called Zatamun is known again from several stelae, one dates to year 24 another one to year 25 of Senusret I. Another Antef was the son a woman called Zatuser and was most likely also high steward in the king's reign

Building program

Senusret I dispatched several quarrying expeditions to the Sinai and Wadi Hammamat and built numerous shrines and temples throughout Egypt and Nubia during his long reign. He rebuilt the important temple of Re-Atum in Heliopolis which was the centre of the sun cult. He erected 2 red granite obelisks there to celebrate his Year 30 Heb Sed Jubilee. One of the obelisks still remains and is the oldest standing obelisk in Egypt. It is now in the Al-Masalla (Obelisk in Arabic) area of Al-Matariyyah district near the Ain Shams district (Heliopolis). It is 67 feet tall and weighs 120 tons or 240,000 pounds.

Senusret I is attested to be the builder of a number of major temples in Ancient Egypt, including the temple of Min at Koptos, the Satet Temple on Elephantine, the Month-temple at Armant and the Month-temple at El-Tod, where a long inscription of the king is preserved
A shrine (known as the White Chapel or Jubilee Chapel) with fine, high quality reliefs of Senusret I, was built at Karnak to commemorate his Year 30 jubilee. It has subsequently been successfully reconstructed from various stone blocks discovered by Henri Chevrier in 1926. Finally, Senusret remodelled the Temple of Khenti-Amentiu Osiris at Abydos, among his other major building projects


Herodotus on Pharaoh Sesostris
Therefore passing these by I will make mention of the king who came after these, whose name is Sesostris. He (the priests said) first of all set out with ships of war from the Arabian gulf and subdued those who dwelt by the shores of the Erythraian Sea, until as he sailed he came to a sea which could no further be navigated by reason of shoals: then secondly, after he had returned to Egypt, according to the report of the priests he took a great army and marched over the continent, subduing every nation which stood in his way: and those of them whom he found valiant and fighting desperately for their freedom, in their lands he set up pillars which told by inscriptions his own name and the name of his country, and how he had subdued them by his power; but as to those of whose cities he obtained possession without fighting or with ease, on their pillars he inscribed words after the same tenor as he did for the nations which had shown themselves courageous, and in addition he drew upon them the hidden parts of a woman, desiring to signify by this that the people were cowards and effeminate.
Map of the eastern Mediterranean Thus doing he traversed the continent, until at last he passed over to Europe from Asia and subdued the Scythians and also the Thracians. These, I am of opinion, were the furthest people to which the Egyptian army came, for in their country the pillars are found to have been set up, but in the land beyond this they are no longer found.
From this point he turned and began to go back; and when he came to the river Phasis, what happened then I cannot say for certain, whether the king Sesostris himself divided off a certain portion of his army and left the men there as settlers in the land, or whether some of his soldiers were wearied by his distant marches and remained by the river Phasis.
For the people of Colchis are evidently Egyptian, and this I perceived for myself before I heard it from others. So when I had come to consider the matter I asked them both; and the Colchians had remembrance of the Egyptians more than the Egyptians of the Colchians; but the Egyptians said they believed that the Colchians were a portion of the army of Sesostris. That this was so I conjectured myself not only because they are dark-skinned and have curly hair (this of itself amounts to nothing, for there are other races which are so), but also still more because the Colchians, Egyptians, and Ethiopians alone of all the races of men have practised circumcision from the first.
The Phenicians and the Syrians who dwell in Palestine confess themselves that they have learnt it from the Egyptians, and the Syrians about the river Thermodon and the river Parthenios, and the Macronians, who are their neighbors, say that they have learnt it lately from the Colchians. These are the only races of men who practise circumcision, and these evidently practise it in the same manner as the Egyptians. Of the Egyptians themselves however and the Ethiopians, I am not able to say which learnt from the other, for undoubtedly it is a most ancient custom; but that the other nations learnt it by intercourse with the Egyptians, this among others is to me a strong proof, namely that those of the Phenicians who have intercourse with Hellas cease to follow the example of the Egyptians in this matter, and do not circumcise their children.
Now let me tell another thing about the Colchians to show how they resemble the Egyptians:--they alone work flax in the same fashion as the Egyptians, and the two nations are like one another in their whole manner of living and also in their language: now the linen of Colchis is called by the Hellenes Sardonic, whereas that from Egypt is called Egyptian.
The pillars which Sesostris king of Egypt set up in the various countries are for the most part no longer to be seen extant; but in Syria Palestine I myself saw them existing with the inscription upon them which I have mentioned and the emblem

Sesostris (Greek: Σέσωστρις) was the name of a king of ancient Egypt who, according to Herodotus, led a military expedition into parts of Europe

Account of Herodotus

In Herodotus' Histories there appears a story told by Egyptian priests about a Pharaoh Sesostris, who once led an army northward overland to Asia Minor, then fought his way westward until he crossed into Europe, where he defeated the Scythians and Thracians (possibly in modern Romania and Bulgaria). Sesostris then returned home, leaving colonists behind at the river Phasis in Colchis. Herodotus cautioned the reader that much of this story came second hand via Egyptian priests, but also noted that the Colchians were commonly known to be Egyptian colonists.[1]

According to Diodorus Siculus (who calls him Sesoösis), and Strabo, he conquered the whole world, even Scythia and Ethiopia, divided Egypt into administrative districts or nomes, was a great law-giver, and introduced a caste system into Egypt and the worship of Serapis. Herodotus also relates that when Sesostris defeated an army without much resistance he erected a pillar in their capital with a vagina on it to symbolize the fact that the army fought like women.[2]

Herodotus describes Sesostris as the father of the blind king Pheron, who was less warlike than his father

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

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Pharaoh Senusret III

Khakhaure Senusret III (also written as Senwosret III or Sesostris III) was a pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled from 1878 BC to 1839 BC,[1] and was the fifth monarch of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. Among his achievements was the building of the Canal of the Pharaohs. He was a great pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty and is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. Consequently, he is regarded as one of the sources for the legend about Sesostris. His military campaigns gave rise to an era of peace and economic prosperity that reduced the power of regional rulers and led to a revival in craftwork, trade and urban development.[2] Senusret III was one of the few kings who were deified and honored with a cult during their own lifetime

Initiatives

Senusret III cleared a navigable canal through the first cataract.[5] (This was probably different from the Canal of the Pharaohs, which Senusret III also apparently tried to build.) He also relentlessly pushed his kingdom's expansion into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) where he erected massive river forts including Buhen, Semna and Toshka at Uronarti.

He carried out at least four major campaigns into Nubia in his Year 8, 10, 16 and 19 respectively.[6] His Year 8 stela at Semna documents his victories against the Nubians through which he is thought to have made safe the southern frontier, preventing further incursions into Egypt.[7] Another great stela from Semna dated to the third month of Year 16 of his reign mentions his military activities against both Nubia and Canaan. In it, he admonished his future successors to maintain the new border which he had created:

“ Year 16, third month of winter: the king made his southern boundary at Heh. I have made my boundary further south than my fathers. I have added to what was bequeathed me. (...) As for any son (ie. successor) of mine who shall maintain this border which my Majesty has made, he is my son born to my Majesty. The true son is he who champions his father, who guards the border of his begetter. But he [who] abandons it, who fails to fight for it, he is not my son, he was not born to me. Now my majesty has had an image made of my majesty, at this border which my majesty has made, in order that you maintain it, in order that you fight for it.[8] ”

His final campaign which was in Year 19 was less successful because the king's forces were caught by the Nile being lower than normal and they had to retreat and abandon their campaign to avoid being trapped in hostile Nubian territory.[9]

Such was his forceful nature and immense influence that Senusret III was worshipped as a god in Semna by later generations.[10] Jacques Morgan, in 1894, found rock inscriptions near Sehel Island documenting his digging of a canal under the king. Senusret III erected a temple and town in Abydos, and another temple in Medamud

Pyramid and complex

Senusret's pyramid complex was built north-east of the Red Pyramid of Dashur and in grandeur far surpassed those from the early 12th dynasty in size and underlying religious conceptions.

There has been speculation that Senusret was not necessarily buried there but rather in his sophisticated funerary complex in Abydos with his pyramid more likely to have been a cenotaph.[2]

Senusret's pyramid is 105 meter square and 78 meters high. The total volume was about 288,000 cubic meters. The pyramid was built of a core of mud bricks. They were not made a consistent size implying that standardized moulds weren't used. The burial chamber was lined with granite. Above the vaulted burial chamber was a second relieving chamber that was roofed with 5 pairs of limestone beams each weighing 30 tons. Above this was a third mudbrick vault.

The pyramid complex included a small mortuary temple and 7 smaller pyramids for his queens. There is also an underground gallery with further burials for royal women. Here were found the treasures of Sithathor and queen Mereret. There was also a southern temple, however this has since been destroyed.

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

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Pharaoh Amenemhat III

Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from c.1860 BC to c.1814 BC, the highest known date being found in a papyrus dated to Regnal Year 46, I Akhet 22 of his rule.[2] His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom.[3] He may have had a long coregency (of 20 years) with his father, Senusret III.[4]

Towards the end of his reign he instituted a coregency with his successor Amenemhet IV, as recorded in a now damaged rock inscription at Konosso in Nubia, which equates Year 1 of Amenemhet IV to either Year 46, 47 or 48 of his reign.[5] His daughter, Sobekneferu, later succeeded Amenemhat IV, as the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty. Amenemhat III's throne name, Nimaatre, means "Belonging to the Justice of Re."

His pyramids
He built his first pyramid at Dahshur (the so-called "Black Pyramid"), but there were construction problems and it was abandoned.[6] Around Year 15 of his reign the king decided to build a new pyramid at Hawara, near the Faiyum.[7] The pyramid at Dahshur was used as burial ground for several royal women.

The mortuary temple attached to the Hawara pyramid and may have been known to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus as the "Labyrinth".[8] Strabo praised it as a wonder of the world. The king's pyramid at Hawara contained some of the most complex security features of any found in Egypt and is perhaps the only one to come close to the sort of tricks Hollywood associates with such structures. Nevertheless, the king's burial was robbed in antiquity. His daughter or sister, Neferuptah, was buried in a separate pyramid (discovered in 1956) 2 km southwest of the king's.[9][10] The pyramidion of Amenemhet III's pyramid tomb was found toppled from the peak of its structure and preserved relatively intact; it is today located in the Cairo Egyptian Museum

The Great Canal (Mer-Wer)

During his long rule Amenemhat continued the work probably started by his father to link the Fayum depression with the Nile. The area had been a mere swamp previously. A canal 16 km and 1.5 km wide was dug, known as Mer-Wer (the Great Canal); it is now known as Bahr Yussef. The banks for the central deep side were at a slope of 1:10, to allow the use of non-cohesive soil and rock fill. A dam called Ha-Uar run east-west and the canal was inclined towards the Fayum depression at the slope of 0.01 degrees. The resultant Lake Moeris was able to store 13 billion cubic meters [12] of flood water each year This immense work of civil engineering was eventually finished by his son Amenmehat IV and brought prosperity to Fayum. The area became a breadbasket for the country and continued to be used until 230 BC when the Lahun branch of the Nile silted up. After the Islamic conquest Lake Moeris was renamed Lake of Qarun and the branch of the Nile The Sea of Joseph but there is no relationship between King Amenmehat III and the Biblical or Quranic Prophet Joseph or Yussef.

The vizier Kheti held this office around year 29 of king Amenemhet III's reign. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is thought to have been originally composed during Amenemhat's time.[13] The monuments of Amenemhat III are fairly numerous and of excellent quality. They include a small but well decorated temple at Medinet Maadi in the Faiyum, which he and his father dedicated to the harvest goddess Renenute

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Scholar Cheikh Anta Diop had scientifically proven that the Ancient Egyptian civilization was Black African.

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Scholar Cheikh Anta Diop

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Scholar Cheikh Anta Diop

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scholar Cheikh Anta Diop

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Scholar Cheikh Anta Diop

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheikh_Anta_Diop

Cheikh Anta Diop (né le 29 décembre 1923 à Thieytou - mort le 7 février 1986 à Dakar) est un historien, anthropologue, égyptologue et homme politique sénégalais. Il a mis l'accent sur l'apport de l'Afrique et en particulier de l'Afrique noire à la culture et à la civilisation mondiales. Ses thèses restent aujourd'hui contestées, et sont peu reprises dans la communauté scientifique1,2,3. Si une grande partie de ses thèses, en particulier au sujet de l'Égypte antique, sont considérées comme dépourvues de fondements solides, Cheikh Anta Diop a toutefois eu un indéniable rôle de visionnaire en ce qui concerne la place de l'Afrique dans l'histoire. Sa vision peut en effet être interprétée comme une anticipation des découvertes archéologiques majeures des années 2000 sur le continent africain que ce soit Kerma ou, beaucoup plus ancien, Blombos


L'Égypte comme une civilisation négro-africaine

L'égyptologie « afrocentrée » est un domaine de recherche initié par Cheikh Anta Diop, où l'on étudie la civilisation de l'Égypte ancienne en partant du postulat qu'elle est une civilisation négro-africaine. En effet, selon Diop, la civilisation égyptienne serait une civilisation « nègre ».

Par ses habitants

Auteurs anciens

Diop rapporte que selon Hérodote, Aristote, Strabon et Diodore de Sicile - qui furent tous des témoins oculaires des Égyptiens anciens à l'époque où ceux-ci vivaient encore, contrairement aux égyptologues depuis Champollion jusqu'à nos jours qui n'ont pu, tout au plus, qu'étudier des momies égyptiennes - les Égyptiens avaient la peau « noire et les cheveux crépus »31. Il signale également l'opinion du comte de Volney32, pour qui les Coptes « ont le visage bouffi, l'œil gonflé, le nez écrasé, la lèvre grosse ; en un mot, un vrai visage de Mulâtre. J'étais [c'est évidemment Volney qui parle à la 1re personne] tenté de l'attribuer au climat, lorsque ayant été visiter le Sphinx, son aspect me donna le mot de l'énigme. En voyant cette tête caractérisée Nègre dans tous ses traits [il s'agit bien sûr de la tête du Sphinx, tête qui est à l'effigie d'un pharaon de l'Ancien Empire], je me rappelai ce passage remarquable d'Hérodote, où il dit : Pour moi, j'estime que les Colches sont une colonie des Égyptiens, parce que, comme eux, ils ont la peau noire et les cheveux crépus : c'est-à-dire que les anciens Égyptiens étaient de vrais Nègres de l'espèce de tous les naturels d'Afrique ; et dès lors, on explique comment leur sang, allié depuis plusieurs siècles à celui des Romains et des Grecs, a dû perdre l'intensité de sa première couleur, en conservant cependant l'empreinte de son moule originel. ». D'autres auteurs, comme Mubabinge Bilolo, reprendront et développeront cet argument.

La plupart des égyptologues occidentaux[Lesquels ?] contestent cette thèse en se basant sur les milliers de représentations humaines figurant dans les tombes ou les temples d'époque pharaonique : lorsque les Égyptiens y font figurer d'autres peuples, comme les Syriens, les Libyens, ils leur donnent d'autres traits et d'autres vêtements (les Syriens portent la barbe et une robe, par exemple). Or ils ont maintes fois représenté les Noirs du Soudan, le pays de Kouch, avec des traits africains et une peau noire, alors qu'ils se représentaient eux-mêmes avec une peau claire et des traits proches de ceux des Égyptiens modernes.

Kemet

Article détaillé : Kemet.

Selon Cheikh Anta Diop, par l'expression Kemet, les Égyptiens se seraient désignés dans leur propre langue comme un peuple de « Nègres »33.

À l'appui de sa thèse, il invoque une graphie « insolite34 » de km.t montrant un homme et une femme assis, graphie traduite par « les Égyptiens », mais que l'égyptologue afrocentrique Alain Anselin traduit comme « une collectivité d'hommes et de femmes noirs35 ». On n'en connaît qu'une seule occurrence36, dans un texte littéraire du Moyen Empire.

En égyptien ancien, Kemet s'écrit avec comme racine le mot km, « noir », dont Diop pense qu'il est à l'origine étymologique de « la racine biblique kam ». Pour lui, les traditions juive et arabe classent généralement l'Égypte comme un des pays de Noirs37. En outre, selon Diop, le morphème km a proliféré dans de nombreuses langues négro-africaines où il a conservé le même sens de « noir, être noir » ; notamment dans sa langue maternelle, le wolof, où khem signifie « noir, charbonner par excès de cuisson », ou en pulaar, où kembu signifie « charbon ».

Selon la plupart des égyptologues occidentaux, si l'Égypte était appelée le « pays noir » à l'époque pharaonique, c'était par référence à la couleur de la terre[réf. nécessaire], fertile car irriguée par le Nil, qui se différenciait du désert environnant, de couleur sable ou jaune.

Tests de mélanine

Selon Cheikh Anta Diop, les procédés égyptiens de momification ne détruisent pas l'épiderme au point de rendre impraticables les différents tests de la mélanine permettant de connaître leur pigmentation. Au contraire, eu égard à la fiabilité de tels tests, il s'étonne qu'ils n'aient pas été généralisés sur les momies disponibles. Sur des échantillons de peau de momie égyptienne « prélevés au laboratoire d'anthropologie physique du musée de l'Homme à Paris », Cheikh Anta Diop a réalisé des coupes minces, dont l'observation microscopique à la lumière ultraviolette lui fait « classer indubitablement les anciens Égyptiens parmi les Noirs »38.

Par sa langue

L'argument linguistique de Diop comporte deux volets39. D'une part, il essaie de prouver que l'égyptien ancien n'appartient pas à la famille afroasiatique40. D'autre part, il tente d'établir positivement la parenté génétique de l'égyptien ancien avec les langues négro-africaines contemporaines41.

Ainsi, d'après Diop et Obenga, les langues négro-africaines contemporaines et l'égyptien ancien ont un ancêtre linguistique commun, dont la matrice théorique (ou « ancêtre commun prédialectal ») aurait été reconstituée par Obenga, qui l'a baptisée « négro-égyptien ».

La langue maternelle de Cheikh Anta Diop est le wolof, et il apprend l'égyptien ancien lors de ses études d'égyptologie, ce qui, selon Diop, lui aurait permis de voir concrètement qu'il y avait des similitudes entre les deux langues42. Il a donc tenté de vérifier si ces similitudes étaient fortuites, empruntées ou filiales.

Diop observe une « loi de correspondance » entre n en égyptien et l en wolof. Il observe également que, en présence d'un morphème ayant une structure nd en égyptien, on rencontre généralement un morphème équivalent en wolof de structure ld. Le spécialiste de la linguistique historique Ferdinand de Saussure a établi que ce type de correspondances régulières n'est presque jamais fortuit en linguistique, et que cela a force de « loi » phonologique, dite sound law43.

Pour Diop, la structure consonantique du mot égyptien (nd) est la même que celle du mot wolof (ld), sachant que souvent les voyelles ne sont pas graphiées en égyptien, même si elles sont prononcées. Cela veut dire, selon lui, que, là où l'on note a pour l'égyptien, il est possible de rencontrer une toute autre voyelle dans le morphème wolof équivalent. Dans ce cas la correspondance ne serait approximative qu'en apparence, car c'est la phonétisation (la prononciation) de l'égyptien selon les règles de prononciation sémitiques qui serait erronée. Bien entendu, une telle loi ne se déduit pas de deux ou trois exemples, elle suppose l'établissement de séries lexicales exhaustives, comme on en trouve dans les ouvrages dédiés de Diop44. La méthodologie de comparaison de Diop est rejetée par des linguistes modernes, comme Russell Schuh45.

Par la culture spirituelle

Cosmogonie[modifier le code]

Selon Cheikh Anta Diop46, la comparaison des cosmogonies égyptiennes avec les cosmogonies africaines contemporaines (Dogon, Ashanti, Agni, Yoruba47, etc.) montre une similitude radicale qui témoigne selon lui d'une commune parenté culturelle. Il avance une similitude du Dieu-Serpent dogon et du Dieu-Serpent égyptien, ou encore celle du Dieu-Chacal dogon incestueux et du Dieu-Chacal égyptien incestueux. L'auteur invoque également les isomorphies Noun/Nommo, Amon/Ama ; de même que la similitude des fêtes des semailles et autres pratiques cultuelles agraire ou cycliques.

Totémisme

Le totem est généralement un animal considéré comme une incarnation de l'ancêtre primordial d'un clan. À ce titre, ledit animal (ou parfois un végétal) fait l'objet de tabous qui déterminent des attitudes cultuelles spécifiques au clan, qu'on désigne par le terme de totémisme. Selon Diop48, cette institution et les pratiques cultuelles afférentes sont attestées en Égypte tout comme dans les autres cultures « négro-africaines ».

Circoncision et excision

Selon Diop49, les Égyptiens pratiquaient la circoncision dès la période prédynastique. Se fondant sur un témoignage d'Hérodote dans Euterpe, il pense que cette institution se serait diffusée aux populations sémitiques depuis l'Égypte. Elle est attestée dans d'autres cultures « négro-africaines », notamment chez les Dogons où elle est le pendant de l'excision. Ainsi, pour Diop, circoncision et excision sont des institutions duelles de sexuation sociale ; celles-ci résulteraient des mythes cosmogoniques de l'androgynie originelle de la vie, en particulier de l'humanité (il cite l'exemple de l'androgynie d'Amon-Râ). L'excision demeure pratiquée en Égypte moderne (elle fut même combattue récemment par Suzanne Moubarak)

Par sa sociologie

Royauté sacrée

Selon Josep Cervello Autuori, la royauté égyptienne emporte une dimension sacerdotale comme ailleurs en Afrique noire50. Mais, selon Diop51, un trait encore plus singulier commun aux souverains traditionnels africains consiste en « la mise à mort rituelle du roi »52. Cette pratique serait attestée, notamment chez les Yorouba, Haoussa, Dagomba, Tchambas, Djoukons, Igara, Songhoy, Shillouks. Selon Diop, les Égyptiens auraient également pratiqué le régicide rituel, qui serait devenu progressivement symbolique, à travers la fête-Sed, un rite de revitalisation de la royauté53.

Matriarcat

Pour Diop54, le matriarcat est au fondement de l'organisation sociale « négro-africaine ». Aussi serait-il attesté comme tel en Égypte ancienne : aussi bien à travers le matronymat que par la distribution matrilinéaire des pouvoirs publics.

Stratification sociale

Selon Diop55, la société égyptienne ancienne était structurée hiérarchiquement de la même façon que les autres sociétés « négro-africaines » anciennes. Du bas de l'échelle socioprofessionnelle en montant, la stratification sociale se composerait de :
paysans,
ouvriers spécialisés, appelés « castes » ailleurs en Afrique noire,
guerriers, prêtres, fonctionnaires,
Roi sacré, appelé « Pharaon » en égyptologie.

Par sa culture matérielle

Les plus vieux ustensiles et techniques de chasse, pêche, agriculture attestés en Égypte sont similaires à ceux connus dans les autres régions de l'Afrique. De même que les différentes coiffures et leurs significations, les cannes et sceptres royaux[réf. nécessaire]. Les travaux d'Aboubacry Moussa Lam sont particulièrement décisifs pour ce champ de la recherche ouvert par Diop.

L'ensemble des différents types d'arguments que les afrocentristes invoquent mobilise diverses disciplines scientifiques, et constitue d'après eux un « faisceau de preuves », c'est-à-dire un système argumentaire global, ayant sa propre cohérence interne qui l'établit comme un paradigme épistémologique autonome.

Toutefois, la préoccupation de Diop consiste moins à innover en matière d'historiographie de l'Afrique, qu'à connaître profondément l'histoire de l'Afrique en vue d'en tirer les enseignements utiles pour agir efficacement sur son avenir. Il ne s'agit pas davantage de s'enorgueillir puérilement de quelque passé glorieux, mais de bien connaître d'où l'on vient pour mieux comprendre où l'on va. D'où sa remarquable prospective politique dans Les fondements culturels, techniques et industriels d'un futur État fédéral d'Afrique noire (Présence africaine, 1960) ; et son implication concrète dans la compétition politique au Sénégal, son pays natal.

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Pharaoh Ahmose I

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Pharaoh Yahumose I

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Pharaoh Yahumose I

Ahmose I (Egyptian: Jˁḥ ms(j.w), sometimes written Amosis I, "Amenes" and "Aahmes" and meaning Born of Iah [5]) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven his father was killed,[6] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes, after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[7] and upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re (The Lord of Strength is Re). The name Ahmose is a combination of the divine name 'Ah' (see Iah) and the combining form '-mose'.

During his reign, he completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[7] He then reorganized the administration of the country, reopened quarries, mines and trade routes and began massive construction projects of a type that had not been undertaken since the time of the Middle Kingdom. This building program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to the mid-16th century BC

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Pharaoh Hatshesut

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

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Pharaoh Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut (/hætˈʃɛpsʊt/;[3] also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies;[4] 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed."[5]

Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmes. Her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutneferet, who carried the title King's daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife

Reign[edit]

Although contemporary records of her reign are documented in diverse ancient sources, Hatshepsut was described by early modern scholars as only having served as a co-regent from approximately 1479 to 1458 BC, during years seven to twenty-one of the reign previously identified as that of Thutmose III.[8] Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh and the length of her reign usually is given as twenty-two years, since she was assigned a reign of twenty-one years and nine months by the third-century BC historian, Manetho, who had access to many historical records that now are lost. Her death is known to have occurred in 1458 BC, which implies that she became pharaoh circa 1479 BC

Major accomplishments
Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty.

She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. The expedition set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet (21 m) long bearing several sails and accommodating 210 men that included sailors and 30 rowers. Many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably myrrh.

Most notably, however, the Egyptians returned from the voyage bearing thirty-one live myrrh trees, the roots of which were carefully kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Egyptians also returned with living Puntites (people of Punt). This trading expedition to Punt was roughly during Hatshepsut's ninth year of reign.

She had the expedition commemorated in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which also is famous for its realistic depiction of the Queen of the Land of Punt, Queen Iti, who appears to have had a genetic trait called steatopygia. Hatshepsut also sent raiding expeditions to Byblos and Sinai shortly after the Punt expedition. Very little is known about these expeditions. Although many Egyptologists have claimed that her foreign policy was mainly peaceful,[14] there is evidence that Hatshepsut led successful military campaigns in Nubia, the Levant, and Syria early in her career

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Pharaoh Tuthmosis III

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Pharaoh Tuthmosis III

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Pharaoh Tuthmosis III

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Pharaoh Tuthmosis III

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May or may not be Pharaoh Tuthmosis III

Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning Thoth is born) was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other.[3] He served as the head of her armies.

After her death and his later rise to pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in Nubia.

Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost fifty-four years, and his reign is usually dated from April 24, 1479 BCE to March 11, 1425 BCE; however, this includes the twenty-two years he was co-regent to Hatshepsut. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. When Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt

Thutmose's military campaigns
Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III made 16 raids in 20 years. He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt."[13] He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first Pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni. His campaign records were transcribed onto the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak, and are now transcribed into Urkunden IV. He is consistently regarded as one of the greatest of Egypt's warrior pharaohs, who transformed Egypt into an international superpower by creating an empire that stretched from southern Syria through to Canaan and Nubia.[14] In most of his campaigns his enemies were defeated town by town, until being beaten into submission. The preferred tactic was to subdue a much weaker city or state one at a time resulting in surrender of each fraction until complete domination was achieved.

Much is known about Thutmosis "the warrior", not only because of his military achievements, but also because of his royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny, who wrote about his conquests and reign. The prime reason why Thutmosis was able to conquer such a large number of lands, is because of the revolution and improvement in army weapons. When the Hyksos invaded and took over Egypt with more advanced weapons such as horse-drawn chariots, the people of Egypt learned to use these weapons. He encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing him to expand his realm of influence easily. His army also had carried boats on dry land. These campaigns (17 in 20 years), are inscribed on the inner wall of the great chamber housing the "holy of holies" at the Karnak Temple of Amun. These inscriptions give the most detailed and accurate account of any Egyptian king

Monumental construction

Thutmose III was a great builder pharaoh and constructed over fifty temples, although some of these are now lost and only mentioned in written records.[7] He also commissioned the building of many tombs for nobles, which were made with greater craftsmanship than ever before. His reign was also a period of great stylistic changes in the sculpture, paintings, and reliefs associated with construction, much of it beginning during the reign of Hatshepsut

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Good roundup..
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the lioness,
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fake^^^

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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What's fake about it? Is he "Eurasian"?

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Geonome studies indicate that today's Arabized Egyptians are different from the ancients, and
split off from other Africans populations, due to conquests by outsiders like Assyrians, Persians, etc


"Egypt appears to have split first from North Africa with dates coinciding with the
kingdom decline in power and conquests by Assyrians and Persians. Our results
from both uniparental and autosomal markers show that today's Egyptians are
genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans, probably a consequence
of Egypt's and the Middle East's long established interaction through conquests and trades."
--Karima et al. 2013. Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity .. PLOS 8:11

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mena7
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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

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Pharaoh Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied) also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC[4] after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor wife Mutemwiya.[5]

His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. When he died (probably in the 39th year of his reign), his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but later changed his own royal name to Akhenaten

Life

Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign.

Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria (Ras Shamra) through to Soleb in Nubia.[15] Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions (either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year.[16] Similarly, five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaoh's household.[16]

Queen Tiye, whose husband, Amenhotep III, may have been depicted to her right in this broken statue
Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year,


"Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the Great Royal Wife Tiye; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye --may she live--in her town of Djakaru. (near Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits). (His Majesty) celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen. His Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it [the lake]."[17]


One of the many commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III. This scarab belongs to a class called the "marriage scarabs," which affirm the divine power of the king and the legitimacy of his wife, Tiye. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of 6 and 12. It is likely that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years later and she lived twelve years after his death. His lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti which is preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; these letters document frequent requests by these rulers for gold and numerous other gifts from the pharaoh. The letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence—Amarna letter EA 4--Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in firmly rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters:

“ "From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy[pt] is given to anyone."[18] ”

Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connected with Egyptian traditional royal practices that could provide a claim upon the throne through marriage to a royal princess, or, it be viewed as a shrewd attempt on his part to enhance Egypt's prestige over those of her neighbours in the international world.[citation needed]

The pharaoh's reign was relatively peaceful and uneventful. The only recorded military activity by the king is commemorated by three rock-carved stelas from his fifth year found near Aswan and Sai Island in Nubia. The official account of Amenhotep III's military victory emphasizes his martial prowess with the typical hyperbole used by all pharaohs.

“ "Regnal Year 5, third month of Inundation, day 2. Appearance under the Majesty of Horus: Strong bull, appearing in truth; Two Ladies: Who establishes laws and pacifies the Two Lands;...King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Nebmaatra, heir of Ra; Son of Ra: [Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes], beloved of [Amon]-Ra, King of the Gods, and Khnum, lord of the cataract, given life. One came to tell His Majesty, "The fallen one of vile Kush has plotted rebellion in his heart." His Majesty led on to victory; he completed it in his first campaign of victory. His Majesty reached them like the wing stroke of a falcon, like Menthu (war god of Thebes) in his transformation...Ikheny, the boaster in the midst of the army, did not know the lion that was before him. Nebmaatra was the fierce-eyed lion whose claws seized vile Kush, who trampled down all its chiefs in their valleys, they being cast down in their blood, one on top of the other."[19] ”

Amenhotep III celebrated three Jubilee Sed festivals, in his Year 30, Year 34, and Year 37 respectively at his Malkata summer palace in Western Thebes.[20] The palace, called Per-Hay or "House of Rejoicing" in ancient times, comprised a temple of Amun and a festival hall built especially for this occasion.[20] One of the king's most popular epithets was Aten-tjehen which means "the Dazzling Sun Disk"; it appears in his titulary at Luxor temple and, more frequently, was used as the name for one of his palaces as well as the Year 11 royal barge, and denotes a company of men in Amenhotep's army.[21]

Amenhotep III and Sobek, from Dahamsha, now in the Luxor Museum
There is currently no conclusive evidence of a co-regency between Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. A letter from the Amarna palace archives dated to Year 2—rather than Year 12—of Akhenaten's reign from the Mitannian king, Tushratta, (Amarna letter EA 27) preserves a complaint about the fact that Akhenaten did not honor his father's promise to forward Tushratta statues made of solid gold as part of a marriage dowry for sending his daughter, Tadukhepa, into the pharaoh's household.[22] This correspondence implies that if any co-regency occurred between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, it lasted no more than a year.[23] Lawrence Berman observes in a 1998 biography of Amenhotep III that,
"It is significant that the proponents of the coregency theory have tended to be art historians [ie: Raymond Johnson], whereas historians [such as Donald Redford and William Murnane] have largely remained unconvinced. Recognizing that the problem admits no easy solution, the present writer has gradually come to believe that it is unnecessary to propose a coregency to explain the production of art in the reign of Amenhotep III. Rather the perceived problems appear to derive from the interpretation of mortuary objects."[24]
In February of 2014, Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years, based on the evidence coming from the tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy.[25][26] The tomb is being studied by a multi-national team led by the Instituto de Estudios del Antiguo Egipto de Madrid and Dr Martin Valentin.

The theory of co-regency was first proposed by John Pendlebury who excavated at Amarna, as well as by N. de Garis Davies

Family

The son of the future Thutmose IV (the son of Amenhotep II) and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC.[6] He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I.

Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, a queen who could be considered as the progenitor of monotheism[7] through her first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, who predeceased his father, and her second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, who ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who later would succeed Akhenaten and briefly rule Egypt as pharaoh.

Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah.[8] They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah.[9] Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu.[10] This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne--Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre; Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is destroyed, on the left."[8]

Vase in the Louvre with the names Amenohotep III and Tiye written in the cartouches on the left, (and Tiye's on the right).
Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters—Sitamun and Isis—to the office of "great royal wife" during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata.[8] It should be noted that Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.[11] The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion.[8] Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage.

Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women:
Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign.[12]
Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign.[13][14]
A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon.[14]
A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon.[14]
A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa.[14]
A daughter of the ruler of Ammia (in modern Syria).[14]

The Court

There were many important individuals in the court of Amenhotep III. Viziers were Ramose, Amenhotep, Aperel and Ptahmose. They are known from a remarkable series of monuments, including the well known tomb of Ramose at Thebes. Treasurers were another Ptahmose and Merire. High stewards were Amenemhat Surer and Amenhotep (Huy). Viceroy of Kush was Merimose. He was a leading figure in the military campaigns of the king in Nubia. Perhaps the most famous official of the king was Amenhotep, son of Hapu. He never had high titles but was later worshipped as god and main architect of some of the king's temples.[42] Priests of Amun under the king included the brother-in-law of the king Anen and Simut. Both were second prophet of Amun

Monuments

The northern Colossus of Memnon
Amenhotep III built extensively at the temple of Karnak including the Luxor temple which consisted of two pylons, a colonnade behind the new temple entrance, and a new temple to the goddess Ma'at. Amenhotep III dismantled the fourth pylon of the Temple of Amun at Karnak to construct a new pylon—the third pylon—and created a new entrance to this structure where he erected "two rows of columns with open papyrus capital[s]" down the centre of this newly formed forecourt.[43] The forecourt between the third and fourth pylons of Egypt, sometimes called an obelisk court, was also decorated with scenes of the sacred barque of the deities Amun, Mut, and Khonsu being carried in funerary boats.[44] The king also started work on the Tenth pylon at the Temple of Amun there. Amenhotep III's first recorded act as king—in his Years 1 and 2—was to open new limestone quarries at Tura, just south of Cairo and at Dayr al-Barsha in Middle Egypt in order to herald his great building projects.[45] He oversaw construction of another temple to Ma'at at Luxor and virtually covered Nubia with numerous monuments

His enormous mortuary temple on the west bank of the Nile was, in its day, the largest religious complex in Thebes, but unfortunately, the king chose to build it too close to the floodplain and less than two hundred years later, it stood in ruins. Much of the masonry was purloined by Merneptah and later pharaohs for their own construction projects.[47] The Colossi of Memnon—two massive stone statues, eighteen meters high, of Amenhotep that stood at the gateway of his mortuary temple—are the only elements of the complex that remained standing. Amenhotep III also built the Third Pylon at Karnak and erected 600 statues of the goddess Sekhmet in the Temple of Mut, south of Karnak.[48] Some of the most magnificent statues of New Kingdom Egypt date to his reign "such as the two outstanding couchant rose granite lions originally set before the temple at Soleb in Nubia" as well as a large series of royal sculptures.[49] Several beautiful black granite seated statues of Amenhotep wearing the nemes headress have come from excavations behind the Colossi of Memnon as well as from Tanis in the Delta

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

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Pharaoh Akhenaton

Akhenaten (/ˌækəˈnɑːtən/;[1] also spelled Echnaton,[7] Akhenaton,[8] Ikhnaton,[9] and Khuenaten;[10][11] meaning "Effective for Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods.

Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as "the enemy" in archival records.[12]

He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in the 19th century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, whose tomb was unearthed in 1907 in a dig led by Edward R. Ayrton. Interest in Akhenaten increased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who has been proved to be Akhenaten's son according to DNA testing in 2010.[13] A mummy found in KV55 in 1907 has been identified as that of Akhenaten. This man and Tutankhamun are related without question,[14] but the identification of the KV55 mummy as Akhenaten has been questioned.[6][15][16][17][18]

Modern interest in Akhenaten and his queen, Nefertiti, comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish

Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian-Islamic monotheism[edit]

The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by various scholars.[56][57][58][59][60][61] One of the first to mention this was Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and Monotheism.[62] Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death. Freud argued that Akhenaten was striving to promote monotheism, something that the biblical Moses was able to achieve.[56] Following his book, the concept entered popular consciousness and serious research.[63]

Other scholars and mainstream Egyptologists point out that there are direct connections between early Judaism and other Semitic religious traditions.[64] They also state that two of the three principal Judaic terms for God, Yahweh, Elohim (morphologically plural, lit. "gods"), and Adonai (lit. "my lord" ) have a connection to Aten. Freud commented on the connection between Adonai, the Egyptian Aten and the Syrian divine name of Adonis as a primeval unity of language between the factions;[56] in this he was following the argument of Egyptologist Arthur Weigall. Jan Assmann's opinion is that 'Aten' and 'Adonai' are not linguistically related.[65] Although there are similarities between Akhenaten monotheistic experiment and the biblical story of Moses[66] that have been explored in mainstream culture they include, the idea that Akhenaten is the real character for the mythical Moses,[66] Ahmarna the place as a literary misinterpretation of God raining an unknown fruit called manna while the Jews were wandering in the desert[66] and the concept of a deity directing a group to a promised place which is the main theme in both stories.[66]

Ahmed Osman has claimed that Akhenaten's maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Yuya held the title "Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin" during his life.[67]

He likely belonged to the local nobility of Akhmim. Egyptologists hold this view because Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmim in Upper Egypt. This makes it unlikely that he was a foreigner since most Asiatic settlers tended to cloister around the Nile Delta region of Lower Egypt.[68][69] Some Egyptologists,[70] however, give him a Mitannian origin. It is widely accepted that there are strong similarities between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104, though this form is found widespread in ancient Near Eastern hymnology both before and after the period[citation needed] and whether this implies a direct influence or a common literary convention remains in dispute

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Pharaoh Horemheb

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Pharaoh Horemheb

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Pharaoh Horemheb

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Pharaoh Horemheb

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Pharaoh Horemheb

Horemheb (sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab and meaning Horus is in Jubilation) was the last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty from either 1319 BC to late 1292 BC,[1] or 1306 to late 1292 BC (if he ruled for 14 years) although he was not related to the preceding royal family and is believed to have been of common birth.

Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began.

Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb presumably remained childless since he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I.


The best known member of the 18th Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs is Tutankhamun, who's short reign lasted from 1334 - 1325 BC. Despite the spectacular contents of his tomb, discovered on November 22, 1922, little else is known about his boy king, and even is exact parentage is not certain.
He certainly died young, probably in the 9th year of his reign, and an examination of his mummy shows a suspicious sliver of bone in the upper part of his head. Could the boy king have been murdered?

If so, suspicion falls very heavily on his successor, the Pharaoh Horemheb.

After a brief reign by an old man called Ay, Horemheb saw his chance and seized it. He had been the Great Commander of the Army under the Pharaoh Akhenaten, and had been Tutankhamun's King's Deputy, a position of high rank.

Horemheb declared himself king in 1321 BC, married the sister of Nefertiti and promptly began eliminating all traces of Tutankhamun and the heretical worship of Aten, a practice begun by Tutankhamun's possible father, Akhenaten.

He reopened all the old temples and restored the priesthood of Amun, taking them from the ranks of the army, where he still had considerable influence. He also split up the army into a northern and southern command, hence reducing any possibility of a counter-coup against his reign.

He even took over all the monuments to Ay and Tutankhamun and totally destroyed the temples to Aten, which he hated. He took over the mortuary temple of Ay and began dating his reign from the death of Amenhotep III (one of the most successful, prosperous and stable Pharaohs 1386 - 1349 BC).

His actual reign was about 30 years, mostly spent consolidating his country after the religious upheavals of the previous Pharaohs, and in preparing his own tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun

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Pharaoh Tutankhamun computer reconstruction.

Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten's sisters,[8] or perhaps one of his cousins.[9] As a prince he was known as Tutankhaten.[10] He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure.[11] His wet-nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.[12] A teacher was most likely Sennedjem.

When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn.[7] Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death.[13]

Reign

Given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and the Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.[14]

Domestic policy

In his third regnal year, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned.[15] This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun.

As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Thebes and Karnak, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. His restoration stela says:


The temples of the gods and goddesses ... were in ruins. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads ... the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond.[16]

Foreign policy

The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armor and folding stools appropriate for military campaigns. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk (he died c. age 19), historians speculate that he did not personally take part in these battles.[7][17]

Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332 BC – 1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence.[3] He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.[4]

The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon[5][6] of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's burial mask, now in Cairo Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten (mummy KV55) and Akhenaten's sister and wife (mummy KV35YL), whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35

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Ramses 1

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Ramses 1

Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Ramses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292–1290 BC is frequently cited[3] as well as 1295–1294 BC.[4] While Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th Dynasty, in reality his brief reign marked the transition between the reign of Horemheb who had stabilized Egypt in the late 18th dynasty and the rule of the powerful Pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular his son Seti I and grandson Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt up to new heights of imperial power

Originally called Pa-ra-mes-su, Ramesses I was of non-royal birth, being born into a noble military family from the Nile delta region, perhaps near the former Hyksos capital of Avaris, or from Tanis. He was a son of a troop commander called Seti. His uncle Khaemwaset, an army officer married Tamwadjesy, the matron of the Harem of Amun, who was a relative of Huy, the Viceroy of Kush, an important state post.[5] This shows the high status of Ramesses' family. Ramesses I found favor with Horemheb, the last pharaoh of the tumultuous Eighteenth dynasty, who appointed the former as his Vizier. Ramesses also served as the High Priest of Amun[citation needed] – as such, he would have played an important role in the restoration of the old religion following the Amarna heresy of a generation earlier, under Akhenaten.

Horemheb himself had been a nobleman from outside the immediate royal family, who rose through the ranks of the Egyptian army to serve as the royal advisor to Tutankhamun and Ay and, ultimately, Pharaoh. Since Horemheb was childless, he ultimately chose Ramesses to be his heir in the final years of his reign presumably because Ramesses I was both an able administrator and had a son (Seti I) and a grandson (the future Ramesses II) to succeed him and thus avoid any succession difficulties.

Upon his accession, Ramesses assumed a prenomen, or royal name, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. When transliterated, the name is mn-pḥty-r‘, which is usually interpreted as Menpehtyre, meaning "Established by the strength of Ra". However, he is better known by his nomen, or personal name. This is transliterated as r‘-ms-sw, and is usually realised as Ramessu or Ramesses, meaning 'Ra bore him'. Already an old man when he was crowned, Ramesses appointed his son, the later pharaoh Seti I, to serve as the Crown Prince and chosen successor. Seti was charged with undertaking several military operations during this time– in particular, an attempt to recoup some of Egypt's lost possessions in Syria. Ramesses appears to have taken charge of domestic matters: most memorably, he completed the second pylon at Karnak Temple, begun under Horemheb

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Pharaoh Seti 1

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Pharaoh Seti 1

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Pharaoh Seti 1

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Pharaoh Seti 1

Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC[4] and 1290 BC to 1279 BC[5] being the most commonly used by scholars today.

The name 'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (or "Seth"). As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Eternal is the Justice of Re."[1] His better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, and gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has ever been found for so long a reign

After the enormous social upheavals generated by Akhenaten's religious reform, Horemheb, Ramesses I and Seti I's main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria, which had been compromised by the increasing external pressures from the Hittite state. Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a potential danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt and generally concluded his military campaigns with victories. The memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. A funerary temple for Seti was constructed in what is now known as Qurna (Mortuary Temple of Seti I), on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes while a magnificent temple made of white marble at Abydos featuring exquisite relief scenes was started by Seti, and later completed by his son. His capital was at Memphis. He was considered a great king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Ramses II

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Ramses II sphinx

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Pharaoh Ramses II and Goddess Sekhmet

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Pharaoh Ramses II

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Pharaoh Ramses II

Ramesses II (Middle Egyptian: *Riʻmīsisu,[citation needed] transliterated as "Rameses" (/ˈræməsiːz/)[5] or "Ramses" (/ˈræmsiːz/ or /ˈræmziːz/);[6] born c. 1303 BC; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire.[7] His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein.

At age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I.[7] He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC[8] for 66 years and 2 months, according to both Manetho and Egypt's contemporary historical records. He was once said to have lived to be 99 years old, but it is more likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year. If he became Pharaoh in 1279 BC as most Egyptologists today believe, he would have assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Shemu day 27.[9][10] Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals (the first held after thirty years of a pharaoh's reign, and then every three years) during his reign—more than any other pharaoh.[11] On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings;[12] his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881, and is now on display in the Cairo Museum.[13]

The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria. This city was built on the remains of the city of Avaris, the capital of the Hyksos when they took over, and was the location of the main Temple of Set. He is also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources,[14] from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "Ra's mighty truth, chosen of Ra

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Pharaoh Merneptah

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Pharaoh Merenptah

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Pharaoh Merneptah

Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records.[2] He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II[3] and only came to power because all his older brothers, including his full brother Khaemwaset or Khaemwase, had predeceased him, by which time he was almost sixty years old. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods".

Merneptah probably was the fourth child of Isetnofret, the second wife of Ramesses II, and he was married to Queen Isetnofret, his royal wife, who was likely his full sister bearing the name of their mother. It is presumed that Merneptah also was married to Queen Takhat and one of their sons would become the later nineteenth dynasty pharaoh, Seti II. They also were the parents of prince Merenptah and possibly the usurper, Amenmesse, and Queen Twosret, wife of Seti II and later pharaoh in her own right

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Pharaoh Seti II

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Pharaoh Seti II

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Pharaoh Seti II

Seti II (or Sethos II), was the fifth ruler of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt and reigned from c. 1200 BC to 1194 BC.[1] His throne name, Userkheperure Setepenre, means "Powerful are the manifestations of Re, the chosen one of Re.'[4] He was the son of Merneptah and Isetnofret II and sat on the throne during a period known for dynastic intrigue and short reigns, and his rule was no different. Seti II had to deal with many serious plots, most significantly being the accession of a rival king named Amenmesse, possibly a half brother, who seized control over Thebes and Nubia in Upper Egypt during his second to fourth regnal years

Reign

A replica statue of Seti II holding a shrine to the god Amun on display at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum

A small temple erected by Seti II in the atrium of the temple of Karnak.
Seti II promoted Chancellor Bay to become his most important state official and built 3 tombs – KV13, KV14, and KV15 – for himself, his Senior Queen Twosret and Bay in the Valley of the Kings. This was an unprecedented act on his part for Bay, who was of Syrian descent and was not connected by marriage or blood ties to the royal family. Because Seti II had his accession between II Peret 29 and III Peret 6 while Siptah—Seti II's successor—had his accession around late IV Akhet to early I Peret 2,[15] Seti's 6th and final regnal year lasted about 10 months; therefore, Seti II ruled Egypt for 5 years and 10 months or almost 6 full years when he died.

Due to the relative brevity of his reign, Seti's tomb was unfinished at the time of his death. Twosret later rose to power herself after the death of Siptah, Seti II's successor. According to an inscribed ostraca document from the Deir el-Medina worker's community, Seti II's death was announced to the workmen by "The [Chief of] police Nakht-min" on Year 6, I Peret 19 of Seti II's reign.[16] Since it would have taken time for the news of Seti II's death to reach Thebes from the capital city of Pi-Ramesses in Lower Egypt, the date of I Peret 19 only marks the day the news of the king's death reached Deir el-Medina.[17] Seti II likely died sometime late in IV Akhet or early in I Peret; Wolfgang Helck and R.J. Demarée have now proposed I Peret 2 as the date of Seti II's actual death.[18] presumably since it is 70 days before the day of his burial. From a graffito written in the first corridor of Twosret's KV14 tomb, Seti II was buried in his KV15 tomb on "Year 1, III Peret day 11" of Siptah's reign

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Pharaoh Amenmesse

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Pharaoh Amenmesse

Amenmesse (also Amenmesses or Amenmose) was the 5th ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt, possibly the son of Merneptah and Queen Takhat. Others consider him to be one of the innumerable sons of Ramesses II. Very little is known about this king, who ruled Egypt for only three to four years. Various Egyptologists date his reign between 1202 BC–1199 BC[4] or 1203 BC–1200 BC[5] with others giving an accession date of 1200 BC[6] but a difference of 1 or 2 years is unimportant. Amenmesse means "born of or fashioned by Amun" in Egyptian. Additionally, his nomen can be found with the epithet Heqa-waset, which means "Ruler of Thebes".[7] His royal name was Menmire Setepenre.

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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Ramses III killing Semite invaders.

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Pharaoh Ramses III

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Pharaoh Ramses III

Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt.

Ramesses III was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-Merenese. He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives and her minor son

Ascension

Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days.[1] Alternate dates for his reign are 1187 to 1156 BC.

In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be "dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is (still) in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society".[2][3]

Tenure of constant war

During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans) and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 5 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor sea men they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. Then the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand to hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus state:


As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach, slain, and made into heaps from head to tail.[4]

Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 6 and Year 11 respectively.[5]

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Pharaoh Psusennes

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Pharaoh Psusennes

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Pharaoh Psusennes

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Pharaoh Psusennes

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Pharaoh Psusennes

Psusennes I, or [Greek Ψουσέννης], Pasibkhanu or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I [Egyptian ḥor-p3-sib3-ḫˁỉ-<n>-niwt] was the third king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt who ruled from Tanis (Greek name for Dzann, Biblical Zoan) between 1047 – 1001 BC. Psusennes is the Greek version of his original name Pasebakhaenniut which means "The Star Appearing in the City" while his throne name, Akheperre Setepenamun, translates as "Great are the Manifestations of Ra, chosen of Amun."[2] He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Rameses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his sister Mutnedjmet

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Pharaoh Amenemope

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Pharaoh Amenemope

Pharaoh Amenemope (prenomen: Usermaatre) was the son of Psusennes I. Amenemope/Amenemopet's birth name or nomen translates as "Amun in the Opet Festival."[1] He served as a junior co-regent at the end of his father's final years according to the evidence from a mummy bandage fragment. All surviving versions of his Manetho's Epitome state that Amenemope enjoyed a reign of 9 years. Both Psusennes I and Amenemope's royal tombs were discovered intact by the French Egyptologist Pierre Montet in his excavation at Tanis in 1940 and were filled with significant treasures including gold funerary masks, coffins and numerous other items of precious jewelry. Montet opened Amenemope's tomb in April 1940, just a month before the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in World War II. Thereafter, all excavation work abruptly ceased until the end of the war. Montet resumed his excavation work at Tanis in 1946 and later published his findings in 1958.

The Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen states that there are few known monuments of Amenemope. His tomb at Tanis was barely 20 feet long by 12–15 feet wide, "a mere cell compared with the tomb of Psusennes I" while his only other original projects was to continue with the decoration of the chapel of Isis "Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza" and to make an addition to one of the temples in Memphis.[2] Amenemope was served by two High Priests of Amun at Thebes—Smendes II (briefly) and then by Pinedjem II, Smendes' brother

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Pharaoh Sheshonq I

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Pharaoh Sheshonq I

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Pharaoh Sheshonq I

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Pharaoh Shosheng I

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), (reigned c.943-922 BCE) — also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq) — was a Meshwesh king of Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Of ancient Libyan ancestry,[2] Shoshenq I was the son of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Ma, and his wife Tentshepeh A, a daughter of a Great Chief of the Ma herself. He is perhaps mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as Shishaq, and his exploits are carved on the Bubastite Portal at Karnak

Libyan concepts of rule allowed for the parallel existence of leaders who were related by marriage and blood. Sheshonq(k) and his immediate successors used that practice to consolidate their grasp on all of Egypt. Sheshonq terminated the hereditary succession of the high priesthood of Amun. Instead he and his successors appointed men to the position, most often their own sons, a practice that lasted for a century

Biblical Shishak

Sheshonk I is frequently identified with the Egyptian king "Shishaq" (שׁישׁק Šîšaq, transliterated), referred to in the Old Testament at 1st Kings 11:40, 14:25, and 2 Chronicles 12:2-9. According to the Bible, Shishaq invaded Judah, mostly the area of Benjamin, during the fifth year of the reign of king Rehoboam, taking with him most of the treasures of the temple created by Solomon. Shoshenq I is generally attributed with the raid on Judah. This is corroborated with a stela discovered at Megiddo

He pursued an aggressive foreign policy in the adjacent territories of the Middle East, towards the end of his reign. This is attested, in part, by the discovery of a statue base bearing his name from the Lebanese city of Byblos, part of a monumental stela from Megiddo bearing his name, and a list of cities in the region comprising Syria, Philistia, Phoenicia, the Negev and the Kingdom of Israel, among various topographical lists inscribed on the walls of temples of Amun at al-Hibah and Karnak. Unfortunately there is no mention of either an attack nor tribute from Jerusalem, which has led some to suggest that Sheshonk was not the Biblical Shishak. The fragment of a stela bearing his cartouche from Megiddo has been interpreted as a monument Shoshenq erected there to commemorate his victory.[14] Some of these conquered cities include Ancient Israelite fortresses such as Megiddo, Taanach and Shechem.

There are other problems with Sheshonq being the same as the biblical Shishak: Sheshonq's Karnak list does not include Jerusalem—his biggest prize according to the Bible. His list focuses on places either north or south of Judah, as if he did not raid the center. The fundamental problem facing historians is establishing the aims of the two accounts and linking up the information in them.[15]

As an addendum to his foreign policy, Sheshonq I carved a report of campaigns in Nubia and Palestine, with a detailed list of conquests in Palestine. This is the first military action outside Egypt formally commemorated for several centuries

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Pharaoh Osorkon I

The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort, Karomat A, Osorkon I was the second king of Egypt's 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC – 887 BC. He succeeded his father Shoshenq I who probably died within a year of his successful 923 BC campaign against the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Osorkon I's reign is known for many temple building projects and was a long and prosperous period of Egypt's History. His highest known date is a "Year 33 Second Heb Sed" inscription found on the bandage of Nakhtefmut's Mummy which held a bracellet inscribed with Osorkon I's praenomen: Sekhemkheperre. This date can only belong to Osorkon I since no other early Dynasty 22 king ruled for close to 30 years until the time of Osorkon II. Other mummy linens which belong to his reign include three separate bandages dating to his Regnal Years 11, 12, and 23 on the mummy of Khonsmaakheru in Berlin. The bandages are anonymously dated but definitely belong to his reign because Khonsmaakheru wore leather bands that contained a menat-tab naming Osorkon I.[1] Secondly, no other king who ruled around Osorkon I's reign had a 23rd Regnal Year including Shoshenq I who died just before the beginning of his Year 22.

While Manetho gives Osorkon I a reign of 15 Years in his Ægyptiaca, this is most likely an error for 35 Years based on the evidence of the second Heb Sed bandage, as Kenneth Kitchen notes. Osorkon I's throne name--Sekhemkheperre--means "Powerful are the Manifestations of Re

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zarahan- aka Enrique Cardova
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Good info.
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Pharaoh Piankhi

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Pharaoh Piye, Piankhi

Piye (once transliterated as Piankhi;[2] d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from 753/752 BCE to c. 722 BCE.[3] He ruled from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, modern-day Sudan

As ruler of Nubia and Upper Egypt, Piye took advantage of the squabbling of Egypt's rulers by expanding Nubia's power beyond Thebes into Lower Egypt. In reaction to this, Tefnakht of Sais formed a coalition between the local kings of the Delta Region and enticed Piye's nominal ally—king Nimlot of Hermopolis—to defect to his side. Tefnakht then sent his coalition army south and besieged Herakleopolis where its king Peftjauawybast and the local Nubian commanders appealed to Piye for help. Piye reacted quickly to this crisis in his regnal year 20 by assembling an army to invade Middle and Lower Egypt and visited Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival which proves he effectively controlled Upper Egypt by this time. His military feats are chronicled in the Victory stela at Gebel Barkal.

Piye viewed his campaign as a Holy War, commanding his soldiers to cleanse themselves ritually before beginning battle. He himself offered sacrifices to the great god Amun.[7]

Piye then marched north and achieved complete victory at Herakleopolis, conquering the cities of Hermopolis and Memphis among others, and received the submission of the kings of the Nile Delta including Iuput II of Leontopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis and his former ally Nimlot at Hermopolis. Hermopolis fell to the Nubian king after a siege lasting five months. Tefnakht took refuge in an island in the Delta and formally conceded defeat in a letter to the Nubian king but refused to personally pay homage to the Kushite ruler. Satisfied with his triumph, Piye proceeded to sail south to Thebes and returned to his homeland in Nubia never to return to Egypt.

Despite Piye's successful campaign into the Delta, his authority only extended northward from Thebes up to the western desert oases and Herakleopolis where Peftjauawybast ruled as a Nubian vassal king. The local kings of Lower Egypt especially Tefnakht were essentially free to do what they wanted without Piye's oversight. It was Shabaka, Piye's successor, who later rectified this unsatisfactory situation by attacking Sais and defeating Tefnakht's successor Bakenranef there, in his second regnal year.

Posts: 4835 | From: sepedat/sirius | Registered: Jul 2012  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
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